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HVAC Design:

Level I Essentials
Joel Primeau, PEng, HBDP
&
Donald Brandt, CEM

Copyright Materials
Copyright 2014 by ASHRAE.
ASHRAE All rights reserved.
reserved
No part of this presentation may be reproduced
without written permission from ASHRAE, nor
may any part of this presentation be reproduced,
stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any
form or by any means (electronic, photocopying,
recording or other) without written permission
from ASHRAE.
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AIA/CES Registered Provider


ASHRAE is a Registered Provider with The American Institute of
Architects Continuing Education Systems. Credit earned on
completion of this program will be reported to CES Records for AIA
members. Certificates of Completion
p
for non-AIA members are
available on request.
This program is registered with the AIA/CES for continuing
professional education. As such, it does not include content that may
be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by the
AIA of any material of construction or any method or manner of
handling, using, distributing, or dealing in any material or product.
Questions related to specific materials, methods, and services will be
addressed at the conclusion of this presentation.
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USGBC Education Provider


ASHRAE

HVAC D
Design:
i
LLevell I Essentials
E
ti l [ID# 90009904]

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Learning Objectives
Calculate heatingg and coolingg loads
Explain the basics of psychrometrics, hydronic system
design and air system design
Discuss system selection
Describe HVAC equipment and systems
Explain controls and building automation systems
Discuss codes and standards
Describe building commissioning
Explain
E l i ttechnical
h i l sales
l and
d project
j t managementt skills
kill
5

Course Outline
Fundamentals

Design
g Process

Load Calculations

HVAC Systems II

Psychrometrics

BAS/Controls

System Selection

Codes & Standards

Air Systems
Hydronic Systems

Commissioning &
Standard 180

HVAC Equipment
Eq ipment

Technical Sales

HVAC Systems I

Project Management
Conclusion
6

FUNDAMENTALS

Lesson Content

Components of HVAC
Heat transfer
Fan/pump
/
llaws
Refrigeration Cycle

COMPONENTS OF HVAC

What is Air Conditioning?


5 Functions:
Heating
Cooling
Dehumidification
h
df
Humidification
Filtration/Ventilation
10

Why HVAC?

To create a comfortable environment in


which humans can work, live, sleep,
play,
play
(This course ffocuses mostly
(Thi
tl on h
human comfort
f t
solutions, although the lessons learned can certainly
be applied to process applications
applications.))
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UNDERSTANDING HEAT TRANSFER

12

Processes of Heat Transfer


convection

warm air
radiation

hot
water

conduction

cool air
13

Transferring Heat
1 lb
water
1 Btu
61F

60F

1 kg
water
1 kcal
15C

16C
14

Transferring Heat (cont.)


(cont )
1 lb
water

+ 152 Btu =
212F

60F

1 kg
water

+ 85 kcal =
15C

100C
15

Sensible Heat
1 lb
water

1 Btu
61F

60F

1 kg
water

1 kcal
15C

16C
16

Transferring Heat (cont.)


(cont )
1 lb
water

+ 970.3 Btu =
212F

1 kg
water

1 lb
steam

212F

+ 244.5
244 5 kcal =
100C

1 kg
k
steam

100C
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Transferring Heat (cont.)


(cont )
1 lb
steam

- 970.3 Btu =
212F

1 kg
steam

1 lb
water

212F

- 244.5 kcal =
100C

1 kg
g
water

100C
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Latent Heat
1 lb
steam

1 lb
water
t
970.3 Btu

212F

212F

1 kg
steam

1 kg
water
244 5 kcal
244.5
100C

100C
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Specific
p
Heat
140F

200F

B
20

Heat Transfer Formula


Q = Mass Flow x Specific Heat x T

This fformula is used to create


the formulas for water & air

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Heat Transfer with Water


Q = (gal/min x 60 min/hr x 8.33 lb/gal)
x 1 Btu/lb/lb oF x T (oF))
Q = 500 x GPM x Change in Temperature (T2 T1)
Q = Btu/hr
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Airflow Heat Transfer


Sensible
Q = (ft3/min x 60 min/hr x 1 lb/13.33 ft3)
x 0.24 Btu/lb- oF x T oF
Q = 1.10
1 10 x CFM x Change in Temperature (oF)

23

Airflow Heat Transfer (cont.)


(cont )
Latent
Q = (ft
(f 3/min
/ i x 60 min/hr
i /h x 1 lb/13
lb/13.33
33 fft3) x (
Humidity Ratio in lbs of H20/lbs of dry air)
x 1061 Btu/lb
B /lb (latent
(l
h
heat off vaporization)
i i )
Q = 4840 x CFM x (Wo-Wc)
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Air Total Heat


Enthalpy
Q = (ft
(f 3/min
/ i x 60 min/hr
i /h x 1 lb/
lb/13.33
3 33 fft3)
x Enthalpy (Btu/lb)
Q = 4.5
4 5 x CFM x Change in Enthalpy

25

Whatss a Ton of Refrigeration?


What
One ton of refrigeration
produces the same cooling
effect as the meltingg of 2000 lb
of ice over a 24-hour period.
When 1 lb of ice melts, it absorbs 144 Btu. Therefore,
when 1 ton (2000 lb) of ice melts, it absorbs 288,000
Btu (2000 x 144). Consequently, 1 ton of refrigeration
absorbs 288,000 Btu within a 24-hour period or 12,000
B /h (288,000/24).
Btu/hr
(288 000/24)
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HEAT TRANSFER
THROUGH A SURFACE
27

Heat Conduction through Surfaces

28

Conduction through a Shaded Wall


Simplest
application

Q = U A T

29

Heat Conductance vs. Resistance

Conductance = U (Btu/hrft2F)
F)
Resistance = R (ft2F/Btu/hr)
U = 1/R
/
R1 + R2 + R3 + = Rtotal
Utotal = 1/Rtotal

30

U-factor
U
factor for Learning Center Wall

U =

1
Rtotal

U = 0.059 Btu/hrft2F

31

Heat Transfer through a Window


The process is the same as a wall
Except:
Window
Wi d manufacturers
f
will
ill usually
ll provide
id the
h U
Ufactor for the glass (measured at the center of the
glass).
glass)
The designer has to determine the U-factor for the
Window Assembly, to consider the losses through
the window frame.
http://windows.lbl.gov/software/window/6/index.
p //
g /
/
/ /
html
32

FAN & PUMP LAWS

33

The Laws
Pump Affinity Laws

Fan Laws

34

Law #1
Speed iss d
directly
ect y related
e ated to flow
o
and is directly related to diameter
CFM2 = CFM1 X (RPM2 / RPM1)
CFM2 = CFM1 X (DIA2 / DIA1)
GPM2 = GPM1 X (RPM2 / RPM1)
GPM2 = GPM1 X (DIA2 / DIA1)
35

Law #1: Example


TAB contractor Bill wants to increase the air flow in a
vaneaxial fan from 1200 CFM to 1300 CFM. If the
fan is currently turning at 1050 rpm, how fast does
the fan need to go?
RPM2 = RPM1 X (CFM2 / CFM1)
= 1050 rpm x (1300/1200)
= 1137.5
1137 5 rpm

36

Law #1: Example


What size of sheave would be required to make
this happen (assuming the fan is not on a speed
drive) if the diameter of the sheave was
originally 4 inches?
Dia2 = Dia1 X (CFM2 / CFM1)
= 4 in. x (1300/1200)
= 4-1/3
4 1/3 in
in.

37

Law #2
Pressure
essu e changes
c a ges as the
t e square
squa e of
o the
t e flow
o
(or speed)
P2 = P1 X (CFM2 / CFM1)2
P2 = P1 X (RPM2 / RPM1)2
CFM2 = CFM1 X
NOTE: GPM can substituted for CFM
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Law #3
Horsepower varies as the cube of the speed
(or flow)
BHP2 = BHP1 X ((RPM2 / RPM1)3
BHP2 = BHP1 X (CFM2 / CFM1)3
NOTE: GPM can be substituted for CFM
39

Law #3: Example


Bill is now being asked what will the increase in speed
cost in energy? Lets assume that for every additional
HP, the fan will cost $2.75 more per month to operate.
The HP draw on the fan was originally 5 HP.
BHP2 = BHP1 X (CFM2 / CFM1)3
= 5 HP x (1300/1200)3
= 6.36 HP
Or $17.48/month

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THE REFRIGERATION CYCLE


(A BRIEF INTRODUCTION)
41

Refrigeration Cycle
Condenser

Expansion
Device

Compressor

Evaporator
42

Pressure-Enthalpy
py Diagram
g

presssure

condenser
d
expansion
p
device

compressor

evaporator

enthalpy

43

Questions?

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