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Keating Notes

Context of speech: 1993 delivered as formal eulogy at the interment of

the unknown soldier
My context today: As a young Australian, I identify with resilience,
courage and belief in ourselves as well as anti-authoritarian tone implied
in military formalities and political incompetence
Celebration of the commoner/ underdog
Paradox: ordinary man is not ordinary. Engages and challenges
Unknown solider symbolic of the common man who proved real
nobility the people
Commonalities draws on our common history and shared values as
Australians to engage the audience and inspire solidarity
Common history ANZAC + common values of resilience etc
Equality through contrast- doesnt assert a soldiers character
above a civilians not one race or one nation or one religion above
any other. This repetition of contrast stresses that it is our
similarities what it means to be Australian that matters
Inclusive language
Low modality (inoffensive)
Positivity- rather than focusing on the folly of war, Keating chooses to
celebrate the positives that have come of it
While we lost more than 100 000 lives, we have gained a legend
for out of the war came a lesson which transcended the horror and
the tragedy
Positive language when speaking of gains (heroes, bravery and
sacrifice) as opposed to mad brutal awful circumstances from
which they arose
Learnt value of soldiers and sailors and nurses listing implies
equality and fraternity
Anaphora it is legend emphasises hope, grandeur courage and

Bandler Notes

Context of speech: social and political landscape of mistrust and racial

tension, terrible utterances excused in the name of free speech.

Our context: after formal apology, issues persist, so continually relevant
Cultural understanding + common ground
doesnt polarise discourse between black and white, instead divides
along lines of sight vs. blindness willingly blind to others way of life
deliberately blinkered

blends personal with political, I feel with legislation, adds credence

common aspirations working together finding our commonalities
sarcasm it took some time for me to understand...why our
differences should matter uses irony to say that exaggerating
differences is senseless

Overcoming adversity
Continued metaphor of battle = opposition ramparts fierce battles and conflict fight

mobilise forces struggle

High modality we must and its time imparts sense of resilience against tremendous

People-power can move more than governments, it can move mountains. It is those that
patiently bear the brunt of many misdeeds and indecencies who are praise worthy

Addresses audiences as friends, we inclusive

Emotive calls to action we are free if not us who?

Comparison by contrast we should ask not what is in it for me but in it for us echoes
JFK, draws on success of peoples movements

Deane Notes

Context of speech: 1999 commemorating the deaths of 21 young people

in a canyoning accident the greatest single peace time loss of Australians
outside our country
Our Context: values still resonate, nationhood + as young Australian
particularly meaningful
Common humanity
o Allusion to John Donne No man is an island
o Inclusive language our humanity collective loss
o Listing Australia last avoid partiality + imply differences superficial
Silver lining
o Competence, compassion and kindness from those who helped
look after survivors
o bring our two countries closer together and increased awareness
o Brought Switzerland into every Australian home
o Repetition of home suggests humanity as family, connections that
transcend borders
o Metaphor of light
Lit the lives of all who knew them
A shining part of our humanity
o Seasons
Winter at home current sorrow
Golden wattles coming into bloom life affirming, hopeful

Attwood Notes

Context: Well known Canadian author, speech presented on a number of

occasions throughout 1994, to different audiences. Intended audience
educated, older, well-read

Our context: still questioning what it means to be human, relationship

between literature and reality, womens place in society

Complexity of womens character and human condition

o Challenges dichotomy of female behaviour, the angel/whore split
so popular among the Victorians
o Criticises the way in which the Womens Movement oversimplifies
issues facing women and polarises morality by gender.
o Need both good and bad needsomething disruptive to static
order uses motif of eternal breakfast as a metaphor for dull, static
perfection. Women, real and literary, need depth to their character
something more than breakfast
o Uses personal anecdotes of the childrens rhyme which her brother
teased her about. Illustrates divide and makes issue accessible.
o Keeps tone light while dealing with this controversial issue by
employing humour and conversational tone or a good pet canary
Flogging a few dead horses there is a widespread tendency to
judge characters as if they were job applicants.
o Cumulative rhetorical questions engage the audience and force
them to reflect when bad women get into literature, what are they
doing there, and are they permissible, and what, if anything, do we
need them for?
o References a few motifs all the way through (breakfast and
o Quotes others to validate her opinions evil enough in all of us
Rebecca Dame West
Exploration of the nature of literature
o Attempts to define the novel by listing what it is not. Demonstrates
humility through low modality let me and presents herself as
inferior to the audience let me first go over some essentials which
may be insulting to your intelligence, but comforting to mine.
Engages and boosts confidence of audience
o Explores trends in literature, shows that it is dynamic once upon a
timethe first would have been morebelievable to the reader, but
times have changed and art is what you can get away with. & that
once forbidden but now red-hot topic
o The creation of literature- compares the novelist to God God
started with chaosa void, and so does the novelist. Then god


makes one detail at a time. So does the novelist. Humorous, quirky

analogy engages audience.
Lists the how-to questions of the novelist
Many allusions to establish rapport with educated audience

Aung San Suu Kyi Notes

Context: Icon for non-violent political change, under house-arrest by

Burmese Gov, smuggled out via video, given to predominantly female
international audience

Our context womens place in society, tolerance still issue in divided

world, Cronulla

Tolerance, unity, equality

o Inclusive language us our common hopes I want to try to voice
some of the common hopes which firmly unite us in all our splendid
diversity our sisters everywhere
o References to UN and International Year for Tolerance add
authority and provides international context
o Metaphor of light vs dark, Light represents hope and female values
of loving kindness, partnership and trust, mutual respect, whereas
dark is status quo, intolerance, patriarchal domination and
o Burmese proverb the dawn only rises when the rooster crows
disproved by scientific reason implies that it is not the prerogative
of men alone to bring light to this world.
o Positive language generation of happiness and harmony splendid
o Rhetorical questions How much more could they achieve if given
the opportunity to work in their own right for the good of their
country and of the world?
o Recurring motif of freedom and community give speech

Pearson Notes

Context: 1996, academic audience (accounts for formality), high-profile

indigenous activist, Howard gov opposed Aboriginal land rights movement

and had recently criticized the black armband view of Australian history,
time of political tension between indigenous and non-indigenous

Our context: even after a formal apology by the Rudd Government in

2008, how we respond to the past is still a sensitive issue, so the
concepts still resonate. Equality, freedom and reconciliation

How to respond to the past, apportioning of guilt

o Directly quotes Howard and shapes his argument by contradicting
him. Howard inflammatory and emotive to tell children whose
parents were no part of it that were all part of a racist, bigoted
history is something Australians reject. Pearson objective and
rational, promoting collective responsibility. He logically argues
that if we readily celebrate and share in the achievements of the
past, we should also feel responsibility for and express shame in
other aspects of our past
o Clear, concise. Outlines focus of speech immediately the debate is
about how Australians should respond to the past.
o Calls for open discussion and tolerance, hope for reconciliation. Title
o Must not polarize the need for absolute goodies and baddies runs
deep in us, but it drags history into propagandaTo preserve
complexity and not flatten it under the weight of anachronistic
o Against simplifying and anti-intellectual approach. Our present
national leadership is only thinking in terms of broad
characterizations and slogans.
o Bitter at times over treatment of indigenous Australians the myth
of terra-nullius meant that the legal invisibility of Aboriginal
peoplewas embedded within popular belief. Sarcasm in myth
and invisibility
o Doesnt dwell on injustice rather calls for a new Australian history
to tell the story of the other side of the frontier in light of modern
academic study.
o Quotes to validate opinion The reading of history is never static.
Revise we historians must. Robert Hughes, intellectual figures
suited to audience
o Guilt is not a useful emotion as to the question of guilt, I am
myself equivocal
o Contrasts divisive language you and us with inclusive our nation.
Elevates issue to one of national significance
o Allusion to Keating in the confusion and turmoil we had to have
draws on another proponent of reconciliation. open our hearts a bit
open and generous heart

Sadat Notes

Context: 1977 Israel and Egypt in conflict, Egypt spending 30% national
budget on defence, impoverished. In an interview states that purpose of
speech What I want from this visit is that the wall created between us and
Israel, the psychological wall, be knocked down. Highly contentious, later
assassinated. Shock value of taking the initiative is partly why such a
diplomatic success. Audience specifically Knesset, but simultaneously
broad and international

Our context: call for peace irrespective of context, world rife w conflict etc

Peace and common humanity

o Very clear, unambiguous I come to you today on solid ground to
shape a new life and to establish peace. Maintains its sincere, not
verbal juggling or political tactics. Conveys sense of honesty, and
openness with phrases to be absolutely frank with you we really
and truly seak peace
o Idealistic yet bluntly realistic, presents not just concepts but
strategies, solutions. Structures speech around 5 facts. Focuses on
precise issues disengagement agreement in Sinai
o Second person engages audience, makes message powerful
o Delivered in Hebrew, gesture of friendship speak same language
o Inclusive language our fate stresses that the issue involves them
all. Reference to God Almighty (both believe in) draws on common
faith in order to unite. we all, Muslims, Christians and Jews, worship
God and no one but God
o Presents himself as an equal, does not speak from a position of
weakness or hesitation. High land-based demands in return for
peace, Israel must return all Arab lands they have gained since 6
day war in 1967
o Peace and justice recurring motifs, give speech cohesion.
permanent peace based on justice and we are advocates of
justice and peacemakers
o Speaks in universal terms any life lost in war is a human life,
irrespective of its being that of an Israeli or an Arab, humanist
terms sons and brothers
o High modality to emphasise progress so far and lend speech
positive tone we signed, we proceeded we are.
o Denounces war: destructive wars that leave neither victor nor