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Energy Concepts for Fracture

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by Jireh J. Yue

Introduction

In selecting materials for a given application one must have an idea of the final geometry and the dimension of the part. Under certain environmental conditions

and given loadings the part must be able to function properly. One way to make this decision is by comparing the failure criterion to a critical load factor.

Fracture is a very complex process that involves the nucleation and growth of micro and macro voids or cracks, mechanisms of dislocations, flip bands, and

propagation of microcracks, and the geometry of the material. There has been no one set theory "set in stone" to handle all of these factors in fracture. However

there are many proposed theories used to understand the complex nature of fracture in the material. One such class of theories involved energy concepts. In

order to understand the complex nature of fracture in materials, one must understand the nature and character of initial cracking. This is only possible if we know

the distribution of internal stressed in the body, but also the stress needed to initiate fracture and the length of the crack as shown in Figure 1.

(From Parton V.Z., Fracture Mechanics from Theory to Practice, Pg. 69, Figure 48, Gordon and Breach Science Publishers.)

Griffith Theory of Brittle Fracture

One such introductory model was developed by a young English scientist called AA Griffith. He recognized the macroscopic potential energy of the system

consisting of the internal stored elastic energy and the external potential energy of the applied loads, varied with the size of the crack. Therefore fracture is

associated with the consumption of energy.

U0: the elastic energy of the uncracked plate.

Ua: the decrease in the elastic energy caused by introducing the crack in the plate.

Ug: the increase in the elastic-surface energy caused by the formation of the crack surfaces.

Once a crack is propagated throughout a material as illustrated in Figure 1. , the extension of the crack resulted in the creation of new crack surface. New free

surfaces are created at the faces of a crack, which increases the surface energy of the system. Such new surfaces can be seen in Figure 2 and Figure 3.

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(From Callister, W.D. Jr. , Materials Science and Engineering : An Introduction, Pg. 187, Figure 8.6, John Wiley and Sons, Inc.)

(From Callister W.D. Jr., Materials Science and Engineering : An Introduction , Pg. 187 Figure 8.6, John Wiley and Sons, Inc.)

One such model used to demonstrate the propagation of a crack in a brittle material is called the elastic strain energy model.

E: modulus of elasticity

gs = specific surface energy

a = one half the length of an internal crack

In today's material world many materials also experience some plastic deformation during fracture during fracture. Therefore the crack extension involves more

than just an increase in surface energy. gp represents a plastic deformation energy associated with crack extension. gs + gp can be substituted into the above

equation to model materials that undergo some plastic deformation.

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gp: plastic deformation energy associated with crack extension.

gs : the specific surface energy

Please note that crack propagation can only occurs when it exceeds the critical value of G.

Example Problem

If the specific surface energy for polmethyl acrylate is 36.5 ergs/ cm2 and its corresponding modulus of elasticity is 2.38 GPa. Compute the critical stress required

for propagation of an internal crack length is 0.03m.

Solution

(36.5 ergs / cm2)*(1 Joule / 1.0 * 107 ergs)*(100 cm / m)2 = .0365 J / m2

2.38 GPa = 2.38 *109 Pa

sc= 60,719 Pa

Griffith - Orowan - Irwin Failure Criteria

The process of fracture consists of crack initiation and crack propagation. The condition necessary for crack initiation is if the crack-like cut is able to propagate.

If there was a perfectly elastic body with a slit already present. If the slit is to propagate thereby increasing its surface, the slit will need a certain amount of

energy. This energy is called the energy of fracture. With the formation of a new surface the strain in the corresponding area will be reduced which results in the

release of corresponding elastic energy from the body.

dt: the energy of fracture necessary for the formation of a new fracture surface area.

G :the energy released into the crack tip per unit area of the crack (rate of elastic strain energy release).

d : the crack growth increment.

Energy Release Rate

The energy release rate often denoted by G is the amount of energy, per unit length along the crack edge, that is supplied by the elastic energy in the body and by

the loading system in creating the new fracture surface area. In terms of the stress intensity factor there is relationship called the Irwin relationship. Note that

there our two models for the stress intensity factor one for plane stress and plane strain.

(Plane Strain)

G: the energy release rate.

n: Poisson's Ratio.

K: the stress intensity factor.

E: the modulus of elasticity.

G=K2/E (Plane Stress)

G: the energy release rate.

K: the stress intensity factor.

E: the modulus of elasticity.

The total energy release rate in combined mode cracking can be obtained by adding the energies from the different modes (Figure 4.),

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Fig. 4 Three modes of crack surface displacements Mode I (opening or tensile mode), Mode II (sliding mode), and Mode III (tearing mode).

(From Parton V.Z. Fracture Mechanics from Theory to Practice Pg. 66 Figure 47, Gordon and Breach Science Publishers.)

These models by Irwin started the foundation of linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM). This discipline of fracture mechanics characterizes the state of material

loading over a volume of sufficient size that the fracture strength of many engineering materials can be given in terms of the critical (maximum) stress intensity

factor, KIC.

Fig. 5 A cracked body with a force (F) and (a) is the crack length.

(From Portela A., Dual Boundary Element Analysis of Crack Growth, Pg. 26 Figure 2.4, Computational Mechanics Publications.)

Shown in the figure is a cracked body with a force being exerted on it and the propagation of a crack (Figure 5.).

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D: the corresponding load-point displacement.

According to Clapyron's Theorem, the strain energy is:

F: the generalized force per unit thickness.

D: the corresponding load-point displacement.

Crack Speed and Kinetic Energy

In the previous sections, we assumed that the crack growth was slow. Fracture instability occurs when the energy release rate G remains larger than the crack

resistance. The surplus of energy is converted into kinetic energy which governs the speed at which the crack will propagate through the material. The total

amount of energy that is converted into kinetic energy after a crack growth a.

G: the energy release rate.

R: the force of crack resistance.

The assumptions with the following model are:

1. crack propagation takes place under constant stress

2. the elastic energy release rate does not depend upon crack speed

3. the crack growth resistance R is constant

The crack resistance is a function of the plastic behavior of the material at the crack tip and of its fracture characteristics. This particular property is dependent

upon strain rate. At the tip of a crack moving at high velocity the strain rates are very high, and it must be expected that the material behaves in a more brittle

manner the higher the crack speed.

Crack Growth using Energy Theorems

So far we have assumed that the crack resistive force is independent of crack length. This is true only for crack under plain strain. For plane stress, the crack

resistance varies with amount of crack growth. When a particular specimen is loaded, the crack starts propagating, a further increase of the stress is required to

maintain crack growth, although the crack is longer it can withstand a higher stress. During stable crack growth the energy release rate is equal to the crack

resistive force. As can be seen in Figure 6. the growth rate of the crack increases with an increase in crack size. For example in a ductile material the energy

required for crack growth is the same as the amount of work for formation of a new plastic zone at the tip of the advancing crack, plus the work required for

initiation, growth and coalescence of microvoids.

(From Broek D., Elementary Engineering Fracture Mechanics, Pg. 145 Figure 6.2, Kluwer Academic Publishers Group.)

Fracture Energy of Specimen of Different Sizes

In a plastic, cylindrical test specimen deforms in a way that the degrees of deformation is nearly constant along the whole cross section. Research has shown that

deformation of geometrically similar specimens of different diameters made from similar material is the same in any phase of the tensile test and not only the

reductions of area but the contour lines in the vicinity of necking. The absolute value of the stress is independent of the size is the strain rate is constant.

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A proportion law of L. Gillemot states that to the same deformation of two geometrically similar specimens from similar material, similar specific energy is

necessary if the cross head speed is proportional with the diameters of the specimen.

U1 and U2: cross head speeds applied during the tensile test.

d1 and d2: diameters of the specimen.

Impact Energy Testing Methods

In order to learn more about the complex nature of fracture in materials impact testing conditions were established. The conditions that were judged the most

relative to the potential for fracture are:

1. deformation at low temperatures

2. a high strain rate (rate of deformation)

3. a triaxial stress state

Two tests called the Charpy and Izod tests are used to measure the impact energy (also known as notch toughness). These tests are important, because one

can obtain information to model the behavior of actual structures so that the laboratory test results can be used to predict service performance under different

environments.

With the Charpy V-notch (CVN) technique, the specimen is in the shape of a bar of square cross section with a V notch. The load is applied as an impact below

from a weighted pendulum hammer that is released from a position h. The pendulum with a knife edge strikes and fractures the specimen at the notch. The

pendulum continues its swing, rising to a maximum height h', which is lower than h. The energy necessary to fracture the test piece is directly calculated from the

difference in initial and final heights of the swinging pendulum (Figure 7.). The impact energy (toughness) from the Charpy test is related to the area under the total

stress-strain curve. The difference in the Charpy and the Izod techniques is in the way that the specimens are supported in the apparatus machine.

One can expect that materials with large values of strength and ductility to have large impact fracture energies. One has to also note that the impact data are very

sensitive to test conditions such as temperature, specimen size, and notch configuration as can be seen in Figure 8.

(From Callister W.D. Jr., Materials Science and Engineering : An Introduction , Pg. 198 Figure 8.13, John Wiley and Sons, Inc.)

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Fig. 8 A graph of the temperature dependence on the Charpy V-notch impact energy (curve A) and percent shear fracture (curve B).

(From Callister W.D. Jr., Materials Science and Engineering : An Introduction , Pg. 199 Figure 8.14, John Wiley and Sons, Inc.)

References

1. Callister, William, " Materials Science and Engineering : An Introduction", John Wiley and Sons, New York, New York 1994.

2. Portela A., "Dual Element Analysis of Crack Growth", Computational Mechanics Publications, 1993.

3. Parton V.Z., " Fracture Mechanics : From Theory to Practice", Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, 1992.

4. Rolfe, Stanley, Barson John. "Fracture and Fatigue Control in Structures", Prentice Hall, Inc., 1977.

5. Broek, D. "Elementary Engineering Fracture Mechanics", Kluwer Academic Publishers Group, 1982.

6. Shackelford, J. " Introduction to Materials Science for Engineers", Macmillan Publishing Company, 1985.

For information relating to the example problem: http://www.lib.umich.edu/libhome/Dentistry.lib/Dental_tables/Surffreener.html

Table of Contents

Submitted by Jireh J. Yue

Virginia Tech Materials Science and Engineering

http://www.sv.vt.edu/classes/MSE2094_NoteBook/97ClassProj/anal/yue/energy.html

Last updated: 5/4/97

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