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Greenroads Manual v1.

Project Requirements

PAVEMENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM


PR-9

GOAL
Makeroadwaycapitalassetslastlongerandperformbetterbypreservingand
maintainingthem.

REQUIRED

REQUIREMENTS
Haveassetmanagementsystemsineffectthatincludethepavementandcritical
structuralfeaturesonaproject,suchasbridges.Assetmanagementsystem(s)must
servetheroadwayprojectandinclude,atminimum,theseactivities:
1. Measureconditionsofpavementstructureandbridgestructuresatleastonce
everytwoyears.
2. Possessdocumenteddecisioncriteriafortimingpreservationactions.
3. Recordwhenpreservationeffortsoccur.
4. Storeinformationfrom#13inaretrievableformat.
5. Displayinformationfrom#13totheroadwayuser.
Generally,thismeanstheowneragencyoftheroadwayshouldhavepavement
managementsystems(PMS)andbridgemanagementsystems(BMS)inplaceforthe
extentoftheirroadwaynetwork.Projectswithbothpavementsandmajorstructures
mustdemonstratethatbothtypesofassetmanagementsystemsareinplaceand
operationalforallsuchfeatures.

PR2LifecycleCost
Analysis
PR10Site
MaintenancePlan
MR2Pavement
Reuse
PT1LongLife
Pavement
PT6Pavement
Performance
Tracking

SUSTAINABILITY
COMPONENTS

Details
Anassetmanagementsystemisaformalsystematicprocessofmaintaining,
upgradingandoperatingaparticularstructureornetworkofstructures.Asset
managementsystemstypicallyinvolvetheuseofoneormoredecisionsupport
tools(oftencomputerbased)toorganizethefiveactivitiesdetailedabove.For
purposesofthiscredit,wereferprimarilytopavementmanagementsystems(PMS)
andbridgemanagementsystems(BMS).Preservationreferstoasetof
maintenanceandrehabilitationpracticesusedtoimproveroadwayconditionand
extendroadwaylifeandalsoappliestobothpavementsandbridges.
Theoretically,anyassetonaroadwayprojectcanbemanagedusingthe
principlesoutlinedhere.Whiletherearealsoseparateassetmanagementsystems
andtoolsforsiteinfrastructure,trafficcontrols,standaloneretainingwallsand
vegetation,forpurposesofthisProjectRequirementsuchmanagementsystems
arenotrequired.Projectsthathavesuchsystemsinplaceshoulddetermineifthe
systemsmeetthefivecriteriaaboveandapplyforaGreenroadsCustomCredit.

DOCUMENTATION
Asignedletterfromanownersrepresentativestatingthefollowing:
1. APMSandBMS(whereappropriate)iseitherinplaceorwillbeputinplaceforthe
projectpavementand/orbridges.
2. Theagencywillmanagetheprojectpavement(s)and/orbridge(s).
3. Theproposedmeansofaccomplishingthefiveactivities(e.g.thenamesofthe
consultantorsoftwaresysteminuse).

PR-9

RELATED CREDITS

Pavement Management System

Extent
Expectations
Experience

BENEFITS
IncreasesServiceLife
ImprovesHuman
Health&Safety
ReducesLifecycle
Costs
Improves
Accountability
IncreasesAesthetics

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Greenroads Manual v1.5

APPROACHES & STRATEGIES


Ensurethattheprojectroadwayispartofaneworexistingmanagementsystem.Itislikelythatthereis
alreadyasysteminusebytheroadwayowner,whichmeansthatprovisionsfortheprojectpavementtobe
includedneedtobemade.
Forpavements,adoptapavementmanagementsystemthatincorporatestheprojectpavement.Thisis
generallynotpracticalunlessthepavementmanagementsystemincorporatesotherpavementsalsomanaged
bytheowner.
Example: Pavement Management Systems
All50stateshavesomeformofpavementmanagementprograminplace(Finn,1998).Manylocalpavement
owneragenciesalsohavepavementmanagementsystemsthatvaryincomplexity.Whilethereisno
requirementthattheybecomputerbased,mostcurrentsystemsare.Afewexamplesfollow.
DynatestPavementManagementSystem.Anexampleofacommerciallyavailableproduct(thereare
many),thissystemisintegratedwiththeconditionassessmentequipmentthatDynatestalso
manufactures.
StreetSaver.AnewonlineprogramdevelopedbytheBayAreaMetropolitanTransportationCommission
(MTC)forusebylocalgovernments.Itisusedbyanumberofowneragencies,manyofwhicharein
CaliforniaandOregon.TheinterfaceiswebbasedandhasbeenintegratedwithArcGISbyFarallon
Geographics,Inc.AnexampleisChulaVista,CA:
http://www.chulavistaca.gov/city_Services/Development_Services/engineering/pavementmgmtsystem.asp
MicroPAVER.AdesktoppavementmanagementsystemfromtheU.S.ArmyCorpsofEngineers.Itis
availableforfreeandiswidelyusedbytheU.S.militaryandotheragencyowners.Informationat:
http://owww.cecer.army.mil/paver/Paver.htm.
Example: Case Study Washington State Pavement Management System (WSPMS)
TheWashingtonStateDepartmentofTransportation(WSDOT)pavementmanagementsystem(WSPMS)isan
exampleofaninternallybuiltsystemandisoneoftheoldestsystemsintheU.S.WSDOTbegancollectingdata
in1963(Muenchetal.,2004)anddevelopedamanagementsystemin1982(FHWA,2008).Moredetailsare
giveninthecasestudyexamplebelow.Adescriptionofthesystemcanbefoundat:
http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/Research/Reports/300/315.2.htm.
ArecentFederalHighwayAdministration(FHWA)casestudy(2008)highlightedtheWashingtonState
PavementManagementSystem(WSPMS)anditscontributiontooverallconditionandlifecyclecostsof
pavementsmanagedbytheWashingtonStateDepartmentofTransportation(WSDOT).Whilethecasestudy
doesnotseparatetheleveloffundingfromtheuseofWSPMS,itmakesacasethatWSPMShascontributedto
amarkedshifttowardspavementsingoodconditionsince1971(FigurePR9.1).

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FigurePR9.1:TrendsinpoorandgoodpavementconditionofWashingtonStatehighways,
19712005,followingadoptionofapavementconditionsurveyin1969andapavement
managementsystemin1982(FHWA,2008).
WSDOTusesWSPMStonotonlytrackpavementconditionbutalsotochoosewhenandbywhatmeansthe
pavementshouldbepreservedand/orrehabilitated.WSPMShassimplebuiltinmodelsthatpredictfuture
pavementconditionbasedoncurrentandpastcondition.Thisway,WSDOTisabletopredictwithreasonable
accuracywhenpreservation/rehabilitationneedtooccur.In1993WSDOTreceivedlegislativemandatethat
theirprojectselectioncriteriashouldbebasedonlowestlifecyclecost,whichfurtherreinforcedtheir
pavementmanagementapproach.Overall,FigurePT9.2showstheconditionofWSDOTpavementsfrom1969
2005andgivesclearevidencethatpavementconditionhasimprovedmarkedlyoverthis36yearstretch.

FigurePR9.2:TrendsinWashingtonStatepavementstructuralcondition,19692006(FHWA,2008).
Datasource:WashingtonStateDepartmentofTransportationMaterialsLaboratory.

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Example: Michigan DOT Bridge Management System


MichiganDOT(MDOT)hasdevelopedaBridgeManagementSystem(BMS),oneofsixcomponentsoftheir
TransportationManagementSystem.TheBMSisthedecisionsupporttoolresponsibleformanagingthe
inspection,analysisandmaintenanceofthenumerouscomponentsthatmakeupabridge.MDOTutilizes
softwareAmericanAssociationofStateHighwayandTransportationOfficials(AASHTO)hasdevelopedcalled
PontistoaidtheirBMS.Adescriptionofthesystemcanbefoundat:
http://michigan.gov/documents/bridge_16549_7.pdf
Example: Virtis and Opis Bridge Management System Tools
AASHTOsBRIDGEWare,asoftwaredesignsystem,developedcomprehensivebridgeratinganddesigntools
calledVirtisandOpis.TheOpisbridgedesignpackageandtheVirtisbridgeloadratingpackagesharea
detaileddatabaseofstructuredescriptionsthatisintegratedwiththedatabaseofthePontisbridge
managementdata(Thompson,2004).Moreinformationisavailableat:
http://aashto.bakerprojects.com/virtis/VirtisOpisBrochure0303.pdf

POTENTIAL ISSUES
ThisProjectRequirementasksforassetmanagementsystemsbutdoesnotverifyexecutionofthatmanagement
system.Therefore,thepossibilityexiststhatamanagementsystemcouldbepresentedandthennotexecuted.

RESEARCH
PavementManagementSystems
TheAmericanAssociationofStateHighwayandTransportationOfficials(AASHTO)definespavementmanagement
astheeffectiveandefficientdirectingofthevariousactivitiesinvolvedinprovidingandsustainingpavementsin
aconditionacceptabletothetravelingpublicattheleastlifecyclecost(AASHTO,1985).Pavementmanagement
consistsof3majorcomponents(PavementManagement,2007):
1. Pavementlifecycle.Thisincludeshowpavementsarebuilt,howtheirconditionchangesovertime,andhow
thisprocesscanbeaffectedbydifferentformsofmaintenance,rehabilitationandreconstruction.
2. Costsassociatedwiththepavementlifecycle.Thisincludesthecostsofinitialconstruction,maintenanceand
rehabilitation,assessingendoflifepavementsalvagevalue,anddeterminingusercostsincurredthroughout
thelifecycle.
3. Pavementmanagementsystems.Thisincludesallthedifferentsystemsusedtodeterminethemost
appropriatetimetorehabilitatepavement,whatthemostcosteffectivemethodis,andhowmanydollarsit
willtaketomaintainaroadwaysystematadesirableconditionlevel(WSDOT,1994).
Thefundamentalideaisthatpavementmanagementwillleadtoloweroveralllifecyclecostsforapavementor
networkofpavementsandthusbeamoresustainableapproach.Thisideahasbeentheoreticallyshownmany
times(e.g.,Scrivneretal.,1968;Hudsonetal.,1979;MAPC,1986;Kayetal.,1993;Pierceetal.,2001)buthasnot
beenshownbydirectcomparisonofamanagedsystemandonethatisnot.Acorollary,thatsomebelieveistrue
buthasyettobeshownbyempiricalevidence,isthatpavementmanagementwillalsoleadtoloweruseofnatural
resources,lessenergyinputandfeweremissionsassociatedwithapavementnetwork.
Abasicassetmanagementsystemshouldincludethefollowing5components(Peterson,1987):
1. Roadwayconditionsurveys.Asurveyoftheroadwaystructuretoassesscurrentconditionandstrength
2. Databasecontainingallrelatedroadwaystructureinformation.Informationaboutotheraspectsofeach
roadwaysectionincludingthingslikelocation,pavementthickness,ownership,datelastconstructed,etc.
3. Analysisscheme.Algorithmsusedtointerpretroadwayconditionandotherdatainameaningfulwayand
produceinformationsuchascostanddeteriorationmodelsthatassistinprogrammingroadway
preservation/rehabilitation/maintenanceefforts.Recentsoftwarecancombinethedatabase,analysisscheme

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anddecisioncriteriainonepackage.Recentresearchhasfocusedonadvancingorrefininglifecyclecosting
analysis,optimizationalgorithmsandperformanceprediction.
4. Decisioncriteria.Rulesdevelopedtoguideassetmanagementdecisions.Asassetmanagementsystemshave
evolved,decisioncriteriahavebecomemorecomplexandnowaccountforitemssuchasuserdelay,vehicle
operatingcostsand,inlimitedcases,environmentaleffects.Forbridges,thiswouldincludeoptimizationand
analysismodels.
5. Implementationprocedures.Methodsusedtoapplymanagementdecisionstoroadwaysections.
Implementationisapolitical,budgetaryorproceduralissue.
PavementManagementLeadstoLowerLifeCycleCosts
Choosingtheoptimaltimingofpreservationeffortscanleadtolowerlifecyclecosts.Inturn,lowerlifecyclecosts
canbeoneoftheoutputsofamoresustainableroadway.Thus,thereisanindirectrelationshipbetweena
pavementmanagementsystem,whichcanhelpindeterminingthebesttimingofpreservationefforts,and
sustainability.
Ingeneral,pavementdeterioratesaspicturedinFigurePR9.3.Deteriorationisslowatfirstandthenincreasesat
anincreasingrate.Preservationeffortsprovideastepincreaseinpavementconditionandessentiallyresetthe
deteriorationprocess.Preservationeffortsappliedtoosoondonotachievemuchimprovementinconditionfor
theircostwhilethoseappliedtoolate(FigurePR9.4)achieveanimprovementinconditionatsubstantialcost
(Stevens,1985;FHWA,2008).

FigurePR9.3:Pavementconditionillustration.

FigurePR9.4:Rehabilitationtimevs.cost(basedonanillustrationinStevens,1985).
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Greenroads Manual v1.5

BridgeManagementSystems
TheFederalHighwayAdministrationrecognizestheimportanceofmaintenanceandpreservationofbridge
sturcturestoo.Forroadways,bridgesareconsideredcriticalpointsornodesalonganotherwisecontinuous
networkofpavements.However,similartopavementmanagementsystems,agenciesusuallydevelopaBMSthat
istailoredtotheirorganizational,financial,managerial,political,andtechnicalmodesofoperation.
Currently,allstateDOTshaveabridgemanagementsystem(zbayetal.,2004).EachBMSmayvarydueto
(Markow&Hyman,2009):
1.
2.
3.
4.

Differentphilosophiesofbridgemanagement;
Differentapproachestoplanning,programming,andbudgeting;
thecharacteristicsofeachagencystransportationsystemanditsinfrastructures;and
Thepolicy,financial,technical,andinstitutionalenvironmentinwhicheachagencyoperates.

AstudybytheTransportationResearchBoard(TRB)in1994,foundthatonly6of33statesrespondingtoasurvey
saidtheyweresatisfiedwiththecostdatatheyhadavailabletoprovidetotheirbridgemanagementsystems
(Thompson,2004).Thismaysuggestthatagenciesconsidertheaccuracyandavailabilityofcostandmanagement
dataandotherinformationrequiredtodevelopacomprehensiveassetmanagementsystemtobeinadequate.
In1994,a20pagequestionnairewasdistributedto52departmentsoftransportation(DOT)inthe50states,the
DistrictofColumbia,andPuertoRico(Thompson&Markow,1996).Atotalof33stateDOTsprovidedusable
responses.
76%(25of33)oftheagenciesusePontisaspartoftheirbridgemanagementsystem;
12%(4of33)aredevelopingtheirownsystem;and
10%(3of33)areundecided.
ThepercentageofthoseusingPontisisdecreasingasnewtechnologiesemergeandbecomemoreaccurateand
reliable.Morerecentstudiesshowthatanincreasingnumberofagenciesareresortingtodevelopingtheirown
systeminconjunctionwithcurrentdesignsoftware.
In2009,MarkowandHymanpreparedadetailedsynthesisreportonBMSfortheNationalCooperativeHighway
ResearchProgram(NCHRP),Report397.Currently,thisisthemostuptodateandcomprehensiveinformationon
thestateofthepracticeofbridgemanagementsystemsandtheneed,utility,levelofimplementationandcost
implicationsatvariousstateagencies.ItalsoincludesasurveyofDOTsforprevalenceofuseofBMS,butthere
weresimilarresultstothe1994studymentionedaboveandfewerrespondentstothesurvey.
BridgeManagementSoftware
Duringtheearly1990s,FHWAandCambridgeSystematicsandOptima,Inc.developedabridgemanagement
systemcalledPontis.CambridgeSystematicsandOptima,Inc.(2010)describePontisasadecisionsupport
softwaretoolthatincludesastructuralinventoryforuseinpreservationandmaintenanceactivities.Pontis
providesawayforbridgemanagerstodocumentinspectionsbystructuralelementanddevelopcosteffective
plansformaintenanceactivitiesinanexistingbridgenetwork.NewersoftwaresuiteslikeAASHTOs
BridgeWARElineofproductsincorporateadditionaltoolslikeVirtisandOpiswhichcanassistinloadratingand
designthatutilizethePontisdatabase(TransportationResearchBoard,CommitteeonBridgeManagement
Systems,2003;Thompson,2004).
BridgeManagementSystemsandLifecycleCostAnalysis
Bridgemanagementsystemsandlifecyclecostanalysis(seePR2LifecycleCostAnalysis)arecomplementary
toolsforlongtermdecisionmakinginbridgemaintenance,preservationandoperation.Muchofthecurrent
literatureoverlapsatoptimizationmodelsforintegratinglifecyclecostingintonetworklevelBMSaswellasat
theprojectlevel(Morcous,2007;Frangopol&Liu,2007;Estes&Frangopol,2001;Frangopol,2004;Hegazy,
Elbeltagi,&ElBehairy,2004;Okasha&Frangopol,2009)aswellasforpreservationandmaintenancedecisions

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(List,2007;Straussetal.2007;Naus&Johnston,2001).Morerecentresearchhasbeenintheareaofreliability
andriskanalysisforlifetimeweatheringandotherhazards,(Lee,Cho,&Cha,2006;Hosseretal.2008;Padgett,
Dennemann,&Ghosh,2010).Foracomprehensivereviewofbridgelifecyclecostanalysis(BLCCA)andits
potentialapplicationsatprojectandnetworklevelBMS,thereaderisreferredtoNCHRPReport483(Hawk,
2003),whichprovidesthemostcomprehensiveinformationonintegrativelifecyclethinkingforbridges.
OtherTypesofAssetManagementSystems
Ancillarystructures.Currently,theFederalHighwayAdministrationisinvestigatingdevelopmentofdecision
supporttoolsfordatamanagementandpreservationeffortsforancillarystructuressuchasluminares,sign
trusses,andothernonbridgeandnonpavementfeatures.ThecurrentprogrameffortisledbytheOfficeofBridge
Technology,whichprovidesafreehelpfulguidancemanualforthesefeaturescalledGuidelinesfortheInstallation,
Inspection,MaintenanceandRepairofStructuralSupportsforHighwaySigns,Luminaires,andTrafficSignals
(FHWA,2005).
Tunnelsandretainingwallstructures.Tunnelandwallstructuresareaverysmallpercentageofstructural
roadwayfeatures.Muchoftheresearchontunnelmaintenanceandpreservationismanagedunderthepurview
oftheFederalHighwayAdministrationsOfficeofBridgeTechnologyandintegrateswithhighwayandrailtransitin
theirwebbasedguidancedocumentfromthe2005Highway&RailTransitTunnelMaintenance&Rehabilitation
Manual(FHWA,2007).
Vegetation.Additionally,thereisawealthofinformationavailableonvegetationmanagementpracticessuchas
streettrees,nativevegetation,pesticideandherbicideuse,andmaintenanceofotherlandscapingfeatures,
especiallywithregardtomanagementofaboveandbelowgroundutilities.However,aconsensusdoesnotappear
toexistoncomputerizedtoolsforsystematicimplementationofsuchvegetationmanagementstrategiesand
practices.AASHTOsCenteronEnvironmentalExcellenceprovidessomeguidanceonmanagementofthesetypes
oflivingassetsonroadsidesatthislinkunderIntegratedRoadsideVegetationManagement:
http://environment.transportation.org/environmental_issues/invasive_species(AASHTO,2011).

GLOSSARY
Assetmanagementsystem
Preservation

aformalsystematicprocessofmaintaining,upgradingandoperatinga
particularassetornetworkofassets,suchaspavementsandbridges
asetofmaintenanceandrehabilitationpracticesusedtoimprovecondition
andextendlifeofastructure(s)

REFERENCES
AmericanAssociationofStateHighwayandTransportationOfficials(AASHTO).(1985).GuidelinesonPavement
Management,AASHTOJointTaskForceonPavements,AASHTO,Washington,D.C.,1985.
AmericanAssociationofStateHighwayandTransportationOfficials(AASHTO).(2011).CenterforEnvironmental
ExcellencebyAASHTO:InvasiveSpecies/VegetationManagement.Availableat:
http://environment.transportation.org/environmental_issues/invasive_species/AccessedJanuary31,2011.
CambridgeSystematics,Inc.(2010).PontisBridgeManagementSystemVersion4.4.Availableat
http://www.camsys.com/pro_inframan_pontis.htm.AccessedMay26,2010.
Estes,A.C.,andFrangopol,D.M.2001.Minimumexpectedcostorientedoptimalmaintenanceplanningfor
deterioratingstructures:Applicationtoconcretebridgedecks.Reliab.Eng.Syst.Saf.,73,281291.
FederalHighwayAdministration.(2008).PavementManagementSystems:TheWashingtonStateExperience.
TransportationAssetManagementCaseStudies.FHWA,U.S.DOT.Availableat
http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/asset/if08010/index.cfm.

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FederalHighwayAdministration.(2010).MoreAboutPontis.Availableat
http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/infrastructure/asstmgmt/pontmore.cfm.AccessedMay26,2010.
FederalHighwayAdministration.(2005).GuidelinesfortheInstallation,Inspection,MaintenanceandRepairof
StructuralSupportsforHighwaySigns,Luminaires,andTrafficSignals.[FHWANHI05036].FederalHighway
Administration.U.S.DOT.Availableathttp://www.fhwa.dot.gov/bridge/signinspection.pdf
FederalHighwayAdministration.(2007,June7).HighwayandRailTransitTunnelMaintenanceandRehabilitation
Manual:2005Edition.U.S.DepartmentofTransportation.Availableat
http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/bridge/tunnel/maintman00.cfm.AccessedJune5,2010.
Finn,F.(1998).PavementManagementSystemsPast,Present,andFuture.PublicRoads,Vol.62,No.1.Available
athttp://www.tfhrc.gov/pubrds/julaug98/pavement.htm.
Frangopol,D.M.,&AmericanSocietyofCivilEngineers.(2004).Lifecycleperformanceofdeterioratingstructures:
Assessment,design,andmanagement.Reston,VA:AmericanSocietyofCivilEngineers.
Frangopol,D.M.,&Liu,M.(January01,2007).Maintenanceandmanagementofcivilinfrastructurebasedon
condition,safety,optimization,andlifecyclecost.Structure&InfrastructureEngineering:Maintenance,
Management,LifeCycleDesign&Performance,3,1,2941.
Hawk,H.(2003).NationalCooperativeHighwayResearchProgram.NCHRPReport483:Bridgelifecyclecost
analysis.Washington,D.C:TransportationResearchBoard,NationalResearchCouncil.
Hegazy,T.,Elbeltagi,E.andElBehairy,H.(2004).BridgeDeckManagementSystemwithIntegratedLifeCycleCost
Optimization.TransportationResearchRecord,1866,TransportationResearchBoard,NationalResearch
Council,4450.
Hosser,D.,Klinzmann,C.,&Schnetgoke,R.(2008).Aframeworkforreliabilitybasedsystemassessmentbasedon
structuralhealthmonitoring.StructureandInfrastructureEngineering,4,4,271285.
Hudson,W.R.;Haas,R.andPedigo,R.D.(1979).NationalCooperativeHighwayResearchProgramReport215:
PavementManagementSystemDevelopment.TRB,NationalResearchCouncil,Washington,D.C.
Kay,R.K.;Mahoney,J.P.andJackson,N.C.(1993).TheWSDOTPavementManagementSystemA1993Update.
ReportNo.WARD274.1.WashingtonStateDepartmentofTransportation,Olympia,WA.
Lee,K.M.,Cho,H.N.,&Cha,C.J.(July01,2006).Lifecyclecosteffectiveoptimumdesignofsteelbridges
consideringenvironmentalstressors.EngineeringStructures,28,9,12521265.
List,G.(2007).Amodelforlifecycleevaluationofhighwayinvestments.Structure&InfrastructureEngineering:
Maintenance,Management,LifeCycleDesign&Performance,3,2,95101.
Markow,M.J.&Hyman,W.A.(2009).BridgeManagementSystemsforTransportationAgencyDecisionMaking.
NationalCooperativeHighwayResearchProgram.NCHRPSynthesis397.TransportationResearchBoard,
NationalAcademyofSciences,WashingtonD.C.
MetropolitanAreaPlanningCouncil(MAPC).(1986).PavementManagement:AManualforCommunities.Contract
numberMDPW23892.FederalHighwayAdministrationandtheMassachusettsDepartmentofPublicWorks.
Availableathttp://ntl.bts.gov/DOCS/pave.html.

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Morcous,G.(2007)ParetoAnalysisforMulticriteriaOptimizationofBridgePreservationDecisionsTransportation
ResearchRecord:JournaloftheTransportationResearchBoard,1991,TransportationResearchBoardofthe
NationalAcademies,Washington,D.C.,6268
Naus,D.J.andJohnston,M.W.(2001,October).InternationalRILEMWorkshoponLifePredictionandAging
ManagementofConcreteStructures.ProceedingsoftheInternationalRILEMWorkshopTechnicalCommittees,
Cannes,France,1617,October2000.MaterialsandStructures,RILEM,34,458466.
Okasha,N.M.,&Frangopol,D.M.(January01,2009).Lifetimeorientedmultiobjectiveoptimizationofstructural
maintenanceconsideringsystemreliability,redundancyandlifecyclecostusingGA.StructuralSafety,31,6,
460.
Ozbay,K.(2004).Lifecyclecostanalysis:Stateofthepracticeversusstateoftheart.TransportationResearch
Record,1864,6270.
Padgett,J.E.,Dennemann,K.,&Ghosh,J.(2010).Riskbasedseismiclifecyclecostbenefit(LCCB)analysisfor
bridgeretrofitassessment.StructuralSafety,32,3,165.
PavementManagement.(2007,August16).PavementInteractive.Availableat
http://pavementinteractive.org/index.php?title=Pavement_Management&oldid=11444.
Peterson,D.E.(1987).NationalCooperativeHighwayResearchProgramSynthesisofHighwayPractice135:
PavementManagementPractices.NCHRP,TRB,NationalResearchCouncil.Washington,D.C.
Pierce,L.M.,Mahoney,J.P.,&Sivaneswaran,N.(2001).AnAssessmentoftheBenefitsoftheWashingtonState
PavementManagementSystem.PaperpresentedattheFifthInternationalConferenceonManaging
Pavements,Seattle,Washington,August1114,2001.
Scrivner,F.H.;McFarland,W.F.andCarey,G.R.(1968).ASystemsApproachtotheFlexiblePavementDesign
Problem.ResearchReport13211.TexasTransportationInstitute,TexasA&MUniversity.
Stevens,L.B.(1985).RoadSurfaceManagementforLocalGovernmentsResourceNotebook.PublicationNo.DOT
I8537.FederalHighwayAdministration.Washington,D.C.
Strauss,A.,Bergmeister,K.,Hoffmann,S.,Pukl,R.,&Novak,D.(January01,2008).AdvancedLifeCycleAnalysisof
ExistingConcreteBridges.JournalofMaterialsinCivilEngineering,20,1,9.
Thompson,P.D.&Markow,M.J.(1996).CollectingandManagingCostDataforBridgeManagementSystems.
NationalCooperativeHighwayResearchProgram,NationalResearchCouncil(U.S.).TransportationResearch
Board,AmericanAssociationofStateHighwayandTransportationOfficials.
Thompson,P.D.(2004).BridgeLifeCycleCostinginIntegratedEnvironmentofDesign,Rating,andManagement.
TransportationResearchRecord:JournaloftheTransportationResearchBoard,No.1866,5158.
TransportationResearchBoard,CommitteeonBridgeManagementSystems.(2003).IntegrationofAASHTOS
BridgeWAREProducts.TransportationResearchCircularNumberEC049.9thInternationalBridgeManagement
Conference,OrlandoAirportMarriottOrlando,FloridaApril2830,2003.Availableat
http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/circulars/ec049.pdf.

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