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# 1.

The basic ideas of finite element method organized from advances in Air craft
structural analysis.
2. The first book on finite elements by Zienkiewicz and Chung was published in
1967.
3. A body is said to be in equilibrium if the internal virtual work equals the
external virtual work for every Kinematically admissible displacement field.
4. every_
5. admissible displacement field :->Kinematic ally
6. Galerkin's method works directly from the differential equation and is
preferred to the Rayleigh-Ritz method for problems where a corresponding
function to be is Minimized not obtainable.
7. If the extreme condition is a Minimum the equilibrium is stable.
8. The Stress acting on the elemental volume dv then the volume dv shrinks to
a point; the stress-tensor is represented by placing its components in a
Symmetric Matrix.
9. The solution by FEM is Approximate
10.Displacement method is based on minimum Potential Energy
11.Hrenikoff presented a solution of elartity problems using the Frame Work
Method.
12.Engineering propertion of anisotropic material are Youngs Modulus and
Poissons ratio
13.FEM is a generalization of Rayleigh Method
14.Truss element is in direct Tension or Compression
15.In a truss, it is required that all loads and reactions are applied only at the
Joints
16.A truss structure consists only of Two force members
17.Two dimensional truss are also called as Plane Trusses
18.The main difference between the 1D structure and truss elements are by
various orientations
19.The term finite element was first coined and used by Clough in 1960.
20.Discrete analysis covers all 2D and 3D trusses & frames
21.Basic ideas of finite element method organized in the year 1941
22.In two dimensions, the problems are modelled as Plane stress and Plane
strain
23.Galerkins method uses the set of governing equation in the development of
an Integral Form
24.Primary variable in FEM structural analysis is Displacement
25.For a 2D body, the stresses, strains with initial strain are related as

=D ( 0 )
26.What is the size of the element body force vector fe of a 2D element is 6X1
27.The total number of shape functions in a Hermite shape function are 4
28.In a beam element, the hermite shape function is represented by an
expression of cubic order
29.What is the size of the element stiffness matrix K e of a beam element 4X4
30.In a beam element, the element displacement vector is

[ q1 q 2 q 3 q 4 ] =[ v 1 1 v 2 2 ]
31.In a beam element, what is the degree of freedom of each node 2

, M I is =

My
I

## 33.What do you mean by a Beam? Slender member used for supporting

34.In a quadratic element, what is the size of element body force vector, f e =
matrix of 3X1
35.In a quadratic element, what is the size of element Tractor force vector, T e =
matrix of 3X1
36.In a quadratic element, what is the size of Shape function matrix, N e = matrix
of 1X3
37.In a quadratic element, the shape function N 3 is denoted as (1+ )(1- )
38.In a quadratic element, the shape function N 2 is denoted as (1+ )(1- )
39.In a quadratic element, the shape function N 1 is denoted as (1+ )(1- )
40.In a quadratic element, what is the value of

at node 3 is zero

at node 2 is 1

at node 1 is -1

[ q1 q 2 q 3 ]

## 44.In a quadratic element, what is the internal node 3

45.What is the value of deformation at fixed end of a cantilever beam when it is
subjected to point load at free end zero
46.For linear one dimensional problem, what is the size of the global stiffness
matrix when N denotes the number of nodes NXN
47.In a 1D problem, what is the value of integral of a shape function One
48.In a 1D problem, the element traction force vector, T e is given by
49.In a 1D problem, the element body force vector, f e is given by
50.In a 1D problem, what is the size of the element stiffness matrix, K is 2X2
51.In a 1D problem, what is the relationship between

, Bq is =Bq

## 52.In a 1D problem, what is the size of the element strain-displacement matrix,

B is 1X2
53.In a 1D problem, the element displacement vector q is denoted as q =
T

[ q1 q 2 ]

## 54.In a 1D problem, the shape function matrix N is denoted as N =

[ N1 N2]

55.In a 1D problem, the linear displacement field within the element can be
written in terms of the nodal displacement q 1 and q2 in matrix notation as u =
Nq
56.In a 1D problem, the linear shape function N 2 is denoted as (1+ )/2
57.In a 1D problem, the linear shape function N 1 is denoted as (1- )/2

coordinate,

changes from

-1 to 1

## 59.What do you mean by element connectivity in a finite element modelling? It

establishes local- global correspondence
60.In a 1D problem stepped bar with 4 steps is discretized into 4 linear elements
then what are the number of nodes present in the problem is 5
61.In a 1D problem stepped bar with 3 steps is discretized into 4 linear elements
then what are the number of nodes present in the problem is 4
62.In a 1D problem stepped bar with 2 steps is discretized into 4 linear elements
then what are the number of nodes present in the problem is 3
63.In a 1D problem, what is the degree of freedom(dof) of each node is One
64.For 1D problems, the differential volume dv cab be written as Adx
65.What is the nature of stress-strain curve of a cast iron material a straight line
66.For linear elastic materials, the strain energy per unit volume in the body is

2
67.Under plane strain condition the strain by its components is represented as
68.Under plane stress condition the stress by its components is represented as
69.The surface traction acting on a 3D body is represented by its components as
T=

[ T x , T y ,T z ]

## 70.Distributing force acting on a 3D body is represented as f =

[f x , f y , f z]

## 71.A load P acting at a point i is represented by its three components as Pi =

[ Px , P y , P z ]

## 72.What is the size of material matrix of a 2D body is 3X3

73.What is the size of material matrix of a 3D body is 6X6
74.What is the engineering shear strain of a 3D body in YZ direction is

dv dw
+
dz dy

du dw
+
dz dx

## 76.What is the engineering shear strain of a 3D body in YZ direction is

du dv
+
dy dx

77.How 2D problems are modeled Modelled as plane stress and plane strain
78.What is a shear strain? Ratio of shear stress and shear modulus
79.What are the units for the coefficient of linear expansion? Per Degree 0C
80.What are isotropic materials? Material properties are constant in all directions
81.Define stress? Force per unit area
82.What is the traction force of a 1D body? Force per unit length
83.What is the traction force of a 2D body? Force per unit area
84.What is the Body force? Force per unit volume
85.In a plane strain condition Strains in Z-direction are zero
86.If a thin planar body is said to be in plane stress condition Stresses in Zdirection are zero

87.What is the Poissons ratio The ration of lateral strain to longitudinal strain
88.What is the potential energy of an elastic body?

## p=Strain energy+Work Potential

89.When do you say that a problem is plane-strain problem? If a long body of
90.When do you say that a problem is plane-stress problem? If a thin planar
91.In a 1D body what is the relationship between stress and strain:
92.In a 2D body what is the relationship between stress and strain:
93.In a 3D body what is the relationship between stress and strain:
94.What is the relationship between modulus of rigidity and modulus of elasticity
in terms of Poissons ratio? E = 2G(1+v)
95.In a 3D body what is the strain-displacement relationship in Z direction?
dw/dz
96.In a 3D body what is the strain-displacement relationship in Y direction?
dv/dy
97.In a 3D body what is the strain-displacement relationship in X direction?
du/dx
98.What are the three shear stresses in a 3D element?
99.In a 3D body what are the three normal stresses along the coordinate axis?
100.
Output of analysis of a 2D truss analysis by different engineers is Same
101.
Stresses are usually given in element local coordinates
102.
Displacement are usually given in global Cartesian coordinates
103.
Element stresses is the most important output in the analysis of most
of the engineering components
104.
Output of analysis of a continuum by different engineers Varies with
mesh
105.
For design check of any component, according to the design codes of
many countries, Maximum shear stress at a point is important.
106.
Local coordinate system used by user while modeling is same as the
coordinate system used for stress output May coincide sometimes
107.
Lengths of longest side and shortest side of a 2D or 3D element decide
the aspect ratio
108.
In consistent loads, end moment of a simply supported beam of length
L with a concentrated load P at the mid point is PL/8
109.
In statically equivalent loads, end moment of a simply supported beam
of length L with concentrated load P at the mid point is PL/4
110.
In consistent loads, free end moment of a cantilever of length L with
uniformly distributed load of value p is pL2/12
111.
In statically equivalent loads, free end moment of a cantilever of length
L with uniformly distributed load of value p is pL2/8
112.
Number of nodes along the side of a 2D or 3D element decide the
order of displacement polynomial
113.
Determinant of assembled stiffness matrix before applying boundary
conditions is zero
114.
Assembled stiffness matrix after applying boundary conditions is not
Singular
115.
A singular stiffness matrix means One or More dof are unrestrained

116.
Element formed with edges parallel to coordinate axes is called
multiplex element
117.
Elements having mid-side nodes only on some sides are called
transition elements
118.
Elements connecting lower order elements and higher order elements
in a mesh are called transition elements
119.
Displacement method of FEM for structural analysis gives stiffness
matrix
120.
Stiffness matrix approach is used in displacement method
121.
Prescribed loads can for input data in displacement method
122.
Primary variable in FEM structural analysis is displacement
123.
In analysis by FEM it is possible to consider a non-homogeneous
material by changing materials properties within an element No
124.
Transformation matrix relates material properties in element
coordinate system with structural coordinate system.
125.
Transformation matrix depends on element axes for all elements
126.
Consistent loads are based on energy equivalence
127.
More accurate solution is obtained when boundary conditions are
applied in elimination approach
128.
Error in finite element analysis is usually more with lower order
elements
129.
A coarse mesh gives less accurate results, in comparison with fine
mesh
130.
Right form of meshing depends on assessment of stress distribution in
the component
131.
Meshing a component with varying element sizes matching with an
estimation of stress distribution gives better results, compared to uniform
mesh
132.
Refining mesh for improving results, using higher order polynomial for
displacement function is called p-method
133.
Refining mesh for improving results, using increased number of
elements is called h-method
134.
Plate bending element is an extension of beam element
135.
Plate stress element is an extension of truss element
136.
Basic ideas of finite element method organized from advances in Air
craft structural analysis.
137.
The first book on finite elements by Zienkiewicz and Chung was
published in 1967.
138.
A body is said to be in equilibrium if the internal virtual work equals the
external virtual work for every kinematically admissible displacement field
139.
Galerkins method works directly from the differential equation and is
preferred to the Rayleigh-Ritz method for problems where a corresponding
function to be Minimized is not obtainable
140.
If the extreme condition is a minimum the equilibrium is stable
141.
The stress acting on the element volume dv then the volume dv
shrinks to a point; the stress tensor is represented by placing its components
in a 3X3 Symmetric matrix
142.
The solution by FEM is approximate
143.
Displacement method is based on minimum Potential energy

144.
On part of boundary, distributed force per unit area also called Traction
145.
Hrenikoff presented a solution of elasticity problems using the Frame
work method
146.
Engineering proportion of anisotropic material are Youngs Modulus &
Poissons ratio
147.
FEM is a generalization of Rayleigh Ritz method
148.
Truss element is in direct Tension or compression
149.
In a truss, it is required that all loads and reactions are applied only at
the Joints
150.
A truss structure consists only of Two-force member
151.
Two dimensional truss are also called as Plane trusses
152.
The main difference between the one-dimensional structure and truss
elements are by various orientations
153.
The term finite element was first coined and used by Clough in 1960
154.
Discrete analysis covers all 2D and 3D trusses and frames
155.
The basic ideas of finite element method organized in the year 1941
156.
In two dimensions, the problems are modelled as Plane stress and
Plane strain
157.
Galerkins method uses the set of governing equation in the
development of an Integral form
158.
Primary variable in FEM structural analysis is Displacement

Brief History

## This section presents a brief history of the finite element method as

applied to both structural and nonstructural areas of engineering and
to mathematical physics.
The modern development of the finite element method began in the
1940s in the field of structural engineering with the work by Hrennikoff
in 1941 and McHenry in 1943, who used a lattice of line (onedimensional) elements (bars and beams) for the solution of stresses in
continuous solids. In a paper published in 1943 but not widely
recognized for many years, Courant proposed setting up the solution of
stresses in a variational form.
Then he introduced piecewise interpolation (or shape) functions over
triangular subregions making up the whole region as a method to
obtain approximate numerical solutions.
In 1947 Levy developed the flexibility of force method, and in 1953 his
work suggested that another method (the stiffness or displacement
method) could be a promising alternative for use in analyzing statically
redundant aircraft structures. However, his equations were
cumbersome to solve by hand, and thus the method became popular
only with the advent of the high-speed digital computer.
In 1954 Argyris and Kelsey developed matrix structural analysis
methods using energy principles. This development illustrated the
important role that energy principles would play in the finite element
method.
The first treatment of two-dimensional elements was by Turner in 1956.
They derived stiffness matrices for truss elements, beam elements,
and two-dimensional triangular and rectangular elements in plane
stress and outlined the procedure commonly known as the direct
stiffness method for obtaining the total structure stiffness matrix.
Along with the development of the high-speed digital computer in the
early 1950s, the work of Turner et al. [8] prompted further

## development of finite element stiffness equations expressed in matrix

notation.
The phrase finite element was introduced by Clough in 1960 when both
triangular and rectangular elements were used for plane stress
analysis.
A flat, rectangular-plate bending-element stiffness matrix was
developed by Melosh in 1961. This was followed by development of
the curved-shell bending- element stiffness matrix for axisymmetric
shells and pressure vessels by Grafton and Strome in 1963.
Extension of the finite element method to three-dimensional problems
with the development of a tetrahedral stiffness matrix was done by
Martin in 1961, by Gallagher in 1962, and by Melosh in 1963.
Additional three-dimensional elements were studied by Argyris in
1964. The special case of axisymmetric solids was considered by
Clough and Rashid and Wilson in 1965.
Most of the finite element work up to the early 1960s dealt with small
strains and small displacements, elastic material behavior, and static
considered by Turner in 1960 and material nonlinearities by Gallagher
in 1962, whereas buckling problems were initially treated by Gallagher
Zienkiewicz extended the method to visco-elasticity problems in 1968.
In 1965 Archer considered dynamic analysis in the development of the
consistent-mass matrix, which is applicable to analysis of distributedmass systems such as bars and beams in structural analysis.
With Meloshs realization in 1963 that the finite element method could
be set up in terms of a variational formulation, it began to be used to
solve nonstructural applications. Field problems, such as determination
of the torsion of a shaft, fluid flow, and heat conduction, were solved
by Zienkiewicz and Cheung in
1965, Martin in 1968, and Wilson and Nickel in 1966.