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- Me 1401 - Finite Element Analysis 2Marks with answers
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- 15ME61DEC18-JAN19.pdf
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- S2-Finite Element Analysis for Geomechanics (517).Text.marked

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The basic ideas of finite element method organized from advances in Air craft

structural analysis.

2. The first book on finite elements by Zienkiewicz and Chung was published in

1967.

3. A body is said to be in equilibrium if the internal virtual work equals the

external virtual work for every Kinematically admissible displacement field.

4. every_

5. admissible displacement field :->Kinematic ally

6. Galerkin's method works directly from the differential equation and is

preferred to the Rayleigh-Ritz method for problems where a corresponding

function to be is Minimized not obtainable.

7. If the extreme condition is a Minimum the equilibrium is stable.

8. The Stress acting on the elemental volume dv then the volume dv shrinks to

a point; the stress-tensor is represented by placing its components in a

Symmetric Matrix.

9. The solution by FEM is Approximate

10.Displacement method is based on minimum Potential Energy

11.Hrenikoff presented a solution of elartity problems using the Frame Work

Method.

12.Engineering propertion of anisotropic material are Youngs Modulus and

Poissons ratio

13.FEM is a generalization of Rayleigh Method

14.Truss element is in direct Tension or Compression

15.In a truss, it is required that all loads and reactions are applied only at the

Joints

16.A truss structure consists only of Two force members

17.Two dimensional truss are also called as Plane Trusses

18.The main difference between the 1D structure and truss elements are by

various orientations

19.The term finite element was first coined and used by Clough in 1960.

20.Discrete analysis covers all 2D and 3D trusses & frames

21.Basic ideas of finite element method organized in the year 1941

22.In two dimensions, the problems are modelled as Plane stress and Plane

strain

23.Galerkins method uses the set of governing equation in the development of

an Integral Form

24.Primary variable in FEM structural analysis is Displacement

25.For a 2D body, the stresses, strains with initial strain are related as

=D ( 0 )

26.What is the size of the element body force vector fe of a 2D element is 6X1

27.The total number of shape functions in a Hermite shape function are 4

28.In a beam element, the hermite shape function is represented by an

expression of cubic order

29.What is the size of the element stiffness matrix K e of a beam element 4X4

30.In a beam element, the element displacement vector is

[ q1 q 2 q 3 q 4 ] =[ v 1 1 v 2 2 ]

31.In a beam element, what is the degree of freedom of each node 2

, M I is =

My

I

tranverse loading

34.In a quadratic element, what is the size of element body force vector, f e =

matrix of 3X1

35.In a quadratic element, what is the size of element Tractor force vector, T e =

matrix of 3X1

36.In a quadratic element, what is the size of Shape function matrix, N e = matrix

of 1X3

37.In a quadratic element, the shape function N 3 is denoted as (1+ )(1- )

38.In a quadratic element, the shape function N 2 is denoted as (1+ )(1- )

39.In a quadratic element, the shape function N 1 is denoted as (1+ )(1- )

40.In a quadratic element, what is the value of

at node 3 is zero

at node 2 is 1

at node 1 is -1

[ q1 q 2 q 3 ]

45.What is the value of deformation at fixed end of a cantilever beam when it is

subjected to point load at free end zero

46.For linear one dimensional problem, what is the size of the global stiffness

matrix when N denotes the number of nodes NXN

47.In a 1D problem, what is the value of integral of a shape function One

48.In a 1D problem, the element traction force vector, T e is given by

49.In a 1D problem, the element body force vector, f e is given by

50.In a 1D problem, what is the size of the element stiffness matrix, K is 2X2

51.In a 1D problem, what is the relationship between

, Bq is =Bq

B is 1X2

53.In a 1D problem, the element displacement vector q is denoted as q =

T

[ q1 q 2 ]

[ N1 N2]

55.In a 1D problem, the linear displacement field within the element can be

written in terms of the nodal displacement q 1 and q2 in matrix notation as u =

Nq

56.In a 1D problem, the linear shape function N 2 is denoted as (1+ )/2

57.In a 1D problem, the linear shape function N 1 is denoted as (1- )/2

coordinate,

changes from

-1 to 1

establishes local- global correspondence

60.In a 1D problem stepped bar with 4 steps is discretized into 4 linear elements

then what are the number of nodes present in the problem is 5

61.In a 1D problem stepped bar with 3 steps is discretized into 4 linear elements

then what are the number of nodes present in the problem is 4

62.In a 1D problem stepped bar with 2 steps is discretized into 4 linear elements

then what are the number of nodes present in the problem is 3

63.In a 1D problem, what is the degree of freedom(dof) of each node is One

64.For 1D problems, the differential volume dv cab be written as Adx

65.What is the nature of stress-strain curve of a cast iron material a straight line

66.For linear elastic materials, the strain energy per unit volume in the body is

2

67.Under plane strain condition the strain by its components is represented as

68.Under plane stress condition the stress by its components is represented as

69.The surface traction acting on a 3D body is represented by its components as

T=

[ T x , T y ,T z ]

[f x , f y , f z]

[ Px , P y , P z ]

73.What is the size of material matrix of a 3D body is 6X6

74.What is the engineering shear strain of a 3D body in YZ direction is

dv dw

+

dz dy

du dw

+

dz dx

du dv

+

dy dx

77.How 2D problems are modeled Modelled as plane stress and plane strain

78.What is a shear strain? Ratio of shear stress and shear modulus

79.What are the units for the coefficient of linear expansion? Per Degree 0C

80.What are isotropic materials? Material properties are constant in all directions

81.Define stress? Force per unit area

82.What is the traction force of a 1D body? Force per unit length

83.What is the traction force of a 2D body? Force per unit area

84.What is the Body force? Force per unit volume

85.In a plane strain condition Strains in Z-direction are zero

86.If a thin planar body is said to be in plane stress condition Stresses in Zdirection are zero

87.What is the Poissons ratio The ration of lateral strain to longitudinal strain

88.What is the potential energy of an elastic body?

89.When do you say that a problem is plane-strain problem? If a long body of

uniform cross-section is subjected to transverse loading along its length

90.When do you say that a problem is plane-stress problem? If a thin planar

body subjected to In-plane loading on its edge surface

91.In a 1D body what is the relationship between stress and strain:

92.In a 2D body what is the relationship between stress and strain:

93.In a 3D body what is the relationship between stress and strain:

94.What is the relationship between modulus of rigidity and modulus of elasticity

in terms of Poissons ratio? E = 2G(1+v)

95.In a 3D body what is the strain-displacement relationship in Z direction?

dw/dz

96.In a 3D body what is the strain-displacement relationship in Y direction?

dv/dy

97.In a 3D body what is the strain-displacement relationship in X direction?

du/dx

98.What are the three shear stresses in a 3D element?

99.In a 3D body what are the three normal stresses along the coordinate axis?

100.

Output of analysis of a 2D truss analysis by different engineers is Same

101.

Stresses are usually given in element local coordinates

102.

Displacement are usually given in global Cartesian coordinates

103.

Element stresses is the most important output in the analysis of most

of the engineering components

104.

Output of analysis of a continuum by different engineers Varies with

mesh

105.

For design check of any component, according to the design codes of

many countries, Maximum shear stress at a point is important.

106.

Local coordinate system used by user while modeling is same as the

coordinate system used for stress output May coincide sometimes

107.

Lengths of longest side and shortest side of a 2D or 3D element decide

the aspect ratio

108.

In consistent loads, end moment of a simply supported beam of length

L with a concentrated load P at the mid point is PL/8

109.

In statically equivalent loads, end moment of a simply supported beam

of length L with concentrated load P at the mid point is PL/4

110.

In consistent loads, free end moment of a cantilever of length L with

uniformly distributed load of value p is pL2/12

111.

In statically equivalent loads, free end moment of a cantilever of length

L with uniformly distributed load of value p is pL2/8

112.

Number of nodes along the side of a 2D or 3D element decide the

order of displacement polynomial

113.

Determinant of assembled stiffness matrix before applying boundary

conditions is zero

114.

Assembled stiffness matrix after applying boundary conditions is not

Singular

115.

A singular stiffness matrix means One or More dof are unrestrained

116.

Element formed with edges parallel to coordinate axes is called

multiplex element

117.

Elements having mid-side nodes only on some sides are called

transition elements

118.

Elements connecting lower order elements and higher order elements

in a mesh are called transition elements

119.

Displacement method of FEM for structural analysis gives stiffness

matrix

120.

Stiffness matrix approach is used in displacement method

121.

Prescribed loads can for input data in displacement method

122.

Primary variable in FEM structural analysis is displacement

123.

In analysis by FEM it is possible to consider a non-homogeneous

material by changing materials properties within an element No

124.

Transformation matrix relates material properties in element

coordinate system with structural coordinate system.

125.

Transformation matrix depends on element axes for all elements

126.

Consistent loads are based on energy equivalence

127.

More accurate solution is obtained when boundary conditions are

applied in elimination approach

128.

Error in finite element analysis is usually more with lower order

elements

129.

A coarse mesh gives less accurate results, in comparison with fine

mesh

130.

Right form of meshing depends on assessment of stress distribution in

the component

131.

Meshing a component with varying element sizes matching with an

estimation of stress distribution gives better results, compared to uniform

mesh

132.

Refining mesh for improving results, using higher order polynomial for

displacement function is called p-method

133.

Refining mesh for improving results, using increased number of

elements is called h-method

134.

Plate bending element is an extension of beam element

135.

Plate stress element is an extension of truss element

136.

Basic ideas of finite element method organized from advances in Air

craft structural analysis.

137.

The first book on finite elements by Zienkiewicz and Chung was

published in 1967.

138.

A body is said to be in equilibrium if the internal virtual work equals the

external virtual work for every kinematically admissible displacement field

139.

Galerkins method works directly from the differential equation and is

preferred to the Rayleigh-Ritz method for problems where a corresponding

function to be Minimized is not obtainable

140.

If the extreme condition is a minimum the equilibrium is stable

141.

The stress acting on the element volume dv then the volume dv

shrinks to a point; the stress tensor is represented by placing its components

in a 3X3 Symmetric matrix

142.

The solution by FEM is approximate

143.

Displacement method is based on minimum Potential energy

144.

On part of boundary, distributed force per unit area also called Traction

145.

Hrenikoff presented a solution of elasticity problems using the Frame

work method

146.

Engineering proportion of anisotropic material are Youngs Modulus &

Poissons ratio

147.

FEM is a generalization of Rayleigh Ritz method

148.

Truss element is in direct Tension or compression

149.

In a truss, it is required that all loads and reactions are applied only at

the Joints

150.

A truss structure consists only of Two-force member

151.

Two dimensional truss are also called as Plane trusses

152.

The main difference between the one-dimensional structure and truss

elements are by various orientations

153.

The term finite element was first coined and used by Clough in 1960

154.

Discrete analysis covers all 2D and 3D trusses and frames

155.

The basic ideas of finite element method organized in the year 1941

156.

In two dimensions, the problems are modelled as Plane stress and

Plane strain

157.

Galerkins method uses the set of governing equation in the

development of an Integral form

158.

Primary variable in FEM structural analysis is Displacement

Brief History

applied to both structural and nonstructural areas of engineering and

to mathematical physics.

The modern development of the finite element method began in the

1940s in the field of structural engineering with the work by Hrennikoff

in 1941 and McHenry in 1943, who used a lattice of line (onedimensional) elements (bars and beams) for the solution of stresses in

continuous solids. In a paper published in 1943 but not widely

recognized for many years, Courant proposed setting up the solution of

stresses in a variational form.

Then he introduced piecewise interpolation (or shape) functions over

triangular subregions making up the whole region as a method to

obtain approximate numerical solutions.

In 1947 Levy developed the flexibility of force method, and in 1953 his

work suggested that another method (the stiffness or displacement

method) could be a promising alternative for use in analyzing statically

redundant aircraft structures. However, his equations were

cumbersome to solve by hand, and thus the method became popular

only with the advent of the high-speed digital computer.

In 1954 Argyris and Kelsey developed matrix structural analysis

methods using energy principles. This development illustrated the

important role that energy principles would play in the finite element

method.

The first treatment of two-dimensional elements was by Turner in 1956.

They derived stiffness matrices for truss elements, beam elements,

and two-dimensional triangular and rectangular elements in plane

stress and outlined the procedure commonly known as the direct

stiffness method for obtaining the total structure stiffness matrix.

Along with the development of the high-speed digital computer in the

early 1950s, the work of Turner et al. [8] prompted further

notation.

The phrase finite element was introduced by Clough in 1960 when both

triangular and rectangular elements were used for plane stress

analysis.

A flat, rectangular-plate bending-element stiffness matrix was

developed by Melosh in 1961. This was followed by development of

the curved-shell bending- element stiffness matrix for axisymmetric

shells and pressure vessels by Grafton and Strome in 1963.

Extension of the finite element method to three-dimensional problems

with the development of a tetrahedral stiffness matrix was done by

Martin in 1961, by Gallagher in 1962, and by Melosh in 1963.

Additional three-dimensional elements were studied by Argyris in

1964. The special case of axisymmetric solids was considered by

Clough and Rashid and Wilson in 1965.

Most of the finite element work up to the early 1960s dealt with small

strains and small displacements, elastic material behavior, and static

loadings. However, large deflection and thermal analysis were

considered by Turner in 1960 and material nonlinearities by Gallagher

in 1962, whereas buckling problems were initially treated by Gallagher

and Padlog in 1963.

Zienkiewicz extended the method to visco-elasticity problems in 1968.

In 1965 Archer considered dynamic analysis in the development of the

consistent-mass matrix, which is applicable to analysis of distributedmass systems such as bars and beams in structural analysis.

With Meloshs realization in 1963 that the finite element method could

be set up in terms of a variational formulation, it began to be used to

solve nonstructural applications. Field problems, such as determination

of the torsion of a shaft, fluid flow, and heat conduction, were solved

by Zienkiewicz and Cheung in

1965, Martin in 1968, and Wilson and Nickel in 1966.

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