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THE SEARCH FOR BETTER HEALTH

(Last updated 5th May 2011 by SR/IR)

Contextual Outline
When physiological processes malfunction, the body tries to repair the damage. The
process is similar in all living things and it is only when the process fails to contain the
damage that disease can be recognised.
Humans have long recognised the symptoms of disease both in themselves and the
animals and plants around them. Since the beginnings of recorded history, they have
noted the signs that reveal that the body is malfunctioning. Increasing understanding of
the causes of disease together with accompanying advances in technology have
changed approaches to treatment and management of disease.
The search for measures to treat and manage diseases of humans and other organisms
continues and this search is paralleled by continued refinements in technology.
This module increases students understanding of the history, nature and practice of
biology, the applications and uses of biology, and the implications of biology for society
and the environment.
Discuss the difficulties of defining the terms health and disease.
Things to consider:
- What does discuss mean?
- Underline key words
- Be succinct
Defining the term health is not easy as there are many components which fall under
health and some of these components are very subjective. According to the World Health
Organisation, (WHO) health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well
being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. This basically means that good
health revolves around a biological, psychological and social well being.
Biological health: being active and free from pain.
Psychological health: feeling happy, not depressed.
Social well being: interrelating within the community.
Each of the above factors would all have slight different meanings to different people
making the term health harder to define.
Disease is also another word which is hard to define. Disease as a definition is a state of
impaired functioning by interfering with the structure of organs, tissues or cells or by
altering normal metabolism. This definition is subjective to the functioning of each
individual. Meaning that one person may feel that they are sick while another person
with the same symptoms does not feel sick.
Outline how the function of genes, mitosis, cell differentiation and specialisation assist in
the maintenance of health.
Things to consider:
- What does outline mean?
- Underline key words
- Ensure you write about each of the key components that assist in the maintenance
of health.

The function of genes, mitosis, cell differentiation and specialisation all assist in the
maintenance of health. They are outlined as follows:
Genes:
Genes assist in the maintenance of health by ensuring that the correct proteins are
produced in a cell. This enables all other cellular processes to continue and to maintain
health within the organism.
Mitosis:
Mitosis assists in the maintenance of health by ensuring that genetic material is copied
accurately when new cells are formed. These new genetically correct cells enable the
organism to grow as well as repair any damaged cells or tissue. This therefore maintains
health for the organism.
Cell differentiation/specialisation:
During the development of a cell the cell differentiates and becomes a specialised cell
for a specific function. Genes release certain proteins which enable the cell to have a
specialised function. Cell differentiation and specialisation is important in the
maintenance of health as these cells enable the organism to grow as well as repair
damaged cells or tissues. Cells may become specialised to fight of infection such as
macrophages.
Use available evidence to analyse the links between gene expression and maintenance
and repair of body tissues.
Things to consider:
- What does analyse mean?
- What is gene expression?
- Underline key words and understand what the question is asking before you
answer.
- Draw a link between gene expression and repair of body tissue.
Gene expression: is the entire process that takes the information contained in genes
on DNA and turns that information into proteins. (The process of transcription and
translation.)
To maintain a healthy lifestyle the appropriate genes during mitosis must be expressed.
If there is damage or no damage to cells or tissue it is still necessary for the appropriate
genes to be expressed efficiently in order for necessary compounds to be produced and
therefore a healthy existence.
Example:
During mitosis cells differentiate to have a specialised function. For example in order for
muscles to contract they need the proteins called actin and myosin. The gene
responsible for these proteins is switched on. The cell differentiates and becomes a
specialised muscle cell. This relates to gene expression and the repair of body tissue in
the sense that the gene responsible for the expression of actin and myosin was
triggered. This resulted in the development of a specialised muscle cell, which in turn
repaired the muscle tissue.
Distinguish between infectious and non infectious disease.
Things to consider:
- What does distinguish mean?
- What are infectious and non infectious diseases?

Be succinct

Health and Disease


HSC Core unit 3 The Search for Better Health (Supplementary notes compiled by IR 1/5/11)

Health
Disease

= state of physical, mental and social well-being


= any condition that impairs the normal functioning of an organism

Causes of Disease:
1) Infection by parasitic pathogens (or infective particles)
a) Microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoans or (prions, a
proteinaceous infective particle).
b) Macro organisms such as:
i) endoparasites (flukes, tapeworms, round worms)
ii) ectoparasites (lice, fleas, mosquitoes, ticks, mites).
2) Heredity
inherited on

-Chromosomal abnormalities, gene abnormalities, genetic diseases


autosomes or sex chromosomes.

3) Nutrition
insufficient

-malnutrition, vitamin deficiencies, mineral deficiency, excessive or


intake of food

(obesity, anorexia, bulimia)

4) Physiological malfunction

Congenital defect form birth, hormonal, nutritional imbalance,


cardiovascular disease, toxic carcinogens (cancer), pollutants & drugs,
degenerative ageing, physical damage from impacts or burns.
5) Environment
a) Pre-natal environment
i) Foetal abnormalities due to rubella in the mother
ii) Foetal alcohol syndrome
iii) Foetal heroin addiction
b) Post-natal environment
i) Stress related diseases (anxiety, hypertension, asthma, diabetes,
gastrointestinal ulcers etc)
ii) Sun damage (skin cancers, cataracts)
iii)
Noise damage (deafness)
6) Chemicals
a) Heavy metal poisoning (mercury, lead etc)
b) Drug abuse (tranquillizers, sedatives, narcotics such as morphine & heroin;
stimulants such as caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines & cocaine;
hallucinogens such as LSD etc; solvents and inhalants such as aerosols,
petrol, glues).
Non Infectious Diseases:

are caused by some factor other than a pathogen

Infectious Diseases: are caused by pathogens which invade the body then grow and
multiply in the tissues

Student worksheet
Health
= ........................................................................................................................................
Disease
= ........................................................................................................................................
Causes of Disease:
1)

Infection by

2) Heredity such as:

3) __________________ such as:

4) Physiological malfunction such as:

5) Environment
a) Pre-natal environment

b) Post-natal environment

2) Chemicals such as:

Non Infectious Diseases:


are caused by some factor other than
a ..............................................

Infectious Diseases:

are caused by ................................. which invade the body then grow


and multiply in the tissues

INFECTIOUS
Infectious diseases are caused by an
infecting organism which usually
invades the body.
Infecting organisms can microscopic
or macroscopic.
A pathogen is an example of an
infectious organism. They include;
prions, viruses, bacteria, protozoans
and fungi.

NON - INFECTIOUS
Non infectious diseases are not
caused by a pathogen and cannot be
passed on from person to person.
Non infectious disease are usually
the cause of genetic inheritance,
nutritional deficiency and
environmental factors. Examples
include Down syndrome (genetic),
anorexia (nutritional) and skin
cancer (environmental).

Explain why cleanliness in food, water and personal hygiene practices assist in control of
disease.
Things to consider:
- What does explain mean?
- Underline key words.
- Understand the question before answering
It is important that food, water and personal hygiene practices are maintained in order to
assist in control of disease. Food is easily contaminated by visible applications such as
dirt or insects or microscopic by micro organisms such as salmonella. Hygienic handling
of this food controls the spread of disease. Hygienic practices include; using clean
utensils, not sneezing/coughing over food, not using food that has fallen on the floor,
washing hands after being to the toilet, covering cuts and abrasions before preparing
food and always placing perishable foods in the fridge/freezer. If these general hygienic
practices were not followed populations could suffer from food poisoning and disease. It
is these simple practices that control disease. Water is easily contaminated by pathogens
such as Giardia and cryptosporidium. These pathogens are controlled by Sydney Water
by constant water testing as well as being filtered and chlorinated before reaching the
household. Sewage is also disposed of in a safe manner in order to control the spread of
disease. Personal hygiene refers to the nature of keeping oneself clean. This includes
washing hands after using the toilet, washing hands before preparing food, showering
regularly and washing hands after you have been in contact with something dirty or a
sick person. If this personal hygiene was not kept in order people would easily contract
disease from infectious pathogens. Therefore it is important to maintain cleanliness in
food, water and personal hygiene to assist in the control of disease.
Identify the conditions under which an organism is described as a pathogen.
Things to consider:
- What does identify mean?
- What is a pathogen?
An organism that causes disease is known as a pathogen. For the pathogen to cause
disease it must have the right conditions in order to multiply and transmit itself from
organism to organism.

Pathogens can come in the form of prions, viruses, bacteria, protozoans, fungi and
parasites. These pathogens can either be microscopic or macroscopic, meaning they can
be seen by the naked eye.

Pathogens can be transmitted in the following ways:


- Air
- Water
- Food
- Direct contact
- Vectors
Identify data sources, plan and choose equipment or resources to perform a first hand
investigation to identify microbes in food or in water.
Things to consider:
- What does identify, plan and choose mean?
- What are microbes?
- Ensure you plan your own investigation as it is a HSC requirement
Background:
Microbe an organism which is too small to be seen by the naked eye.
Streaking: Streaking is the technique whereby you use the inoculation loop to streak an
agar plate. Firstly the inoculation loop is placed in the blue flame of the Bunsen burner to
sterilise the inoculation loop. (Kill off any pathogens) The inoculation loop is then
swabbed across an area you are wishing to test, for example a piece of food or a water
sample. Then you open the agar plate at a 45 degree angle and swap in a zig zag pattern
in the middle of the agar. See p. 246 to 248.
AIM:
To identify a variety of microbes in food and water.
MATERIALS:
Sterile agar plates
Inoculation loops
Various water samples
Incubator
Bunsen Burner
Food samples
METHOD:
1. Collect a number of agar plates and place them under various conditions. For
example in the science lab, near a rubbish bin or outside on the school oval.
Expose each plate for the same amount of time. Keep one plate closed as a control
plate.
2. Collect your plates close them and seal them with sticky tape. Once closed ensure
you label your plates with your name, date and area of exposure.
3. Collect a number of agar plates to test the various water and food samples. Using
the streaking technique collect a sample from the food and water sample and
streak your various agar plates. Close your plate and label with your name, date
and food/water you exposed your plate to.
4. Invert your plates and incubate for 24 hours.
5. Once incubated observe your agar plates for bacterial colonies. Colonies can be
distinguished through their characteristics such as colour and texture. Count the
number of colonies and record your observations in the results table.

RESULTS:
NO. OF
COLONIES

LOCATION

COLOUR

TEXTURE

BRIEF DRAWING

Gather, process and analyse information from secondary sources to describe ways in
which drinking water can be treated and use available evidence to explain how these
methods reduce the risk of infection from pathogens.
Things to consider:
- What does gather, process and analyse mean?
- What does explain mean?
- Underline key words
- Understand what the question is asking before answering.
Water is treated to remove impurities and microbes from causing disease to the general
public. To prevent the spread of disease water companies take the following steps to
prevent the spread of disease:
- Coagulation and sedimentation
- Filtration
- Disinfection
Coagulation involves adding certain chemicals to the treated water such as alum. The
coagulating material causes dirt, plant debris and other organic matter to clump
together and form what is known as a floc. As the water flows through the tanks the floc
settles to the bottom and is removed.
Filters are used to remove small particles such as viruses and protozoans, for example
Giardia. Filters are usually comprised of a specialised membrane, a sand pebble mixture
or activated carbon.
The final step is to disinfect the water. Chlorine is the common chemical used in the
disinfection stage. Ozone and U.V. radiation can also be used. Fluoride in some countries
may be used to prevent tooth decay. Once disinfected, water is piped to homes and
businesses.
These are the main methods to reduce the risk of infections from drinking water. Not only
are these steps followed but Sydney Water also incorporates strict controls on N.S.W
drinking water. These include; fences around major dams to prevent contamination from
animals, adequate distance from farming communities and distance from sewerage
systems. These steps all prevent infection from pathogens.
Describe the contribution of Pasteur and Koch to our understanding of infectious
diseases.
Things to consider:
- What does describe mean?
- Who are Pasteur and Koch?
- Ensure you understand their work as scientists are regularly referred to in the HSC.
Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch played a pivotal role to our understanding of infectious
diseases. Louis Pasteur a French chemist discovered that most infectious diseases are
caused by micro organisms, or germs. This became known as Germ Theory. Through
Pasteurs research on fermentation he was able to identify and describe the micro
organisms that cause fermentation. During this research Pasteur also disproved the
theory of spontaneous generation.
Due to Pasteurs knowledge of microbes and fermentation he was involved in many
industries including the wine industry. Pasteur showed that microbes, which caused wine

to spoil, could be killed by heating the wine to 55oC. This process was also applied to milk
and beer and is now known as pasteurisation.
Pasteur also demonstrated that anthrax a disease that affected cattle, sheep and horses
was caused by a bacterium known as Bacillus anthracis. He developed a technique by
weakening a strain of this bacterium and injecting it into certain animals. On one
occasion he took 50 sheep and injected 25 of them with the weakened disease. Several
days later he injected all 50 of the sheep with a strong dose of the disease. Pasteur
predicted that 25 of the sheep would die. Subsequently 25 sheep did die and 25
survived. Today this process is commonly known as vaccination. Pasteur developed
many vaccines including vaccines for anthrax, chicken cholera and swine erysipelas.
Robert Koch was also heavily involved in microbial work, in particular anthrax. Koch was
successful in isolating the bacterium from the blood of dying animals. He examined the
blood under the microscope and identified active rod shaped cells and resting spores.
He concluded that all infected organisms contained these microbes, while healthy
organisms did not. Koch also found that if blood taken from an infected organism was
injected into another organism it would contract the disease. To prove that it was not
another component of the blood Koch extracted the bacteria only and injected it into a
healthy organism, subsequently causing the disease. From this research Koch provided
step by step guidelines to prove that a particular micro organism causes a particular
disease. These are known as Kochs postulates and are as follows:
1. The specific micro organism must be present in all infected organisms.
2. The specific micro organism must be isolated from the host and grown in a pure
culture.
3. A healthy organism is then injected with the micro organism. This organism must
develop the same symptoms as previous infected organisms.
4. The specific micro organism must be isolated from the second host and be the
same species of micro organism as the one originally injected.
It was through the work of Pasteur and Koch, which laid the foundations for scientists to
study micro organisms. This has led to a greater understanding of infection control and
hygienic practices.
Perform an investigation to model Pasteurs experiment to identify the role of microbes
in decay.
Things to consider:
- What does perform mean?
- What does identify mean?
Refer to page 260 to 261. Modelling Pasteurs experiment.
Distinguish between:
- Prions
- Viruses
- Bacteria
- Protozoans
- Fungi
- Macro parasites
And name one example of a disease caused by each type of pathogen.

Health and Disease


HSC Core unit 3 The Search for Better Health (Supplementary notes compiled by IR 1/5/11)

General Features of Pathogenic Organisms


Viruses
0.01 0.3m in size
Lack cell membrane & cell structure
3 types (animal viruses, plant viruses, bacterial viruses (bacteriophages))
Outer protein coat containing nucleic acid, varying structure (see p9 Sakker et al,
1998)
2 phase life cycle
o Exracellular phase exists as inert infective particle
o Intracellular phase replicates DNA or RNA in host
(see Fig 7.10 & 7.11 p. 355 BIF)
Fungi
3.0 - 10m diameter
Can be unicellular e.g. yeasts or
Multicellular such as moulds, mushrooms
o Filamentous
o Branching filamentous (hyphae, mycelium)
o Hyphae septate (cross walls) in most species. Cells may be uninucleate or
multinucleate
Most fungi produce spores either in sporangium (see p357 BIF) or at tips of
hyphae.
Cell wall usually of chitin (some have cellulose)
Heterotrophic (no chlorophyll), excrete enzymes to digest substrate externally
before absorption.
No roots, stems, leaves or vascular systems
Reproduce asexually, sexually or both
Tolerate 0 300C+, pH 2 9
Tinea Fig 7.6 p. 345 BIF, Ringworm Fig 7.15 p359 BIF
Bacteria
Procaryotic
0.5 5.0m size
Most are free living, many are commensalistic (living in or on organisms), and
some are parasites.
Varying shapes but all have same basic internal structure (no membrane bound
organelles, no true nucleus, cell membrane, cell wall, single strand DNA (nucleoid),
ribosomes, enzymes, cytoplasm)
Some have capsule (slimy covering layer around cell), flagella, pili, spores (see Fig
3.12 p. 266 BIF)
Classified according to:
o Staining ability (gram positive or gram negative)
o Shape (see figure 3.13 p266 BIF)
Spheres
Cocci
(a single cell)

Diplococcic (pairs of cells)


Streptococci
(chains of cells
Staphlococci
(clusters of cocci)
Tetrads
(groups of four)

Sarcinae
(packets of 8)
Rods called bacilli
Curves called spirilla
Comma shaped called vibrios
Reproduce asexually by binary fission, can multiply as short as every 10 minutes
i.e. in 24 hours (1440 minutes) one bacteria can multiply (2144) to 2.230072 X 1043
in number!

Protozoa
Unicellular
Mostly microscopic 2.0 - 1000m size
Cell membrane
No cell wall
Mostly heterotrophic
Classified on basis of locomotion (see figure 3.15 p267 & figure 3.16 p268 BIF)
o Flagellates e.g. Trypanosoma (African sleeping sickness)
o Ciliates
e.g. Paramecium
o Amoeboids e.g. Amoeba such as amoebic dysentry
o Sporozoans non-motile e.g. Plasmodium malaria, cryptosporidium
Reproduce asexually, sexually or both
Require moist habitat
May be:
o Free living (no host)
o Commensalistic (one benefits, host unharmed)
o Mutualistic (both benefit)
o Parasitic (one benefits at the expense of the other)
Prions
Infective agents that cause brain disease and death in mammals e.g. mad cow
disease, Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (CJD) in humans, scrapie in sheep.
Diseases caused by prions are called spongiform diseases because the brain tissue
becomes full of holes like a sponge.
Are proteins that have been altered from their normal shape, but are chemically
the same.
A prion can convert other similar but normal proteins into abnormal prion shape
(fig 3.8 p263 BIF)
Can be passed from one animal to another i.e. are infective.
Rickettsias (not in syllabus)
Smaller than bacteria 0.2 1.0m long but classified into a different group because
they cannot survive outside living cells
Procaryotic, gram negative, non-motile, non spore forming type of bacteria
Oval-shaped
Intracellular parasites
Have cell walls
Cannot grow outside of living cells
Transmitted by arthropods (fleas, ticks, lice)

Mycoplasmas (not in syllabus)


Smallest cellular creatures ever discovered, 0.1 0.2 m diameter
Have only half the amount of DNA of other prokaryotes
Are intracellular parasites of animals and plants
A genus of bacteria that lack cell walls thus shapes can be irregular
Cannot be killed with Penicillin as they do not have a peptidoglycan cell wall (Penicillin kills

bacteria by interfering with wall synthesis)


Can cause atypical pneumonia and respiratory disease in humans

Student Worksheet
Summary of some features if microorganisms
Microb Size
Structure
Method
Reproduc
e
(m)
of
tion
classificat
ion
Virus

Bacteri
a

Protoz
oa

Fungi

Prion

Transmiss
ion

Comment
examples

TYPE OF
PATHOGEN
Prions

DESCRIPTION

EXAMPLE(S)

A prion is a special type of protein that


causes the degeneration of brain
tissue.

Scrapie in sheep. Bovine


spongiform encephalitis
(mad cow disease) and
Creutzfeldt Jakob disease.

Viruses

Viruses are many times smaller then


the smallest bacterial cell. They are
borderline between living and non
living. This is due to a lack of
metabolism and life characteristics.
Viruses rely on the hosts individual cells
and nucleic acids to produce more of
the same virus.

AIDS, chicken pox, genital


herpes, cold sores, measles,
rubella, glandular fever,
hepatitis and influenza.

Bacteria

Bacteria are disease causing to the


host as they multiply rapidly in blood
and tissues. Bacteria also produce
toxins which are harmful to the hosts
body. Bacteria reproduce by binary
fission which can take as little as 10
minutes to as long as 24 hours.

Pneumonia, Cholera,
legionnaires disease,
diphtheria and tetanus.

Protozoans

Protozoans are classified by the way


African sleeping sickness,
they move. For example flagellates
Malaria, Amoebic dysentery
move by using a whip like structure
and giardiasis.
called flagellum. Ciliates move by using
tiny hairs called cilia, pseudopods use
feet like structures which are
extensions of the cytoplasm and
sporozoa have no structures for motion.
Protozoa are mainly found in water.

Fungi

Fungi can either be caused by


Candidiasis (thrush),
saprophytes, the fungi you find on dead athletes foot.
plant or animal tissue or parasitic fungi
such as athletes foot. (Causes flaky,
itchy dry skin.)

Macro parasites

Macro - parasites can either be external


parasites (ectoparasites) or internal
parasites (endoparasites).

Fascioliasis, Schistosomiasis,
hydatid disease, taeniasis,
enterobiasis, scabies, house
dust (mites).

Some common diseases caused by microorganisms


Viruses
Influenza
Common cold
Cold sores
Genital herpes
Chicken pox
Shingles
Small
pox
(eradicated)
German
measles
(rubella)
Measles
Mumps
Glandular fever
Hepatitis A, B, C
Poliomyelitis
Ross river fever
Encephalitis
Viral meningitis
Viral conjunctivitis
Warts
Yellow fever
AIDs

Bacteria
Diphtheria
Whooping cough
Tetanus
Tuberculosis (TB)
Syphilis
Gonorrhoea
Cholera
Legionnaires
disease
Salmonella
(food
pois.)
Botulism
(food
pois.)
Gas gangrene
Gastroenteritis
Rheumatic fever
Scarlet fever
Typhoid fever
Bacterial meningitis
Bacterial
conjunctivitis
Golden staph (food
pois)
Domestic animals
Bubonic
plague
Foot
&
mouth (bacillis)
disease
Brucellosis
Blue tongue
Dysentery
Rinderpest
(bacterial)
Distemper
Pneumonia
Rabies
(bacterial)
Erysipelas
Impetigo
Leprosy
Campylobacter
Shigella
Yaws
Yersinia
Tonsillitis
Anthrax

Fungi
Tinea
Candidiases
(Thrush)
Ringworm
Dandruff

Prions
Mad cow disease,
Creutzfeldt-Jacob
disease (CJD) in
humans
Scrapie in sheep.

Protozoa
Malaria
African sleeping
sickness
Amoebic dysentery
Chagas disease
Giardia (flagellate
diarrhoea)
Cryptosporidium
Cyclospora
Leishmaniasis
Toxoplasmosis
Rickettsias &
mycoplasmas
Trachoma
Venereal disease
Forms of pneumonia
Typhus

Table 1: Diseases caused by viruses


Viral
Disease
s
AIDS
(acquired
immune
deficienc
y
syndrom
e)

Cause
HIV
(human
immune
deficien
cy virus)

Transmission
by direct contact
of body fluids,
e.g. through
sexual contact or
blood transfusion
or dirty needles
used by drug
addicts

chicken
pox

herpes
varicella
-zoster
virus

cold
sores

herpes
simplex
type 1
virus

genital
herpes

herpes
simplex
type 2
virus

air; skin contact;


the placenta via
the foetus;
indirect contact
(bedding etc.)
direct skin
contact; indirect
contact through
bed linen, towels
etc.
direct contact
during sexual
intercourse or at
birth

measles

morbilli
virus

in air droplets

rubella
(German
measles)

rubella
virus

glandular
fever

EpsteinBarr
virus
hepatitis
A virus

direct contact
(touching);
indirect contact
(for example,
bedding); in air
(coughing,
sneezing); via
placenta to foetus
direct contact
including saliva

infective
hepatitis
(hepatitis
A)

hepatitis
B

hepatitis
B virus

contaminated
food or water

sexual
intercourse;
contaminated
injection needles

Symptoms
fatigue, loss of
appetite and
weight;
diarrhoea;
infections and
other diseases
such as Kaposis
sarcoma (a skin
cancer)
pink spots that
become itchy,
blister and burst
sores on mouth
or lips that form
blisters
sores on the
genital area

rash on body;
nausea;
headache; fever
sore throat; fever;
headache; rash
(rash less severe
than measles)

fatigue;
headaches; limb
pains
fever alternated
with shivering;
pains in limbs;
jaundice
(yellowing of
skin); fatigue;
headache
nausea; fatigue;
jaundice

Treatment and control


treatment AZT and other drugs
(not curative)
control change of lifestyle
among promiscuous individuals
and drug addicts

treatment antibodies are


produced to confer natural
immunity, calamine lotion
reduces the itchiness
control isolation of the patient
treatment use of mouth-washes;
ointments (anti-viral) control
avoidance of direct contact
during attacks, vaccine (a
recent development)
treatment the drug acyclovir will
reduce the severity of attacks
control avoidance, e.g. sexual
contact during attacks; good
diet and rest; vaccine (recently
developed)
treatment no drugs available;
adequate rest for patient control
vaccination
treatment fluids, analgesics, to
relieve or reduce pain
control isolation of patients;
immunisation especially of
teenage girls

treatment no drugs available;


adequate rest for patient control
isolation of patients
treatment no drugs available;
adequate rest for patient control
isolate patient; vaccine

treatment no drugs available


control clean injection needles;
screen blood donors; vaccine

influenza

influenz
a virus
there
is a
family of
these
viruses

in air from
sneezing,
coughing or
breathing

headache; pain in
limbs; respiratory
tract infection;
fever

treatment rest; analgesics


control precautions by infected
people when sneezing and
coughing; vaccines are effective
against some strains

Table 2: Diseases caused by bacteria


Disease
Cause
Transmissio
n
pneumonia Diplococcus
in air from
pneumoniae; or
sneezing and
Streptococcus
coughing
lung congestion
pneumoniae
(bacteria)

Symptoms

Treatment and control

f ever;
coughing lung
congestion

treatment penicillin and


other antibiotics
control isolation of patients

cholera

Vibrio cholera
(bacterium)

in water
contaminate
d with
sewage; in
contaminate
d food

severe
diarrhoea and
dehydration

treatment replacement of
water and salts; drugs such
as tetracycline and
chloramphenicol
control purification of water;
food; good
sewerage system;
vaccination

legionnaire
s disease

Legionella

Through airconditioning
systems

Fever,
coughing lung
congestion

Treatment antibiotics
rifampicin and erythromycin
Control regular sterilisation
of air-conditioning systems;
isolation of patients

diphtheria

Corynebacterium
diptheriae

Direct or
indirect
contact

Spots on
throat and
tonsils;
headache;
vomiting

Treatment: drugs and


antibiotics
Control: isolation of patients;
immunisation especially of
children

Table 3: Diseases caused by protozoans


Disease
Cause
Transmissio
n
African
Trypanosoma
intermediate
sleeping
species
host is the
sickness
(protozoan)
tsetse fly
which
transfers the
pathogen to
blood when
it bites
humans
malaria
Plasmodium
by the vector
species
the
(protozoan)
Anopheles
mosquito

amoebic
dysentery

Entamoeba
histolytica
(protozoan)

giardiasis

Giardia lamblia
(protozoan)

unhygienic
food and
water
supplies;
uncooked
food
unhygienic
food and
water
supplies;
uncooked
food

Table 4: Diseases caused by fungi


Disease
Cause
Transmission
candidiasis yeast
C. albicans occurs
(thrush)
(Candida
naturally in human
albicans)
tissues; if the
competition from
other natural
microbes is upset it
can cause
symptoms; it can
be transmitted
from a vaginal
infection in the
mother to the baby
at birth
athletes
fungus
direct contact
foot
(Tinea
(touching); indirect
pedis)
contact through
use of towels,
showers, swimming
pools

Symptoms

Treatment and control

fever,
headache;
enlarged
lymph glands;
drowsiness;
coma

treatment drugs control


eradicate tsetse fly;
protection of humans
against tsetse flies; early
diagnosis and treatment;
perhaps a vaccine in the
future

fever
alternating
with shivering;
anaemia

treatment chloroquine and


other drugs control
elimination of mosquitoes
breeding placesusually
ponds and lakes;
eradication of mosquitoes;
use of preventive drugs in
humans; precautions such
as clothing, mosquito nets
treatment drugs e.g.
antibiotics, including sulfa
drugs control eradication of
flies that spread the
disease; hygiene in food
handling
treatment anti-protozoan
drugs control hygiene in
food handling; proper
treatment of drinking water

diarrhoea;
nausea;
vomiting;
fever
diarrhoea;
nausea;
vomiting;
bloating;
flatulence

Symptoms
white patches
in mouth or
itchiness in
the vaginal
area or
inflamed skin

Treatment and control


treatment specific antifungal chemicals
control keeping susceptible
areas of the body clean
and dry; altering whatever
causes the imbalance
e.g. oral contraceptives

itching and
blisters
between
toes; skin
peels and
cracks;

treatment anti-fungal
chemicals taken orally or
applied externally
control care in drying
between the toes after
bathing;

secondary
bacterial
infections
are possible in
the cracks

infected individuals should


avoid sharing towels etc.

Table 5: Some diseases caused by macroscopic parasites


Disease
Cause
Transmissi
Symptoms
on
facioliasis
Fasciola hepatica
through
haemorrhagin
(sheep liver (liver fluke)
plants or
g of liver
disease)
grass in
tissue; bile
damp areas
duct blockage;
that contain
abdominal
the cysts
pain; anaemia
schistosomi
asis (blood
fluke
disease,
sometimes
called
bilharzia)

Schistosoma
(blood fluke)
there are a few
different species

from water
supplies that
are
contaminate
d with the
cysts

loss of weight;
diarrhoea;
anaemia;
abdominal
pain; itchy
skin and rash

hydatid
disease

Echinococcus
granulosus
(tapeworm)

by touching
infected
dogs hair or
faeces and
transferring
the eggs to
the mouth

taeniasis
(tapeworm
disease)

Taenia solium
(pork tapeworm)
or Taenia saginata
(beef tapeworm)

by
undercooked
, infected
pork or beef

anaemia;
pressure on
internal
organs;
severe pain
and severe
shock if the
cysts burst;
death in
severe cases
loss of weight;
possibly
abdominal
pain

enterobiasis
(threadwor
m disease)

Enterobiasis
vermicularis
(threadworm)

scabies

Sarcoptes scabei
(itch mite)

house dust
mite asthma

Dermatophagoide
s usually by
indirect contact
pteronyssinus
the through bed
linen, carpets,

from bed
linen or
other items
that contain
the eggs
by direct
skin contact
from infected
people or
indirect
contact
through bed
linen
allergic
reaction;
coughing;
sneezing
bronchial
congestion

restlessness
at night; anal
itchiness
severe itching

treatment
some drugs
used in
treating
allergies are
useful control

Treatment and control


treatment the drug
bithionol control
eradication of fresh water
snails; proper water and
sewerage systems; clean
water troughs for sheep;
care by humans with wet
grass or plants
treatment there are drugs
that are effective if the
disease is diagnosed early
control proper water and
sewerage systems;
treatment of infected
people; eradication of fresh
water snails
treatment there are no
known drugs to cure this
disease
control worm treatment for
dogs; proper hygiene when
handling dogs; thorough
cooking of meat for dog
food; early treatment and
prevention of the disease in
cattle and pigs
treatment the drug
miclosamide control
thorough cooking of pork
and beef; early treatment
and prevention in cattle
and pigs; strict abattoir
inspection of meat
treatment combantrin
(taken orally); family
treatment recommended
control strict hygiene with
bed linen, towels etc.
treatment external
application of chemical to
the skin (family treatment
recommended)
control strict hygiene with
bed linen etc.; early
treatment of infection
Treatment some drugs used
in treating allergies are
useful
Control regular vacuuming,
airing bedding; use antiallergen spray

house dust mite


house dust

regular
vacuuming,
airing
bedding; use
of antiallergen spray

Identify the role of antibiotics in the management of infectious disease.


Things to consider:
- What does identify mean?
- What are antibiotics and what are their uses?
The chief role of antibiotics is to destroy or inhibit the growth of bacteria. They are
special types of chemicals which act selectively on invading pathogens without affecting
the host. They only work on bacterial infections, not viruses.
Different types of antibiotics target different types of bacteria. Broad - Spectrum,
antibiotics act on a large range of bacteria while narrow spectrum, antibiotics act on a
small range of bacteria.
Antibiotics work at a cellular level. They interfere with the development of the bacteria
by either damaging or destroying the bacterial cell. For example penicillin has a special
ring shaped molecule which gives it bactericidal properties. This affects the formation of
the bacterias cell wall.

Gather and process information to trace the historical development of our understanding
of the cause and prevention of malaria.
HISTORY SHOWING THE DEVELOPMENT OF OUR UNDERSTANDING OF MALARIA
Early 19th Century: Cause of malaria unknown. Antimalarial properties found on
cinchona tree. (Quinine)
1880: First malaria parasite seen in blood by Charles Laveran.
End of the 19th Century: Connection between mosquito and malaria parasite made by
Ronald Ross. Found that mosquitoes carrying the disease infected volunteers who were
bitten by the mosquitoes.
1898: Ross describes the life cycle of the malaria parasite.
The Beginning of the 20th Century: Chemical nature of quinine determined which led
to the synthesis of drugs. Most effective was chloroquin. Continued use of drugs led to
resistance in the malarial parasite.
1940s: Evidence to suggest that people with one gene for sickle cell anaemia are
more resistant to malaria due to shape of their red blood cells.
1990s 2000: Continued research to produce a vaccine.
LIFECYCLE OF MALARIAL PARASITE

Firstly a female anopheles mosquito bites a human using their feeding tube or stylet. On
the stylet are many sporozoites. These sporozoites make there way into the bloodstream.
The sporozoites need to develop. This is achieved if the sporozoites make it to the liver.
Once the sporozoites make it to the liver they are supplied with nutrients to grow and
divide. This is known as asexual reproduction and each sporozoite produces 16 smaller
spherical merozoites. They are released into the blood plasma where the merozoites
invade red blood cells. The red blood cells become so full of merozoites that they burst
causing waste product to enter the bloodstream. This causes symptoms such as a fever.
Some merozoites develop into female and male gametocytes. If a mosquito feeds on a
human suffering from malaria these gametocytes maybe transferred into the mosquito.
These gametocytes become gametes in gametes in the mosquito, they replicate and
eventually produce sporozoites, and so the cycle continues.
PREVENTION OF MALARIA
Anti Malarial drugs administered before visiting endemic areas.
Prevention aims to keep the disease at a minimum.
Breeding grounds of the vector maybe destroyed.
Draining of swamps and using insecticides.
Development of vaccines.
Genetic engineering of mosquitoes to develop individuals who will resist the
parasite.
These are some of the measures to prevent the spread of malaria.

Process information from secondary sources to discuss problems relating to antibiotic


resistance.
Things to consider:
- What does process mean?
- Always refer to antibiotic resistance.
Identify defence barriers to prevent entry of pathogens in humans.
- Skin
- Mucous membranes
- Cilia
- Chemical Barriers
- Other Body Secretions
Things to consider:
- What does identify mean?
- Be succinct; write briefly about each defence barrier.
The body has numerous defence barriers which prevent the entry of pathogens into the
body. They are as follows:
Skin
-

Has a tough coating


Contains chemicals that destroy invading organisms
Certain bacteria on skin destroy incoming pathogens
Dry, pathogens rely on damp areas to grow

Mucous membranes
- Production of mucus carries pathogens out of the body
- Nasal passage traps and secretes pathogens
- Respiratory system produces mucus. Reflex actions such as coughing eject the
pathogen from the body
- Urogenital surfaces can produce mucus to excrete any invading pathogens
Cilia
- Found in the nasal, throat, ear and respiratory system.
- Consists of tiny hairs
- With the help of mucus trap pathogens and secrete them out of the body
Chemical Barriers
- Stomach acid provides a lethal environment for pathogens
- Saliva and tears contain lysosomes which destroy invading pathogens
Other Body Secretions
- Other body secretions include; bacteria in intestines, wax in ears, urine and sweat.
These all prevent invading pathogens.

Health and Disease


HSC Core unit 3 The Search for Better Health (Supplementary notes compiled by IR 1/5/11)

Pattern of Infectious Disease:


1) Entry into body
2) Incubation
- the period from entry of the pathogen until the symptoms
appear
3) Appearance of symptoms
- nausea, fever, etc
4) Crisis
- recovery or death
5) Convalescence
- the symptoms disappear and the patient recovers
Treatment:
Treat symptoms only, whilst allowing the body to produce its own antibodies to
overcome the infection
Medicine to attack microorganisms e.g. antibiotics or sulfoamide drugs for bacterial
infections
Aid the bodys natural defence mechanisms by injecting antibodies or antitoxins so
as to render harmless either the pathogen or its toxins, e.g. antitoxin to treat
diphtheria.
Control:

Reduce source of infection (isolate, quarantine...)


Reduce transmission of infection (interrupt life cycle of pathogens)
Protect susceptible people (immunisation, vaccinate to help body defences
Education to increase awareness
Provide clean water, clean food and effective sewage treatment
Sterilise or disinfect contaminated articles
Personal hygeine
Screening of possible carriers of disease

Identify antigens as molecules that trigger the immune response.


Things to consider:
- What does identify mean?
- What is an antigen?
- What is an immune response?
An antigen is a molecule that causes an immune response within the body. Antigens are
carried on pathogens. When the pathogen enters the body, the body recognises the
antigen and begins to produce an immune response.

Explain why organ transplants should trigger an immune response.


Things to consider:
- What does explain mean?
- Relate answer to antigens
- What is an immune response?
The body immune response is due to the invasion of foreign material. In organ
transplants diseased tissue is replaced by healthy tissue such as kidneys, liver, heart,
lungs and bone marrow. These healthy tissues are foreign to the body and contain
certain proteins (antigens) that are recognised as foreign. The patients body then
stimulates the production of antibodies that attack and possibly destroy the new tissue.
To prevent the rejection of the organ transplant the patients immune system is
suppressed. This is due to the fact that blood drains into the recipients circulation; the
body recognises the foreign tissue cells and produces antibodies in response.
Rejection is reduced by matching the transplanted tissues proteins as closely as possible
with the recipients proteins. Anti rejection drugs are also administered. These suppress
the immune response and prevent rejection of the organs. e.g. Antilymphocyte Globulin
(ALG)

Identify defence adaptation including:


- Inflammation response
- Phagocytosis
- Lymph System
- Cell death to seal of pathogens
Things to consider:
- What does identify mean?
- Consider a suitable method of answering this question such as a table.
DEFENCE
ADAPTATIO
N

DESCRIPTION

Inflammation
response

When body tissue has been invaded by a pathogen, the area of


infection may become hot, red, swollen and painful. The blood
circulation to that area is increased and the blood vessels dilate
leaking more blood in the infected area. This response helps confine
the pathogen, while the increase in blood volume leads to an
increase of white blood cells which help destroy the invading
pathogen. This process also allows for the quick removal of dead
cells as well as the removal of toxins so that normal body function
can occur. (Histamines and prostaglandins are chemicals which
mediate the inflammation response.)

Phagocytosis

Phagocytes are a special type of white blood cell which actively


moves from the blood where they ingest and destroy any foreign
materials such as pathogens. This is known as phagocytosis. In
acute inflammation which only lasts for a few hours or days, the
main phagocytes used are called neutrophils. In chronic
inflammation which lasts for weeks or months the main phagocyte
used are called macrophages. This defence adaptation allows for the
efficient decomposition and destruction of invading pathogens.

Lymph
system

The lymph system is a network similar to that of our own circulatory


system. This system transports a special fluid known as lymph
similar to that of extracellular fluid. Lymph is transported away from
the cells towards the heart. At various points around the body are
smaller vessels called lymph nodes. Lymph nodes are responsible for
the production of lymphocytes. These lymphocytes are added to the
lymph as it flows through the body. Lymph nodes are also
responsible for engulfing and destroying bacteria and other foreign
material. Lymph nodes become swollen or inflamed when fighting off
infection due to the toxins released by the bacteria. Lymphocytes
are white blood cells the main two types being T cells and B cells.

Cell death to
seal of
pathogens

Sometimes the body will seal of a group of pathogens to form a cyst.


Part of this cyst will involve a group of cells. These cells are
sacrificed so that the pathogen can be destroyed.

Gather, process and present information from secondary sources to show how a named
disease results from an imbalance of microflora in humans.
Things to consider:
- What do gather, process and present information mean?
- Ensure you used a named disease
- What is microflora?
- Page 282
Microflora in humans are microbes which live in the human body without causing
disease. This is a symbiotic relationship whereby the digested food is processed by the
microbe in return for essential vitamins.
An example of a named disease which results in an imbalance of microflora in humans is
candidiasis. The following information outlines how the imbalance of Candida affects a
human:
- Candidiasis is the over population of the yeast/fungus Candida albicans.
- This yeast like organism is highly present in our mucous membranes.
- Candida albicans is controlled by lactobacilli and bifidobacteria largely found in the
intestinal tract.
- When lactobacilli and bifidobacteria numbers drop there is a sudden increase in
the numbers of Candida in the gastrointestinal tract.
- Candida then changes from a yeast like form to a fungal form. This fungal form has
root like structures which enter the lining of the gastrointestinal tract.
- This weakens the gastrointestinal tract and substances usually confined to the
gastrointestinal tract leak into the bloodstream.
- Partly digested proteins enter the bloodstream which results in the production of
antibodies from the immune system.
- This usually results in severe allergic reactions including cerebral (brain) allergies.
- Rapidly growing populations of Candida can almost relocate anywhere in the body
causing numerous amounts of problems. In children an excess of Candida usually
results in the common disease known as thrush.
It is evident that through a slight imbalance in microflora in humans may result in the
emergence of disease.

(http://www.wadsworth.org/databank/hirez/wongp1.gif)
MICROGRAPH OF CANDIDA ALBICANS

Identify the components of the immune response:


- antibodies
- T cells
- B cells
Things to consider:
- What does identify mean?
- Write brief descriptions of the above components of the immune response.
- Page 291
COMPONENTS
OF IMMUNE
RESPONSE
ANTIBODIES

DESCRIPTION
Antibodies also known as immunoglobulins are produced in
the lymph nodes by B cells in response to a specific antigen.
Antibodies are special proteins which circulate in the blood
plasma and combine with B cells to destroy antigens. This is
called antibody mediated immunity.

T CELLS

T cells are a type of lymphocyte which form in the bone


marrow and mature in the thymus gland. They remain
inactive while travelling around the body until they come into
contact with an antigen. The T cell binds onto the antigen and
makes copies of itself. T cells control the cell mediated
response whereby various types of T cells destroy the antigen
or foreign cell.

B CELLS

B cells develop and mature in the bone marrow. B cells are


activated in the blood when there is a presence of an antigen.
Activated B cells clone themselves into either plasma cells
which send antibodies into the blood or into memory cells.

Describe and explain the immune response in the human body in terms of:
- interaction between B and T lymphocytes
- the mechanisms that allow interaction between B and T lymphocytes
- the range of T lymphocyte types and the difference in their roles
Things to consider:
- What does describe and explain mean?
- Identify the best way to answer this question.
- Understand what you are writing before you write it down.
The immune system and the components within the immune system are constantly
interacting with one another to provide the best defence against invading organisms.
One such interaction is the interaction between B and T lymphocytes (cells). T cells and
B cells work together by attacking the same antigen. Helper T cells, a special type of T
cell, stimulate the cloning of T cells and B cells to help destroy invading pathogens. T
cells can also trigger an immune response in B cells by secreting a substance known as a
cytokine. This special protein signals other cells to trigger an immune response. Although
B cells and T cells are constantly interacting there are certain mechanisms in place which
prevent these cells from attacking one another. For example if a B cell is expressing an
antigen on its membrane it is not destroyed by another T cell. The body has adapted a
mechanism whereby cells are capable of recognising self molecules. This prevents the
unnecessary destruction of the bodies own cells.
There are a range of T cells that all have a specialised function in preventing the spread
of disease in the human body. Cytotoxic T cells destroy cells that contain foreign
antigens. These non self molecules such as bacteria are destroyed by cytotoxic T cells
and are removed from the body. Helper T cells secrete a chemical known as interleukin
which regulates the function of T and B cells. Suppressor T cells regulate the activity of
B and T cells. For example cytotoxic T cells are suppressed once they have carried out
their role.
Outline the way in which vaccinations prevent infection.
Things to consider:
- What does outline mean?
- What are vaccinations?
- Be succinct
The process of vaccination also known as immunisation is the process of making people
resistant to an infection caused by a pathogen. Vaccines can be administered in two
ways, one via injection the other via an oral dose. Vaccines are a preparation of a
weakened or dead infective micro organism. This dose is injected into the patient with
the intention of eliciting an immune response to the disease without causing any
symptoms. Some vaccines are only administered once as the patient will have immunity
for life, for example the measles vaccine. Other types of vaccines require a booster,
vaccine which is administered 5 10 years after the original vaccination. This increases
the immunity against the disease, a type of this vaccination is tetanus. Overall
vaccinations prevent disease as they enable our body to register an immune response
and build up memory cells which in turn will fight the disease if the person is ever
exposed to that disease.

Outline the reasons for the suppression of the immune response in organ transplant
patients.
Things to consider:
- What does outline mean?
- Relate answer to the immune system.
- Understand what the question is asking before you answer.
Suppression of the immune response is a necessity after an organ transplant in order for
the new organ not to be rejected by the recipient. As some blood from the donated organ
enters the blood stream of the recipient, the body recognises the foreign tissue cells and
begins to produce antibodies in response. A number of cells such as cytotoxic T cells are
produced which could affect the implanted tissue.
The rejection of this organ is reduced by closely matching the donor organs proteins to
the recipients proteins. By doing this it allows the recipient a higher chance of accepting
the organ. The immune system is also suppressed after an organ transplant.
Antilymphocyte globulin (ALG) is a drug that suppresses the immune response. This drug
allows the recipient a greater chance of accepting the organ rather then destroying it.
A balance between suppressive drugs and monitoring increases the chances of the organ
transplant being a success.
Identify and describe the main features of epidemiology using lung cancer as an
example.
Things to consider:
- What does identify and describe mean?
- What is epidemiology?
- Be succinct.
Epidemiology is the study of disease that affects many people. These types of studies
describe the patterns and causes of certain diseases within a population. The diseases
studied can be infectious diseases such as influenza and non infectious diseases mainly
caused by lifestyle and environmental factors. Epidemiological studies have been able to
establish links between smoking and lung cancer. With this knowledge government
agencies can take preventative measures such as warnings on smoking packets or
advertisements which show the adverse effects smoking has on the human body. It is
through epidemiology scientists have been able to draw links between disease and
certain underlying factors which in turn gives rise to treatment, control and prevention.
Identify causes of non infectious disease using an example from each of the following
categories:
- inherited disease
- nutritional deficiencies
- environmental diseases
Non infectious disease is caused by many underlying factors. These factors include the
malfunction of the physiology, metabolism or structures of the body. These malfunctions
lead to the deprivation and disease for the human body. Non infectious disease falls
into three main categories. Firstly inherited disease is a non infectious disease passed
on from generation to generation through the genetic code of the family. An example of
an inherited disease is Down syndrome. Secondly nutritional deficiencies cause non

infectious disease by either malnutrition (nutrients totally unbalanced) or under nutrition (not enough food). Some examples of nutritional deficiencies include anorexia
nervosa, kwashiorkor and Aboriginal nutritional diseases. Thirdly environmental factors
cause non infectious disease by polluting the body with unnecessary and often
poisonous substances. Such substances include alcohol, tobacco, drugs and heavy
metals. These poisons can cause disease such as heavy metal poisoning, cirrhosis of the
liver or lung cancer.
Gather, process and analyse information to identify the cause and effect relationship of
smoking and lung cancer.
Ever since the introduction of tobacco and smoking, there has always been the
conception that smoking causes lung cancer. This was thought to be true as early as the
1920s. Subsequently epidemiological studies were performed between the 1930s
1960s to test whether or not smoking was the cause of lung cancer. Two significant
studies were produced by Doll (1947) and Hill (1951).
Doll used a case study report by comparing two different groups of people. The first
group of people all had lung cancer while the other group had various diseases. Both of
these groups were asked about their smoking habits. What Doll found was that a large
percentage of the lung cancer patients were smokers while the control group a smaller
percentage were smokers and it was quite possible that their illness was caused by
smoking as well. Dolls results were as follows:
CASES
TEST GROUP
CONTROL GROUP
Smokers
1350
1296
Non Smokers
7
61
Total
1357
1357
Hills cohort study involved a number of doctors across Great Britain. The study involved
the doctors answering a number of questions on their smoking habits. Those doctors who
were smokers were part of the smoking group, while those doctors who did not smoke
were part of the control group. Both groups were followed over a 10 year period. During
this period 133 people died. Of those 130 of them were smokers. The results were as
follows:
DAILY NUMBER OF
CIGARETTES SMOKED
0
1 14
15 24
25+
TOTAL

DEATHS FROM LUNG CANCER


3
22
54
57
133

The above table indicates that the greater the number of cigarettes smoked a day the
greater chance of death by lung cancer.
Subsequently many more epidemiological studies have taken place to illustrate the
cause and effect relationship between smoking and lung cancer. This has lead to a
greater awareness of the risk factors involved with smoking.
Pages 309 to 312 contain further information about smoking and lung cancer.

Identify data sources, plan and perform a first hand investigation or gather information
from secondary sources to analyse and present information about the occurrence,
symptoms, cause, treatment/management of a named non infectious disease. (Page
318)
Things to consider:
- This will be a secondary source task. What does gather, analyse and present
mean?
- How will you present your findings?
- Choose one disease and be succinct.
DOWN SYNDROME
OCCURRENCE

The occurrence of down syndrome increases with the


age of the mother. The general rule of thumb is that the
chance of having a baby with down syndrome increases
with maternal age. However the chance of having two
babies with down syndrome is less then 1%. According
to Wikipedia down syndrome occurs in 1 in 800 1000
births however there are many underlying factors which
affect this result.

SYMPTOMS

Symptoms of down syndrome include; mild to sever


mental retardation, small flat nose, skin folds at the eye
corners, appearance of slanted eyes, protruding tongue,
small ears, shorter neck, arms and legs, increase chance
of eye defects (often wear glasses) and an increase
chance of heart defects.

CAUSE

There are 3 types of down syndrome. Their causes are


outlined below:
Trisomy 21 occurs in about 92% of down syndrome
cases. Trisomy 21 is caused by the presence of an extra
chromosome 21 in all cells.
Mosaic trisomy 21 occurs in about 2 4% of down
syndrome cases. Mosaic trisomy 21 is caused by the
presence of an extra chromosome in some of the babies
cells.
Translocation trisomy 21 occurs in about 3 4% of
down syndrome cases. Translocation trisomy 21 is
caused by chromosome 21 getting stuck or translocated
during conception or growth of the baby during
pregnancy. This results in the baby having 46
chromosomes but expressing down syndrome
symptoms.

TREATMENT/MANAGEME
NT

There is no cure as such for down syndrome. However


there are special education programs which can assist
children. Many children with down syndrome can
become independent and live normal lives.

Explain how one of the following strategies has controlled and/or prevented disease:
- public health programs
- pesticides
- genetic engineering to produce disease resistant plants and animals (Page 332
333)
Things to consider:
- What does explain mean?
- You only have to choose ONE. Some knowledge on all three could be beneficial (if
you have time).
- Be succinct.
Through genetic engineering scientists have been able to produce disease resistant
plants and animals. By increasing our knowledge of certain plants and livestock, and
their genetic make up, humans have been able to increase food supplies. Genetic
engineering is a relatively new study and the full potential of this technique has not been
realised.
For example Australian scientists have produced a genetically modified pea that is
resistant to the pea weevil. The pea weevil consumes large amounts of crops every year
in Australia. The gene that confers resistance to the pea weevil was extracted from the
common kidney bean. This gene was spliced into the pea crops. The result was that the
gene produces a certain protein that cannot be broken down by the larvae and hence the
larvae die out.
A simple animal example is humans. In medicine scientists have genetically engineered
insulin using recombinant DNA to help control diabetes.
Perform an investigation to examine plant shoots and leaves and gather first hand
information of evidence of pathogens and insect pests.
Things to consider:
- What are insect pests? (Rose bush cuttings will be acquired. Look for tiny insects
known as aphids. These insects suck the sap out of the rose bush.)
- What are pathogens? (Look for discolouration of leaves or bulges/growths on
leaves and stems
- Refer to page 328 for experimental procedure. Gather your results and write your
Conclusion to your experiment.

ASSESSMENT DOT POINTS


The following dot points will be covered in your assessment task 4. I have not
written any responses to these dot points. However, if you need assistance
with these please notify myself as soon as possible.
1. Identify data sources, gather process and analyse information from
secondary sources to describe one named infectious disease in terms of its:
Cause (name and type of pathogen)
Historical developments in our understanding of the disease
Life cycle and / or special characteristics of this pathogen
Transmission
Host Response
Major Symptoms
Treatment
Prevention
Control
2. Process, analyse and present information from secondary sources to
evaluate the effectiveness of vaccination programs in preventing the spread
and occurrence of once common diseases, including smallpox, diphtheria
and polio.
3. Discuss the role of quarantine in preventing the spread of disease and plants
and animals into Australia or across regions of Australia.
4. Process and analyse information from secondary sources to evaluate the
effectiveness of quarantine in preventing the spread of plant and animal
disease into Australia or across regions of Australia.
5. Gather and process information and use available evidence to discuss the
changing methods of dealing with plant and animal diseases, including the
shift in emphasis from treatment and control to management or prevention
of disease.