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TRAINING REPORT

OF
SIX MONTHS INDUSTRIAL TRAINING, UNDERTAKEN
AT
MAHINDRA & MAHINDRA LTD. SWARAJ DIVISION LTD.
PHASE IX MOHALI

SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE DEGREE


OF
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
IN
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Under the Guidance of:


Name: Balbir Singh
Designation:Dept. Head
Department: Assembly Line

Submitted By:Name: Prince Daal


College Roll No.:997
University RollNo.:90801128997

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
On every step there is need of proper guidance, support and motivation. The encouragement
enables the person to give his or her best performance and thus to

achieve his or her goal.

Through this acknowledgement I wish to thank every person who facilitated my training at
Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd., Swaraj Division Ltd Mohali. I feel indebted to many who
provided me knowledge at this prestigious institution.
I wish to thank Mr.Jagdish Singh for providing me the opportunity to work here.
I also wish to express my deepest gratitude to Mr. Balbir Singh and Mr. Kawaldeep Dang who
proposed me this extremely interesting project and have provided me with excellent guidance
and encouragement.
I register my gratitude to Mr. Saurav Vig, Mr. Dharamveer Kumar, Mr.Umesh Malhotra,
Mr. Sanjeev Prabhakar and Mr. Parikshat Wadera for helping me at every point
during the training. Their assistance during the training has been invaluable.
Finally I thank all the staff, especially Mr. U.D.Sharma, Mr. Mam Chand and Mr. Hari Ram
Sharma for their kind co-operation and great help extended to me. Their guidance and in-depth
knowledge was of utmost importance and accordant throughout the training period.

PREFACE

This report includes the work done during my industrial training at Mahindra & Mahindras j
Swaraj Ltd Mohali. The 6-month industrial training gives us an opportunity to learn and practice
new technologies that are relevant in the present scenario. It gives an opportunity to build an
industry interface. These 6 months provide us with many new experiences which help to increase
and build upon our practical knowledge. It is like a precursor to the real job which is to be started
in a short while. As I have been selected to join this very organization, this training was like onthe-job training. The first hand experience of working in the hardcore production field has been
most satisfying.
My experience at the plant has been an enriching one. I wish to portray the same through this
report.

INTRODUCTION TO MAHINDRAS SWARAJ DIVISION

Swaraj group came into existence with the establishment of Punjab Tractors Limited on 27 June
1970 . It was Indias first large scale establishment in tractor industry which pave the way for
other indigenous production houses completely based on indigenous design and technology.
Punjab State Industrial Development Corporation (PSIDC) promoted the programme by
sanctioning loan of Rs. 1 cr. With the help of Govt. of India.

It is located at Phase -4 S.A.S. Nagar (Mohali) . The construction work at P.T.L. started in March
1972 and the first batch rolled out on 14 Nov 1973 . In the starting the plant was producing 5000
tractors with a capital of Rs.37 million . In 1974 it entered commercial production introducing
Swaraj 724 a 26.5 B.H.P. Tractor as its first model. During the span of 36 yrs it has capacity of
producing 45000 Tractors per year.

DIVERSITY OF MAHINDRAS SWARAJ DIVISION

Swaraj Combines Limited :


Punjab Tractor Limited setup the Swaraj combines Division (SCD) near Chapper Chiri village ,
which is located in tehsil kharar, district Ropar of Punjab state. It was setup with a capital layout
of Rs. 2.6 crores to manufacture self propelled harvesters or combines in 1985 . It also bought
out diesel fork lifts of 2 and 1.5 tonnes lifting capacity. Later on company went into techanical
collaboration with Komatsu fork lift company of Japan for manufacturing of electronic and
diesel fork lifts with capacity of 10 tonnes .In April 1995 it started production of Swaraj 922
Tractor.

It was Indias first indigenously built HC called H-8100. ASHOKA LEYLAND supplies its
engine. It is six-cylinder engine developing a power of 105 BHP.

Fork Lfts are also called lift trucks. They are used for loading and unloading of heavy equipm
ent and articles in an industry. It has very short turning radius so that it can move easily in
limited space. The heart of fork lifter (FD) is a 48 BHP engine by KIRLOSKAR OILS
LIMITED. The fork lifter is manufactured by SWARAJ in collaboration with a Japanese firm
KOMATSU. These fork lifters have power steering system and have partial automatic drive.
These can be either battery operated or diesel operated. Following is the list of fork lifters
manufactured:
FD-20

FB-20

FD-25

FB-25

FD-30

FB-30

Swaraj Automobiles Limited:


PSIDC started an plant for manufacturing of 2-stroke scooters named Punjab kesri at Nabha .
Due to its failure in the market swaraj was persuade to take over this plant. After this the
company started making utensils in this plant which also came out to be a sick unit. With
consistant changes & efforts of the management it succeeded in making seats and seat recliners
and is a leading supplier to TATA and MARUTI UDYOG LIMITED.

Swaraj Foundry Limited:


Punjab Tractors Limited setup a captive foundry unit work with an investment of Rs. 1.50
millions in the year 1980 manufacturing the automotive parts . This foundry division is located at
village Sailba Majri in district Ropar of Punjab. Total capacity of this unit is 8000 tonnes of grey
cast iron per annum on single shift basis.

Swaraj R&D Depatment :


Research and development is an integral and sustaining department of any organization, which
want to sustain its place in the ever-developing industrial environment. The emphasis on research
and development in the Swaraj Group is proved by a long list of new products that have been
introduced and established in the years ever since the establishment of Swaraj Group. There is a
separate research and development unit of the group located at phase 7 of S.A.S. Nagar
(MOHALI). Research work is carried out in this unit and design work is accomplished presently,
the research and development is going on with various new products.

Swaraj Engines Limited:


Earlier PTL was dependent completely on Kirloskar Oil Engines Limited Pune , due to
transportation problem the company decided to start a plant for engine manufacturing in the
nearby industrial sector. Swaraj Engines Limited situated at 9 phase , Industria area Mohali was
then started with technical and financial collaboration with Kirloskar Oil Engines Limited.
Production started in swaraj engines limited from 28 December 1998. In first year of production
only RV-2 engines were produced. In the second year RV-3 engines were introduced .the engines
from SEL and Kirloskar Oil Engines are sent to Swaraj Tractors and Swaraj combine Division
for assembly of different tractor models.

MODELS:S15
Single Cylinder
RV2
Two Cylinder
RV3
Three Cylinder
RB30
Three Cylinder
RB33
Three Cylinder

22 bhp
24 bhp
39.5 bhp
44 bhp
55 bhp

Swaraj Mazda Limited:


PTL took a plunge into technical and financial assistance with Mazda Motors Corporation .
Japan in year 1984 to set up another plant Swaraj Mazda Limited (SML) for manufacturing light
commercial vehicles in technical collaboration with Sumitomo Ltd . Japan . It is situated near
Ropar. Swaraj Mazda Limited went into commercial production in the year 1986. In year 2007
when Mahindra & Mahindra took charge over PTL the collaboartion between SWARAJ &
MAZDA broke. This company then in technical collaboration with ISUZU started manufacturing
50 seater buses in addition to T-3500 buses of 3.5 Tonnes payload capacity. This unit is not under
Swaraj Group since 2007.

POSITION OF SWARAJ PRODUCTS IN MARKET

With more than 4 lacs of tractors & harvester combines operating in Indian farms, SWARAJ are
now a well-established brand name in country. SWARAJ is now an internationally recognized
name in the developing world.
The products of SWARAJ are not only restricted to Indian market but they had entered in
international market. SWARAJ tractors find an important place in developing countries like
Ghana, Tanzania, Zambia, Kenya, Sudan, Uganda, Indonesia & Malaysia, etc. they are also
sending their combines to South Korea having first A.C. cabin

INDIAN TRACTOR INDUSTRY

India being a predominantly agricultural country where agriculture is the life and blood of the
economy has been a traditional manufacturer of different types of farm machinery and
implements. However the use of advanced agricultural techniques in India started only in early
sixties. Modernization and tractorization in Indian agriculture is only post independence
phenomenon. One of the achievements of green revolution has been that the farmers increasingly
realized the advantage of tractorization for obtaining the timelines of operations. This would
happen only because of awareness of new farm technology among the farmers, rise in the level
of their income and education., Tractors were introduced to Indian agriculture in early twenties.
Jogindera Singh was the first farmer to use a tractor called a steam plough then on the 12000
acres estate he had inherited in the remote Kheri district of Uttar Pradesh. But the demand of
tractors rose sharply in last two decades. However the rate of adaptation of tractors is different in
different parts of the country. Punjab occupies number one rank in this regard. Punjab possesses
only 1.5% of the geographical area of the country; the density of the tractors in Punjab is the
highest (85 tractors per hectare) as compared to national average of 10.5 tractors per hectare.
India is primarily an agrarian nation, with more than 50 per cent of our GDP being contributed
directly or indirectly by agriculture. No wonder, India is considered the largest tractor market in
the world. If that sounds great, let us face hard facts. In terms of total tractors in use in the
country, we are ranked a distant eighth. In terms of penetration, India has a tractor density of
10.5 tractors per thousand hectares of Gross Cropped Area (GCA) as compared to the
international average of close to 30 tractors per thousand GCA.
Figuratively speaking, Indias large gross cropped area (GCA) is next only to the big two USA
and Russia. That and the highly fragmented land holdings in India have helped our country to
become the largest tractor market in the world. Thus the Indian tractor market, per se, has to be
viewed only after considering its position in the world (see Box 1).

Description

Units

World Total/Avg.

India

Indias rank

Arable land

Million hectare

1,444

170

Irrigated area

Million hectare

249.6

45.8

Tractors in use

Tractor/000 hectare

28

10.5

Despite a phenomenal increase in tractor population in the country, the tractor density is very low
at about 10.5 tractors per thousand hectares of GCA in comparison to the international average of
about 28 tractors. Also, the small size of land holding in India, have led to low average power of
tractors at 35 horse power (HP), which is far lower than the global average of above 80 HP.

Easy availability of bank finance coupled with declining interest rates has propelled the demand
for tractors. Furthermore, a good monsoon, a strong growth in agricultural production and an
increase in the irrigated area are expected to lead to a secured long-term growth of 7-8 per cent in
the next century.

There has been a boom in the tractor industry since 1997. The sales of tractors are not evenly
distributed. They are mainly concentrated in the North and Northwest where Punjab, Haryana
and UP account for nearly 50 percent of the entire tractor sales. Punjab alone accounts for 26 per
cent. The main reason is comparatively larger land holdings and the affluence of farmers in
these states. New markets like Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadir, Andhra Pradesh, Maharastra and
Gujarat are also growing at a faster pace.
Punjab Tractors (PTL) leads in the North, while Tractors and Farm Equipment (TAFE) dominate
in the South. High transportation cost is one of the main factors preventing brands from going
national.

HISTORICAL PRECIDENTS

Indian lives in villages, and villages depend upon agriculture. Agriculture provides livelihood to
about 64% of labor force and contributes nearly 27.1% of GDP. Indian agriculture till
independence followed obsolete methods. Continuous increase in population has been on
stressing the demand of more output from agriculture and to meet this demand we need 225
million tones of food grains by 2000 AD.
In the first five-year plan agriculture was accorded top priority. Furthermore, since irrigation
was recognized as key to agriculture, irrigation was accorded great importance in the planned
development, which started in 1950. Major initiatives were also taken in agricultural education
and research.
All these developments made mechanization mandatory for agriculture and import of tractor
began. Acceptance of mechanization was however slow and by 1960, population of tractors in
the country barely exceeded 10,000.

THE BEGINNING OF TRACTOR INDUSTRY

The decade of 60s India saw green revolution resulting in increase in both production and
productivity. With the parallel emphasis on industrialization, the birth of Indian Tractor Industry
took place in 1959-60 when the imports were restricted and 5 tractor manufacturing units set up
in the private sector,. Date of commencement of commercial production and collaboration are
given in table (attached). Total indigenous production of tractors by 1965 was just 6000.With the
successful introduction and acceptance of the high yielding seeds, however, there was a sudden
upsurge in the demand for tractors after 1967 and demand started multiplying at an annual rate of
nearly 50% (1967: 18,000, 1970: 33,000). A natural consequent of this sharp upsurge and
consequent shortage was heavy price premium on tractors. Recognizing the situation, import of
tractors into the country was liberalized and over and above the domestic production of 20,000 in
1970, 13,000 tractors were imported.
SR.

Manufacture

Collaborator

Year of
commencement of
production

Eicher Tractors

Gebr, Eicher
Tractorenfabric, West
Germany

1959

2.

Tractors and Builders


Ltd/ Hindustan Tractors
Ltd.

Motokov-poraha,
Czechoslovakia

1963

3.

Tractors And Farm


Equipment Ltd

Massey Fergusion UK

1963

4.

Escorts Ltd.

Motoimport warazawa
Zaklady Mechaniczne
Ursus, Poland

1964

5.

International Tractor Co.


of India Ltd. Mahindra &
Mahindra Ltd.

International Harvester
Company USA

1965

NO.
1.

THE DEVELOPING PHASE

Since the pace of indigenization of the five tractor-manufacturing units already set up was far
below expectation, the government decided to diligence the Tractor Industry in 1968 and invited
new entrepreneurs. Seeing the sharply growing demand, Tractor Industry became the most
sought after industry in the country and as many as 18 fresh entrants approached the Government
for setting up manufacturing units. The interest of a large majority, however, lay in quick profits
through sales of imported tractors. Nevertheless six new manufacturers did enter the Tractor
Industry; four in private sector and two in the government. Combined output of 11 units had
risen to 32000 by 1975.
The Governments decision to freely invite new entrepreneurs to tractor manufacture in 1968 and
sudden upsurge in demand, with the green revolution, led to a scramble, of new entrepreneurs for
new collaborators 6 units, eventually, established the actual manufacturing facilities. They were
as follows:

S.No.

Name of the Unit

1.

Escorts Tractors Ltd.

2.

HMT
Govt.

3.

Ltd.

Collaborators

Year of
commencement of
local production

FORD UK

Central Motokov

Czechosolovakia

1971
praha,

1971

Kirloskar Tractors Ltd.

Klochner

Humboldt
Deutz, West Germany

1974

4.

Harsha Tractors Ltd.

Motoimport USSR

1975

5.

Punjab Tractors Ltd.

CMERI India

1974

6.

Pittie Tractors Ltd.

Own know how

1974

MATURING YEARS OF TRACTOR INDUSTRY

With the entry of new units in 1970 and increasing Government pressure towards indigenization
picked up substantially after 1970 and by 1978 almost all the tractors manufactured were nearly
indigenous. A fillip to indigenisation was also given by the overall industrialization of the
country, when a large number of ancillary manufactures had also established themselves and
were in a position to supply a wide variety of components to the tractor industry.
The sharp liberalization of imports in 1970 had given the nascent Indian Tractor Industry a
substantial setback in 1970-73, when low cost import particularly from East European countries
had become far more attractive.
Recognizing that such was not the intention, the government decided to ban imports in 1973.
Banning of imports and increased competition not only led to growth of local production but also
spread pace of indigenisation. While domestic demand was growing sharply from 1975 onwards
(compound growth rate of 18%), tractor industry suffered another major setback in 1982 when
due to severe credit restrictions by the Government, bank credit for retail purchase of tractors by
farmers was drastically curtailed and demand fell sharply. But after 1987, the situation again
changed and the demand of tractors picked pace because of the priority given by Government to
agriculture side.
The buoyancy, in the tractor market, experienced in the late seventies, led to the setting up, of
two more units, for the manufacture of tractors, one in the public sector, in collaboration with a
UK firm and the other, a private sector unit, with indigenous know how. These units are:

S.N
o.

Name of the unit

Collaborators

Year of
commencement of
local production

1.

Auto Tractors Ltd. (a UP Govt.


enterprise)

British Leyland
(UK)

1981

2.

Partap Steel Rolling Mills Ltd.

Ownknow how

1983

Punjab Tractors Ltd. (PTL) is the second largest (after the 1 st quarter of FY 1999-2000) player in
the industry with a market share of 18.45. Unlike M & M, 90% of PTLs turnover comes from its
tractors business. During the year 1998-99, the company had a sale of 48336 tractors as against
40,425 tractors last year. Over the last five years PTL has grown at a rate of 17%. During the last
year PTL had a growth rate of 22.4%. It was during this period that PTL managed to improve all
this because of its strong dealer network, low cost structure and high employee productivity
turnover.
. On the financial front the companys performance has been satisfactory. Punjab Tractors has
undertaken an expansion programme to enhance its installed capacity from its hitherto capacity
of 36,000 tractors to 60,000 tractors per annum

DEVELOPMENT OF SWARAJ TRACTOR LIMITED


Mahindra & Mahindra Swaraj (PTL formly) started with an annual capacity of five thousand
tractors & with a capital of Rs. 3.7 crores. It went into commercial production in the year 1974;
Its first production was 26.6 BHP tractors given the name SWARAJ-720. Ever since then P.T.L.
has not
looked back. In the first twenty years of existence its capacity has been increased to 24,000 per
annum, which is a considerable achievement by any standards. Besides tractors, it has added a
host of other products to its range, which includes: Harvesting Combine, Fork Lifters,
Agriculture implements.

Swaraj Tractors Ltd (PTL) is one of the leading manufacturers of tractors in India. PTL has been
known as the industry out performer since inception. Even when the industry grew at a CAGR of
6.1% during 1991-2000, PTL grew at the CAGR of 11.9%. In terms of market share, PTL is the
second largest player after M & M in FY2001 with a market share of 18.1%. PTL tractors are
sold under the Swaraj brand name. PTL has strong market share of around 20% in the northern
region with the highest share in Punjab and Haryana and 16% in the western regions and
southern regions of India. In the east the company accounts for 11% market share. The tractor
sales accounted for 83.3% of PTL's turnover in FY2001 whereas the harvester-combines,
forklifts and spare parts accounted for the balance. Industry basics The Indian tractor market is
dominated by low price, rugged, versatile and low to medium powered tractors; the main reason
being the inability of farmers to invest in farm mechanization. Tractors are categorized on the
basis of horse power (HP) of the engine. In India, the popular range of tractors is 20-40 HP
compared to 60 HP in Europe and 90 HP in the USA. Though large tractors were economically

unviable in India, there has been an increasing demand for high-powered tractors due to soil
conditions, particularly in states of MP, Gujarat and Maharashtra. But more recently, higherpowered tractors are also being sold in states like Punjab where it is considered as a status
symbol. Tractors available in India are 1/4th of the prices of similar powered tractors
internationally or in developed countries. Availability of credit is the most crucial factor
impacting tractor demand, as in India 90% of the tractors are financed by bank credit at
concessional rates. Increased use of irrigation facilities, shift towards multi-cropping,
consolidation of lands holdings, promotion of co-operatives and higher investment in agriculture
also contributes to higher tractor demand. The tractor segment comprises players like Eicher,
Escorts, HMT, Punjab Tractors, M&M, TAFE, Sonalika, which control about 98% market share.
India is the worlds largest market in tractors since 1996. A few international players like Case
New Holland, John Deere and Steyr have also set up facilities in India. But these players have
entered the higher-powered category and, thus, pose little threat to the existing players who enjoy
advantages of established distribution/service network and strong brand equity. Punjab Tractors
is promoted mainly by Punjab State Industrial Development Corporation Limited and has
acquired the second highest market share in the tractor segment from 9.1% in 1975. In 1970,
PTL had major competition from other companies like Eicher, Tractors and Farm Equipment
(TAFE), Mahindra & Mahindra (M&M), Escorts and HMT. PTL is one of the leaders in its
business and has put up a heady performance in contrast to other private sector players. As
against other players, which report a ROCE of 15% on an average, PTL has consistently
remained at about 50% in the last few years though the industry is capital-intensive. Punjab
Tractor is the only major tractor company, which entered this business without any foreign
collaboration. The company has beefed up its R&D capabilities in the last two to three years.
PTLs Swaraj-735 is in a class of its own and has been benchmarked by its competitors to which
16 new features have been added. PTL has single mindedly focused on increasing its market
share in tractors. Current Scenario During the first half of 2001-02 PTL increased its market
share from 18.5% to 21.4%. With the total industry volumes plummeting by 16.6% the sales of
PTL fell only a trifle 3.1%. Under these circumstances, though the revenue has fallen by a 0.38%
the operating profitability has risen by 1.03%. PTL garnered the operating margins of 19.4% in
the first half of FY2001-02, while the lead players like M&M Escorts and Eicher have reported
operating margins of 4.4%, 0.7% and 2.9% respectively. The Net Profit has increased by 1.4% to
Rs.564 million and the contribution of 40-50HP tractors has increased by 30%, which indicates
higher margins from bigger tractors due to a strong foothold in Punjab and Haryana markets.

YEARLY PROGRESS OF SWARAJ TRACTOR LTD.


1965: Govt. of India's research institute (CMERI) at Durgapur initiates design and development
of SWARAJ tractor based on indigenous know-how.
1970: Punjab Govt. through PSIDC acquires SWARAJ tractor's design from CMERI and
establishes Punjab Tractors Ltd. (PTL) for its commercialization.
1971-73: PTL sets up SWARAJ Project for 5,000 tractors per annum at a capital outlay of Rs.
37.0 million with an equity base of Rs 11.0 million.
1974: Swaraj 724 (26.5 HP) tractor commercially introduced.
1975: 2nd tractor model SWARAJ 735(39 HP) developed by own R&D, commercially
introduced.
1978: 3rd Tractor model SWARAJ 720 (19.5 HP) developed by own R&D, commercially
introduced. Maiden equity divided declared.
1980: Guided by social concerns and responsibility, PTL takes over PSIDC's sick scooters unit Punjab Scooters Ltd. (subsequently renamed as SWARAJ Automotives Ltd.) India's first Self
propelled Harvester Combine - SWARAJ 8100 developed by own R&D, commercially
introduced. SWARAJ Foundry Division set up in backward area.
1983: 4th Tractor Model - SWARAJ 855 (55 HP) developed by own R&D, commercially
introduced. Expansion of annual capacity to 12,000 tractors per annum at Plant 1.
1984: SWARAJ MAZDA Ltd. promoted in technical and financial collaboration with Mazda
Motor Corps. & Sumitomo Corpn. Japan for manufacture of Light Commercial Vehicles. PTL's
equity participation is Rs. 30.4 million (29%) and that of Mazda and Sumitomo's Rs. 27.0
million (26%).

1985: SWARAJ Industrial Forklift Trucks developed by own R&D, commercially introduced.
1986: SWARAJ ENGINES Ltd. promoted in technical and financial collaboration with Kirloskar
Oil Engines Ltd.(KOEL) for manufacture of diesel engines. PTL's equity participation is Rs. 6.9
million (33%) and that of KOEL's Rs 3.6 million (17%).

1995: Setup of tractor Plant II at Village Chappercheri with annual capacity of 12,000 per
annum.
1998: Commencement of expansion to 60,000 tractors (30,000 at each plant). Capital outlay of
Rs1000

million,

funded

mainly

through

internal

accruals.

1999: 5th and 6th tractor models - SWARAJ 733 (34 HP) & SWARAJ 744 (48 HP) developed by
own R&D, commercially introduced.
2000: Expansion of annual tractor capacity to 60,000 completed.
2001: PTL won National Championship trophy in competition organized by All India
Association Management (AIMA) for young managers. Economic times and Boston Consulting
Group selects PTL as one of the India's finest 10 companies out of Economic times top 500
Companies.

2002: Cumulative tractor sales crosses 5,00,000.

2003: PSIDC's disinvestment of its entire Equity holding (23.49%) in PTL in favour of CDC
Financial Services (Mauritius) Ltd. With this, total holding of CDC & its associates in PTL
stands at 28.48%.

2004: 7th & 8th tractor models - Swaraj 939 (41 HP) & Swarj 834 (34 HP) developed by own
R&D, commercially introduced.

2005: PTL disinvested 15,73,000 equity shares of Rs. 10/- each of Swaraj Mazda Ltd.
(constituting approx. 15% of SML's paid up capital) in favour of Sumitomo Corporation, Japan,
a joint venture partner in Swaraj Mazda Ltd. at a total consideration of Rs. 629.2 million

2007: CDC/Actis Group and Burman Family's disinvestment of their Equity holding in PTL
(43.3%) in favour of Mahindra Group (M&M).
M&M made open offer to shareholders for another 20% equity of the
Company.
Mahindra Group's equity holding in the Company stands at 64.6%
Cumulative Tractor Sales cross 600,000.
Swaraj Track Type Combine designed and developed by in-house R&D, commercially launched.

2008: Swaraj 3 Tonne Battery forklift, designed and developed by in-house R&D, commercially
launched
Punjab Tractors Ltd. (PTL) has commercially launched another model - Swaraj 939 FE
at a function in Indore.101 units of this new generation tractor were delivered to farmers
from all over Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh, by Mr. R.Gopalan, Managing Director,
State Bank of Indore in the presence of PTL's Mr. Yash Mahajan (VC & MD) and Mr. A.M.
Sawhney (SVP-Mktg).
Powered by a future ready, fuel - efficient 41 HP SAE, three-cylinder water-cooled diesel
engine, Swaraj 939 FE has a constant mesh gear box, diaphragm clutch and neutral safety
switch. Upgraded variants of this model can also be supplied as per customer
needs/requirements.

SPECIFICATIONS OF DIFFERENT MODELS OF SWARAJ TRACTORS


TYPES OF MODELS

S-724
MODELS
H.P.(SAE)
26.5
MAX PTO H.P.(PS)
22.4
MAX
TORQUE 9.5
KGM
NO.

OF 2

S-733

S-735

S-744

S-855

34
28.6
12.2

39
34.4
14.2

48
39.4

55
44.9
18.5

CYLINDERS
TYPE

4 STROKE 4 STROKE 4 STROKE 4 STROKE 4 STROKE

BOREX

DI
100X110

DI
110X116

DI
100X110

DI
110X110

DI
110X116

STROKE(MM)
DISPLACEMENT

1728

2204

2592

3136

3308

ENGINE 2000

2000

2000

2000

2000

WATER

WATER

WATER

WATER

WITH OIL

WITH OIL
SC/305

(CC)
RATED

SPEED
COOLING
WATER
SYSTEM
TEST
REPORT
(AWAITED)
CLUTCH

TYPE SC/254

WITH OIL
SC/280

SC/280

SC/305

SYZE (MM)
NO OF GEARS 8+2

8+2

8+2

8+2

(fwd+rev.)
FWD.SPEEDS

2.1-24.9

2.3-24.9

3.1-29.3

3.4-31.6

RANGE (km/hr)
PTO RPM AT RATE 976

976

976

976

976

SPEED
TYPE

ADDC-

ADDC-

ADDC-

ADDC-

2.3-28.3

OF ADDC-

CONTROLS
STEERING

LIVE
MECHA-

LIVE
MECHA-

LIVE
MECHA-

LIVE
MECHA-

LIVE
MECHA-

BRAKES

NICAL
MECHA-

NICAL
MECHA-

NICAL
MECHA-

NICAL
MECHA-

NICAL
MECHA-

TYPES

NICAL
NICAL
NICAL
NICAL
NICAL
OF DRY DISK DRY DISK DRY DISK DRY DISK DRY DISK

BREAKES
TYPE
TRACTOR WEIGHT 1715
WHEEL
BASE 1815

TYPE
1750
1810

TYPE
1785
1955

TYPE
1930
1955

TYPE
1915
1950

(MM)
TYRE

6X16

6X16

6X16

6X16

12.4X28

12.4X29

13.6X28

13.6X28

SIZE 6X16

(FRONT)
TYRE SIZE (REAR)

12.4X27

The SWARAJ brand tractor has developed several series of models. These models are listed with
their bhps and other specifications:MODEL NAME
SWARAJ 855

SWARAJ 735

PARTICULARS
DUAL CLUTCH
(used for pouching)
SINGLE CLUTCH
(Used for harvester
combine.)
STANDARD MODEL

BHP
55 bhp introduced in 1983

39 bhp introduced in1978

SWARAJ 724

SWARAJ 720
SWARAJ 722
SWARAJ 744
SWARAJ 733

BIHAR SPECIAL
JALGAON SPECIAL
SOUTH SPECIAL
(depending upon the soil)
STANDARD MODEL
HARYANA SPECIAL
STAY BAR SPECIAL
STANDARD MODEL
STANDARD MODEL
STANDARD MODEL
STANDARD MODEL

26.5 bhp introduced in 1975

19.5 bhp introduced in 1974


24.5 bhp introduced in 1998
48.0 bhp introduced in 1999
34.0 bhp introduced in 1998

SHARE HOLDINGS IN MAHINDRA & MAHINDRA SWARAJ DIVISION

Mahindra Group
64.64%
LIC/GIC/IFCI/BANKS
22.76%
Mutual Funds / Banks
2.07%
Other FIIs
0.53%
Public

10.00%

HEIRARCHY OF THE ORGANISATION

LEVEL 1: CHAIRMAN
LEVEL 2: WORKING DIRECTOR
LEVEL 3: EXECUTIVE DIRECTORS
LEVEL 4: VICE PRESIDENT

LEVEL 5: ASSISTANT VICE PRESIDENT


LEVEL 6: GENERAL MANAGER
LEVEL 7: CHIEF MANAGER
LEVEL 8: SENIOR MANAGER
LEVEL 9: MANAGER
LEVEL 10: ASSISTANT MANAGER
LEVEL 11: SENIOR ENGINEER
LEVEL 12: ENGINEER
LEVEL 13: ASSISTANT ENGINEER
LEVEL 14: JUNIOR ENGINEER
LEVEL 15: MACHINE OPERATER

INTRODUCTION TO VARIOUS SHOPS AND


DEPARTMENTS

Broad classification of departments:

Production

Light machine shop (LMS)


Heavy machine shop (HMS)
Assembly shop
Heat treatment shop
Paint shop
Material Testing Lab.
Product services

Tool room

Tool control cell (TCC)

MANUFACTURING ENGG. DEPARTMENT

Research & Development

Production planning & control (PPC)

Material Management & Control (stores)

Quality Engineering

Maintenance
Construction
Support services
Management system
Finances
Purchase
LIGHT MACHINE SHOP

INTRODUCTION :
LMS is the largest section in the factory. All transmission components viz. shafts and gears used
in Tractors are manufactured here. It has 117 machines. Facilities of this shop include Equipment
for blank operation, boring drilling etc. Except the bevel gear generator & gear shaver, which
have been imported from WMW & Churchill of West Germany respectively, all other machines
are from HMT Ltd. The rupees thirty one million plant and machinery of this shop installed in

area of 33,000n sq. ft. and casting/forging and high standard of quality. This shop is manned by
160 highly experienced Operators & inspectors

FUNCTION OF THE DEPARTMENT

Gear manufacture and grinding, machining of bull gears, bevel gears cutting of all rounds on
power hacksaws, facing and centering, all type of grinding inner and outer gears, hobbing and
broaching machine .Gear shaving, Gear deburring machine, drilling of all gears reporting
system, number of workmen shifts operations.

DIFFERENT MACHINES USED IN LIGHT MACHINE SHOP

Gear Hobbing Machine

Gear Tooth Rounding Machine

Gear Shaving Machine

Gear Shaper

Vertical Milling Machine

Internal Grinding Machine

External Grinding Machine

Drilling Center

Bevel Gear Generator

Cylindrical Grinding Machine

Angular Head Grinder

Deburring Machine

Multi purpose CNC Machine

Tuning Center

Vertical Pull Broaching Machine

Special Purpose Drilling Machine

Power Hacksaw

Horizontal Milling Machine

Boring Machine

C N C Twin Chuck Machine

C N C lathe

C N C Grinding Machine

Multi Job Holder Hobbing Machine

Center Facing Machine

Vertical Turning Center

Slant Bed Turning Center

Tool And Cutter Grinder


ACCESSORIES USED IN LMS

o Turning Accessories: Tool holders, chucks (power, mechanical), Tapping


attachment and drilling attachment.
o Milling Accessories: Vices (bench vice, machine vice), arbors.
o Broaching Accessories: Broach holders.
o Drilling Accessories : Quick change chucks & sleeves
o Grinding Accessories: Grinding wheel flanges, chucks.
o Hobbing Accessories: Hobbing fixtures, Centers, Arbors
o Shaving Accessories: Cutting Arbor, Work holding fixtures.

MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS

Identification number, type, make, broader specification viz. Machine no., make, type, overall
dimensions, no. of speed, speed range, no. of feed m feed range and other special information.

DOCUMENTS AND SLIPS USED IN LMS

11.1 Daily Production and quantity certification statement


11.2 Idle activity slip
11.3 Tool issue slip
11.4 Daily material movement slip
11.5 Daily Machine load chart

VARIOUS COMPONENTS MADE IN LMS

S.NO

COMPONENTS

S.NO

COMPONENTS

BULL PINION SHAFT LT

29

IDLER CLUSTER

BULL PINION SHAFT RT

30

INPUT SHAFT

BULL PINION

31

INTERNAL GEAR

BEVEL WHEEL LT

32

KPS ASSY

BEVEL WHEEL RT

33

LAY SHAFT

BULL GEAR (735-SS)

34

LT CAGE

CAGE ASSY

35

PLANET
CARRIER(744/855)

C.M GEAR

36

INTERMEDIATE GEAR

CONNECTING SHAFT

37

RT CAGE

10

CROSS

38

GEAR MAIN DRIVE


(4WD)

11

DRIVE SHAFT

39

GEAR TIMING

12

GEAR Z-18

40

GR IDLE ASSY

13

GEAR Z-24

41

BUSH

14

GEAR Z-25

42

GEAR IDLE

15

GEAR Z-26

43

GEAR CAM SHAFT

16

GEAR Z-28

44

GR FIP

17

GEAR Z-29

45

G OIL PUMP DR

18

GEAR Z-30

46

GEAR CRANK ASSY

19

GEAR Z-30

47

GEAR REV

20

GEAR Z-31

48

GR MAIN DRIVE

21

GEAR Z-34

49

GR COUNTER SHT

22

GEAR Z-35

50

PINION DIFF

23

GEAR Z-36

51

FLANGE COMPANION

24

GEAR Z-42

52

CASE DIFF GR LT

25

GEAR Z-49

53

BRG HSG

26

GPTO FIXED GEAR


(744/855)

54

CASE DIFF ASSY

27

GPTO SLIDING GEAR

55

SHAFT MAIN

28

GEAR COUNTER(4WD)

56

GEAR OUTPUT(4WD)

MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS IN LMS

Facing: It is the operation of finishing the ends of the work, to make the ends flat and

smooth & to make the piece of required length.


Under Cutting: It is similar to grooving operation but is performed inside a hole
Chamfering: It is the operation of beveling the extreme end of the work piece. Chamfer is
provided for better look/ to rough turning: in this operation max. metal is removed & very
little dimensions are left for further machining.
Finish Turning: Here min. metal is removed & very fine finish is obtained on the work
surface
Grooving: It is the operation of turning the groove or neck in order to terminate a thread of
to provide adequate clearance enable nut to pass freely on threaded work piece, to remove
burs
Knurling: It is a process of embossing a diamond shaped regular pattern on the surface of
the work piece using a special knurling tool.
Broaching: It is a method of metal removal by a tool that has successively higher cutting
edges in a fixed path
Drilling: It is a process of making hole in an object by forcing a rotating tool called drill.
Boring: It is a process of enlarging a hole that has already been drilled.
Grinding: To grind means to abrade to wear away by friction or to sharpen. In grinding, the
material is removed by a means of a rotating abrasive wheel
Hobbing: It is the process of cutting teeth or gear & shafts & is performed by a rotating tool
called hob on the hobbing machining.
Shaping: The process of cutting gears on the shaper is known as shaping for teeth cutting is
multi-point cutting tool
INTER RELATIONS WITH OTHER DEPARTMENTS

Tool room: jigs, fixtures and cutting tools, maintenance: attending breakdowns and carrying
out preventive maintenance of machine tools etc, Industrial engineering: provision of process
charts for machining operations, Assembly: ensuring proper fitment of components on a day to
day basis. Quality control and inspection, storage and inspection R&D. Heat treatment: Shot
blasting operations, lab testing, inspection etc

HEAVY MACHINE SHOP

INTRODUCTION:
HMS & LMS both collectively have 161 machines that are used for manufacturing 90
components (Gears,shafts and housings) All heavy castings of tractors are machined in this shop
with the help of variety of special machines (SPM).These machines are tailor made by HMT to
suit component requirements. In addition, facilities of this shop include general-purpose turning,
drilling and milling machines. About 20 SPM and 30 GPM are installed in a covered area of
47,000 sq. ft. at a cost of 20 million, 2600 tones of castings are machined every year on a two
shift basis. In addition to the machining of castings for the tractor, some jobs are also performed
for Swaraj Mazda Limited.

FUNCTIONS OF THE DEPARTMENT

Machining of heavy castings like differential housing, gear box housing, rear
cover, trumpet housing, steering housing of tractors, machining of tractor parts, machining of
some components for Mazda.

INTER-RELATION WITH OTHER DEPARTMENTS

Tool room- Requirement of jigs, fixtures and cutting tools.


Maintenance-Attending breakdown and carrying out preventive maintenance of machine tools
Industrial engineering Provide process charts for machining operations.
Assembly Ensuring proper fitment of components, production planning and control, micro
loading of components on day-to-day basis.
Quality control & inspection Storage and inspection.

INSTRUMENTS FOR HEAVY M/C SHOP

S.No.

Instruments

Size

Components

1.

Vernier calliper

0-100

Diff. hsg., trumpet hsg., Cage assembly

2.

Vernier calliper

0-400

Gearbox hsg.

3.

Vernier calliper

0-600

Trumpet hsg.

4.

Micrometer

0-25

Gearbox hsg. Cage assembly

5.

Micrometer

25-50

Diff. hsg. Gearbox hsg.

6.

Micrometer

50-75

Diff. hsg., Gearbox hsg.

7.

Micrometer

75-100

Gearbox hsg., Trumpet hsg.

8.

Micrometer

100-125

Trumpet hsg, differential hsg.

9.

Micrometer

125-150

Diff. hsg. Trumpet hsg.

10.

Micrometer

150-175

Cage assembly

11.

Depth vernier

0-200

Trumpet hsg.

12.

Bore gauge

10-18

Gearbox hsg. Cage assy.

13.

Bore gauge

18-35

Diff. hsg. Gearbox hsg.

14.

Bore gauge

35-60

Rear cover

COMPONENTS MACHINED IN THE SHOP

o Gearbox housing (Material R-33, Casting, 180-230 BHN. 76-kg wt.)


o Differential Housing

o Rear Cover
o Trumpet Housing
TYPES OF MACHINES

o Radial drilling machine


o Vertical milling
o Horizontal milling
o Simplex milling
o Duplex milling
o Lathe
o Double end
o T/W boring
o Automatic lathe
o SPM (Special Purpose Machine)
o
MACHINING OPERATIONS

Drilling: It is a process of making hole in an object by forcing a rotating tool called drill.
Boring: It is a process of enlarging a hole that has already been drilled.
Facing: It is the operation of finishing the ends of the work, to make the ends flat and
smooth & to make the piece of required length.
Chamfering: It is the operation of beveling the extreme end of the work piece. Chamfer is
provided for better look/ to rough turning: in this operation max. Metal is removed & very
little dimensions are left for further machining.

Milling: It is a process of material removal to make flat surface. It can be vertical or


horizontal

Turning: It is a process of material removal from the cylindrical periphery of a shaft


Taping: It is the process of making threads on the inner or outer periphery of a hole
ASSEMBLY SHOP

INTRODUCTION

SWARAJ TRACTOR DIVISION deals in the assembly of tractors SWARAJ 722, SWARAJ 724,
SWARAJ 735, SWARAJ 733 and SWARAJ 834.The assembly process is carried out on a main
line that has the various subassemblies along its length
The major work this shop undertakes is the over all assembly of the tractor. Various
components from the other shop are transported to this for their assembly. It consists of 100
highly skilled workmen. Their main work area includes

SECTIONS IN ASSEMBLY
o Cage Assembly
o PTO shaft assembly
o BPS L/R assembly
o Diff assembly and testing
o Trumpet housing and assembly
o Diff assembly and Trumpet housing assembly
o Gear box assembly and Testing
o Steering assembly
o

Brake housing assembly

o Coupling Gear box assembly with Diff housing assembly


o Front axle beam assembly
o King pin assembly
o Engine assembly
o Assembly other main link items like Leveling Rod ,Trailor rod, Front and Rear frame,
Battery Mtg, Frame, Stay bars, Brake pedal, Clutch Pedal assembly.
o Greasing all points
o Invasion into painting chamber
o Mounting of front and rear tyre.
o Fender assembly with lights other electrical filaments
o Radiator assembly
o Dashboard assembly with seat assembly
o Fuel tank assembly
o Side panel, Bonnet, Front shield, Rear shield, Front grill etc assembly
o Air cleaner and Exhaust assembly

o Battery fitment
o Oil filing and battery filling
o Testing

The Assembly shop is the production shop where assembly and subassembly of all the parts take
place. The final processed parts from the various parts of production shop such as HMS, LMS,
and AND HEAT TREATMENT reach the assembly shop. The assembly shop can be divided into
various groups depending on subparts being assembled. These groups are:

1) Differential assembly and sub assembly


2) Differential Cover assembly
3) Gear box assembly and sub assembly
4) Steering gear box assembly +Gear shifting mechanism assembly +brake
assembly.
5) Assembly of various links, foot board and other accessories.
6) Assembly of engine with clutch mechanism.
7) Assembly of 5th and 6th assemblies.
DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM

If the car travels in a straight line, the two rear wheels turn on the road exactly at the same speed.
There is no relative movement between the two rear wheels. The propeller shaft may be geared
rigidly, in the case, with the rear axle to rotate the rear wheel together. But when the car takes the
turn, the outer wheel travels on the longer radius than the inner wheels. The outer wheel turns
faster than the inner wheel, i.e., there is the relative movement between the two rear wheel. If the
two rear wheels are rigidly fixed to a rear axle, the inner wheel will slip which will cause:-

Rapid tyre wear.

Steering difficulties.

Poor road holding.

Therefore, there must be some devices to provide relative movement to the two rear wheels
when the car takes a turn. And here comes the purpose of differential.The differential is a
device that splits the engine torque two ways, allowing each output to spin at a different speed.
The differential is found on all modern cars and trucks, and also in many all-wheel-drive (fulltime four-wheel-drive) vehicles. These all-wheel-drive vehicles need a differential between each
set of drive wheels, and they need one between the front and the back wheels as well, because
the front wheels travel a different distance through a turn than the rear wheels.

Part-time four-wheel-drive systems don't have a differential between the front and rear wheels;
instead, they are locked together so that the front and rear wheels have to turn at the same
average speed. This is why these vehicles are hard to turn on concrete when the four-wheel-drive
system is engage

The differential has three jobs:

To aim the engine power at the wheels

Allow the wheels to rotate at different speeds.

act as the final gear reduction in the vehicle, slowing the rotational speed of the
transmission one final time before it hits the wheels

DIFFERENTIAL ASSEMBLY
It consists of following sub-assemblies:1. Cage Assembly:
a. Left Cage: It consists of following parts:1

Four planet gears which are bevel pinion.

One cross (or spider) housing the planet gear.

Two bevel gears with internal splines.


b. Right cage: It consist of :

Crown Wheel having spiral teeth

1. Tail Assembly: It consists of following sub-assembly:


a. Tail Pinion Carrier.
b. Tail Pinion.
c. Taper roller bearing.
Tail Pinion is integral with Tail Pinion Shaft. Other end having splines to take
power from the Gear Box.
2. Left Bull Pinion Shaft (LBPS):
It consist of two taper bearing. It has a bore on its right side which provide place
for the entry of the RBPS so to support it with eccentricity. So LBPS is also
known as female type of shaft.
3. Right Bull Pinion Shaft (RBPS):
It also consist of two taper bearing. It is the male type of shaft of which very few
part enters into the bore of the LBPS to have eccentricity.
4. PTO Shaft:
Both ends of this shaft are splined. One end is connected to the lay shaft of the
gear box, while the other end (only the splined part) is outside the differential

housing. PTO shaft transfers the torque from the gear box to other agricultural
equipments like Reaper, generator, etc.
2. Two Bull Gear:
These gears transfers torque from the Bull Pinion Shaft(BPS) to the rear axle
through trumpet assembly.
3. Differential Housing:
It is the casting that houses all the above Sub-Assemblies.

REAR COVER ASSEMBLY


The second stage of Assy. shop is the rear cover assy. shop which incorporates the gear pump
assy. and the direction control valve. The rear cover is collected from the conveyor and the
various attachments such as Power Cylinder, Piston Assy., Response Valve etc. is made, and the
cover is tested for its efficiency on the testing jig. After which it is sent to the first stage where
the whole unit is assembled to the rear cover assembly and sent for further assembly.

TESTING

TESTING MACHINE FOR HYDRAULIC

TESTING OF REAR COVER

GEAR BOX ASSEMBLY


The Gear Box Assy. is the third stage of the assy. unit in which the gear box is assembled.
Firstly, the gear box housing is collected from the conveyor roller and successively parts such as
the counter shafts, clutch shafts, main shaft along with the ball bearings are assembled to the
unit. There is separate sub unit assembling the planetary cage and gears which is then attached to
the Gear Box output shaft to obtain the duplex speed ratios of the tractor.
The power, which the engine develops, is transmitted to the wheels of the tractor by certain
essential parts. The application of engine power to the driving wheels through these parts is
called POWER TRANSMISSION. These parts are clutching, gear box, differential and rear
axles.
To start a tractor from rest, the inertia of its whole weight must be overcome. Diesel engine does
not develop its full power at low speed. It has to run at fairly high speed before it develops
maximum power and torque.
Since much power is needed in starting, climbing uneven land and in pulling varying loads, a
provision must be made to permit the engine to run at high speed while the wheels run at lower
speed. This is achieved by a system called GEAR BOX
With the help of gearbox we can achieve this and pulling power of the tractor can be increased or
decreased by varying the speed of tractor. For these tractors gearbox used is of the type of
SLIDING MESH GEAR type.
PRINCIPLE
As we know that horsepower developed by any engine is directly proportional to product of
torque and rotational speed.
i.e. H.P. =k x T x N
FUNCTIONS
To convert the power of the engine running at high speed into low speed at high torque, this
is required for starting.
To exchange the forward motion into reverse motion of the vehicle.
To disconnect the engine from the rear wheels by putting the gearbox into the neutral
position.
TYPES OF GEAR BOX
Selective gearbox.
a. Sliding mesh type
b. Constant mesh type.
c. Synchronous type.

Planetary gear transmission.


oAutomatic gear transmission.

LAYOUT OF GEAR BOX ASSEMBLY

Gearbox

Assembly

Input, intermediate, lay,


Clutch lever

shafts Assembly

Assembly

Fork, gearshift

Steering assembly/

Rod, high/low gear,


output shaft assembly

Gear lever assembly

MAIN COMPONENTS OF GEAR BOX


(a) Input shaft assembly.

(b) Output shaft assembly.

(c) Lay shaft assembly.

(d) Intermediate shaft assembly.

(e) Actuator shaft ass.

(f) Gears.

(g) Gear box housing.

(h) Shifter rods.

(i) Shifter forks.

(j) Bearings.

(k) Fastness, gaskets and spacers.


(l) Planet gear and carrier ass. with internal gear.

GEAR BOX SUB-ASSEMBLY


It consist of following sub-assemblies:1. Input Shaft: This shaft transfer the power from the engine to the gear box. One end of the
shaft is splined which is connected to the engine and second end is the integral constant
mesh pinion which transfer the power to the constant mesh gear splined on the lay shaft.
2. Lay Shaft:- Gears are in the fixed position provided by the spacers. Gears on the lay shaft
can only rotate but can not move axially. It consists of one constant mesh (CM) gear and
three straight teeth gear. CM gear of lay shaft is in mesh with the CM gear of the input
shaft, due to which lay shaft moves with the constant speed. All the gear on the lay shaft
moves with the constant speed. Lay shaft also gives drive to the PTO shaft.
3.

Intermediate shaft:- It is the splined shaft consist of three gear which are axially movable
on the shaft. All the gear are provided with the collar, so that forks are fitted in these collars
and helps the gears to move axially. These gears are meshed with the gears on the lay shaft to
have the correct gear pair with required gear ratio. Only one pair is in mesh at one time so to

avoid

double

engaging.

4. Three forks:

One fork is used for:


(a) engaging reverse gear with the help of idler cluster.
(b) engaging 1st gear

Second fork used for engaging 2nd gear

Third fork used for engaging 3rd and 4th gear.

5. Epicyclic gear train:- It is used to have high speed ratio between input shaft and output or
intermediate shaft. This is done by engaging hi-low gear. This gear train consist of
following sub-assemblies:

Internal gear.

Planet gears (3 in number).

Sun gear, which is the splines of the intermediate shaft itself.

Planet carrier.

Hi-low sleave.

Hi-low shaft.

6. Clutch actuating(CA) guide consist of Clutch actuating(CA) shaft.

WORKING IN GEAR BOX


The Constant Mesh (CM) gear is rigidly fixed to the input shaft or clutch shaft. It remains
always connected to the drive gear (also CM gear) of the lay shaft. Three other gears are also
rigidly fixed to the layshaft. They are the second speed gear, first speed gear and reverse
speed gear. Two gears are mounted on the splined main shaft or output shaft (also known as
intermediate shaft) which can be slided by the shifter fork when the shaft lever is operated.
These gears are the second speed gear and first and reverse speed gear. They can be
connected to the corresponding gears of the layshaft and always remains connected to the
reverse gear of the layshaft.

Gears in neutral: When the engine is running and clutch is engaged, the CM gear drives the
layshaft gears. The layshaft rotates opposite in direction of the clutch shaft. Note that in
neutral position, only the CM gear is connected to the CM gear of the layshaft. Other gears
are free, and hence the transmission intermediate shaft is not turning. The vehicle is
stationary.

First or low speed gear: By operating the gear shift lever, the larger gear on the intermediate
shaft is moved along the shaft to mesh in the first gear of the layshaft. The intermediate shaft
turns in the same direction as the input shaft. Since the smaller layshaft gear is engaged with
the larger intermediate shaft gear, a gear reduction of approximately 3:1 if obtained. That is,
the input shaft turns three times for each revolution of the input shaft. Further gear reduction
in the differential at the rear wheels produces a still higher gear ratio, approximately 12:1,
between the engine crankshaft and the wheels.

Second speed gear: By operating the gearshift lever, the larger gear of the intermediate shaft
is demeshed from the first gear of the layshaft and then the smaller gear of the input shaft is
meshed with the second gear of the layshaft. The intermediate shaft turns in the same
direction as the input shaft. A gear reduction of approximately 2:1 is obtained. The
differential gear reduction increases this gear ratio to approximately 8:1.

Third, top or high speed gear: By operating the gear shaft lever, the second gear of the
intermediate shaft and layshaft are demeshed, and then the second and top gear of the input
shaft is forced axially against the CM gear of the input shaft. External teeth on the input shaft
gear mesh with the internal teeth in the second and top gear. The intermediate shaft turns with
the input shaft and the gear ratio of 1:1 is obtained. The differential reduction reduces a gear
ratio of about 4:1 between the engine crankshaft and the wheels.

Reverse gear: by operating the gear shaft lever, the larger gear of the intermediate shaft is
meshed with the lever idler gear. The reverse idler gear is always in mesh with the layshaft
reverse gear. Interposing the idler gear between the layshaft reverse gear and intermediate
shaft bigger gear, the intermediate shaft turns in the direction opposite to that of the input
shaft. This reverses the rotation of the wheels so that the vehicle backs.

High/Low Gear: High/low gear shifter enables to achieve either high torque-low speed or low
torque-high speed with the help of planet gear & carrier assembly.
High Gear: Low torque-high speed is achieved when hi-lo shifter is shifted in high gear position.
Coupling intermediate shaft and output shaft with the help of sleeve transmits the power.
LOW GEAR: High torque-low speed is achieved when hi-lo shifter is shifted in low gear
position. The power is transmitted to output shaft from intermediate shaft, planet gear and carrier
assembly and sleeve. The planet gear & carrier assembly reduces the high speed and
subsequently torque is increased.

STEERING GEAR BOX, GEAR SHIFTING, BRAKE ASSEMBLY


This unit consists the 4th stage of the assy. unit. In this unit the sub assy. of the steering gear box,
gear shift mechanism on gear cover and the brake mechanism is assembled of these mentions sub
assemblies, the brake assembly is sent to the 1st stage of assy. and the steering gear box and gear
box cover assy. is sent to the 3rd stage of assy. Apart from these sub assembly unit also produces
the KPS assy. i.e. The King Pin Shaft Assy. which is assembled to front lay beam to hold the
front wheel.

FINAL ASSEMBLY LINE


After paint the assembly is unloaded from conveyer and final assembly.
In this division following parts are attached to it:

Front tyres
Rear tyres
Fuel tank: its capacity is 60 lts (depending on the model)
Radiator: its function is to cool the engine by means of water.it cools the water and again
supplies it to the gallery for cooling.
Fan
Battery:12 v batteryis used . its function is that it helps in starting the engine.
Wiring
Dashboard : indicators are their for observing the performance.
Fender
Steering wheel
Air cleaner : it is situated at the front . its function is that it supplies the clean air to the
engine.
Sheet metal
Bonnet
Seat
Side seats
Filling up oil : 6 lts.
Stickers
HEAT TREATMENT
INTRODUCTION:
The heat treatment shop lays a very important role in the automobile Industry. Various parts such
as axles, gears, shafts etc. if not heat- treated will not work for a longer time. Heat treatment shop

at STD is adjoining the LMS. Most of the parts of tractors and Mazda manufactured in LMS are
heat treated here. The shop is equipped with several heating furnaces and testing machines. The
shop is manned by skilled staff and workers
All Transmission components after undergoing machining operation are subjected to heat
treatment. Heat treatment is done so as to improve hardness and strength of these components viz
gears and shafts.

TYPES OF FURNACES

o Pit Type-Carburizing is done to increase carbon content


o Sealed Quenched Type- Certain reactions are allowed to take place resulting in
formation of carbon by products. The reagents used are mainly N2, LPG and methanol.
All other gears and shafts manufactured in L.M.S. are heat-treated.

TYPES OF FURNACES AND MACHINES

MACHINE NAME

NO OF MACHINES

1. Gas Carburizing Furnace

2. Induction Hardening Machine

3. Quenching Tank

4. Shot Blasting Machine

5. Tempering Machine

6. Lapping Machine

7. Hydraulic Press

8. Cutting Machine

9. Hardness Testing Machine

10. sealed Quenched Furnace

In the heat treatment section the various processes like carburizing


quenching, tempering, normalizing, annealing and washing of the different components is done
purpose of Case hardening is to form Unlike carbon rich steels which can be hardened by heating,
mild steels do not contain enough carbon to perform this operation. Instead carbon is forced into the
skin of the metal to produce a piece of mild steel which has an outer casing containing more carbon
than its core. This process is known as case hardening.. This will produce a carbon rich skin or case of
about 1mm thic

STEPS IN WHICH THE COMPONENTS OPERATED IN THE HEAT


TREATMENT PLANT ARE
(1). PUNCHING OF THE COMPONENTS:Machine name:- punching machine.
Operation:- Punching.
Tool used:- Number punch.
About operation:All the components are given codes or numbers first.
The punching machine is hydraulically operated.
The jobs are held in the fixture and then with help of a punch different codes are punched on the jobs.
2). FIXTURE PREPARATION:After punching fixture preparations is done. In this operation the fixture prepared according to the
size, shape and quantity of the components. The fixtures are very large in size and can carry numbers
of gears, shafts and other small components.
(3). WASHING OF THE COMPONENTS:This is done in the washing tank to remove the oil from the component, which is on them because of
machining. For washing of the component water and caustic soda is used. Caustic soda is used
because oil cannot be removed by water alone caustic soda is useful in removal of oil from the surface
of the components. In washing tank there are number of nozzles through which water and caustic soda
mixture stikes over the surface of
the component at high pressure, this high pressure helps
in removal of oil and other impurities.
(4). CARBURISING:
This is the phenomenon by which carbon penetrate the steel. Iron at temperature above its critical
temperature has affinity for carbon. The carbon is absorbed into the metal to convert outer surface into
high carbon steel. The depth of case depends upon the time and temperature of treatment. The atomic
size of iron (fe) is less than that of atomic size of carbon (c) so, the

Penetration of carbon cannot be done


easily, that is why heating of metal is done. The metals heated above critical temperature, at this state
the atomic size of iron increases and hence peneyration of carbon can be done easily
The temperature inside the furnace is set according to the requirement. In GCF there is a drip feed
panel through which the quantity of isopropanol is controlled. In carburising isoprpanolis used for
making carbon at high potential. The percentage of isopropanol is controlled with the help of drip
feed panel. When the liquid from the drip feed panel enters the furnace it atonce burst into a gas
having carbon at very high potential. Since carbon has property to flow from high potential towards
the low potential therefore it is helpful for the penetration of carbon into steel. When the temperature
inside the furnace reaches about 930 c, the penetration of carbon in the steel started. This penetration
of carbon into steel at temperature 930 c is called active carburising.
After active carburising the drip feed amount stops i.e. there is no drip feed given but the
temperature remains the same, now the penetration of carbon gradually decreases and also the
percentage of carbon decreases this is called diffusion carburising.
The active and diffusion carburising are done alternatively because if they are not done alternatively
the percentage of carbon in the component suddenly increases which will damage the grain structure
of the components and also some extra carbon get attached to the surface of the job and its removal
is very difficult. After active carburising and diffusion carburising reduction carburising is done. In
reduction carburising the drip feed amount decreases and the temperature inside the furnace
decreases from 930-810 c. If the temperature and the drip feed does not decreases this will effect the
grain size and shape of the job, therefore when the temp. Decrease the job acquires its original grain
size. Heat treatment is the operation of heating and cooling a metal in its solid state to change its
physical properties. Acc. to the procedure used, steel can be hardened to resist cutting action and
abrasion, or it can be removed grain size reduced, toughness increased, or a hard surface produced
on a ducible interior.

(5). QUENCHING: -Quenching or rapid cooling from above the critical temp. by immersion in cold water or other cooling
medium, is a hardening treatment . It increases the strength of the metal and increases the wear resistance,
but makes the metal brittle and has low ductility.
(6). WASHING: -

After quenching the washing of the component is done. The washing us done to remove oil dust and
small chips from the surface of the components. The mixture of water and caustic soda is used for
washing. It is carried out in the washing tank where number of nozzles throws the mixture of water
and caustic soda at a very high pressure on the surface of components.
(7). TEMPERING: Tempering consist of reheating below the critical temperature. The quenched metal to restore some of
the ductility and to reduce the brittleness. Increased toughness is obtained at the expense of high
strength. The table representing the tempering of an intermediate shaft is shown below:
S.NO

PROCESS DETAIL OF PROCESS

TEMP.

D.F.A

1.

Loading

Loading of charge in GCF at 920-930 c

920-930 c

Nil

2.

Heating

After loading temp.Fall to

600-650 c

Nil

cycle

At temp.

750-770 c

0.1-0.4 LPH

At temp

850-870 c

0.8-1.0 LPH

At temp.

910-930 c

3.

Carburising Carburising temp.Carburising cycle contd.

910-930 c

LPH

Up to C.P goes to 0.8-1.0%

1.0-1.2LPH

Checked by carbon

0.4-1.2 LPH

Apparatus or by oxy
Probe.

4.

Diffusion

(a) Feed to stop when 0.8-1.0%C.P received


(b) When C.Preduced to

910-930 c

LPH

0.6-0.7%(C.P to be Checked by carbon

910-930

Nil

Determination method or By ox probe)

0.4-1.2

(c) Repeat (a) &(b) until

LPH

Case depth 0.6-0.7 mm


Achieved
5.

(Note)

Take out at least two Pin on regular interval


Of time from the start Of different cycle for
Checking of case depth Until depth is achieved.

6.

7.

Cooling

Switch of GCF2 shut Down temperature

cycle

(a) Ensure oil Temperature between 60-80 c


(b) Quenching the charge Q.T

910-930 c

Ensure the C.P of GCF0.7-0.9% at the time

To

Of Quenching.

800-830 c

Tempering Temper the charge at 180-220 c in tempering


furnace the I-5hrs.(tempering time is
depending upon surface hardness achieved
after and thickness of the component).

(8). SHOT BLASTING:Machine name: - shot blasting machine


Operation: -cleaning of carbon from the surface of components

180-220 c

0.2-0.4
LPH

Shots material: - High carbon steel balls.


Speed of shots: -80m/sec.
In this machine the different components are placed on the two big size plates, which are attached to
the two big gates. At one time one gate is kept closed and one is kept open. When one gate is closed
the machine gets started and then the high carbon steel balls strikes at a speed of 80m/sec on the
surface of the components to clean carbon stick to their surface.
Shot blasting is done in a machine called shot blast. In the process of carburising some extra carbon
get attached to the surface of the components that can easily removed with the help of shot blasting.
For the removal of carbon from the surface of gears it takes 2-3hrs of operation in shot blasting
machine. When the process starts the table starts rotating and the shots from the top of the container
falls on the components. The shots come down with the help of the motor of 20HP. For cleaning of
carbon different size of shots are used

The process is carried out in 12min for bull gears, 19min for small gears. This time variation is given
according to the hardness of the gear or shaft e.g. if the hardness of the simple gear is from 30-35 we
will give 3-4 min for its shot blasting. If the hardness varies from 60-70 we will give 10-20 min for its
shot blasting no matter what is the size of gear.

PAINT SHOP

Operations performed in paint shop are:

o Surface preparation(Pre Treatment Cell) carried out for sheets and rims
o Painting
o Inspection
o Rejection(Reprocessing)of sheets and rims
PRE TREATMENT CELL

1. Degreasing-1

2.

Degreasing-2

3. Water rinse-1

4.

De rusting

5. Water rinse-2

6.

Water rinse-3

7. Activation

8.

Phosphating

9. Water rinse-4

10. Water rinse-5

11 Passivation.
After components is rejected and repainted through the previous procedure.
1)

Sanding improper.

2)

Cleaning not OK.


3)

10)

Primer paint fault.


4)

Water splash/oil in air.

5)

Dust after paint.

6)

Pin hole. (Due to incorrect temperature).

7)

Paint cloat.
8)

Orange peal.

9)

Shade not matching.

Denting on surface.

PAINTING

Chassis paint line:

Washing: Here chassis is first washed with a chemical cleaner, concentration of


which is 5% and auto sprayed in a chamber

Drying: The chassis is then dried by hot air whose temperature is up to 60


to70C.

Primer Painting: A thin layer of primer paint is sprayed in the chassis so that the
final paint is strongly fixed on.

Flash off: This is the distance given so as to allow paint to dry.

Final painting

Flash off

Banking: Chassis is allowed to bake for around 30 minutes


QUALITY INSPECTION

If painting in both sheets and rims is satisfactorily the piece is selected


otherwise rejected .Various parameters checked are

Depth of penetration of paint

Thickness of paint costing

Smoothness

Uniformity
REJECTION

If piece is rejected it is either again processed whereby is again send to PTC or


discarded. Rejection can be due to following factors:

Runs (flows): due to low viscosity of paint

Thin coating

Over and Under Baking

Non-Uniformity and crow footing

Vendor defect

Presence of dust
METHODS OF SURFACE PREPERATION

o Rubbing surface with sand paper


o By shot blasting
o By buffing
o By chemical process
PAINTING
This process (sheet and rim painting) includes
o Full primer plus one coat of paint(30-40 microns)
o Flash off (This is the distance given so as to allow paint to dry)
o Baking(120-130 degree centigrade)
o Rubbing
o Cleaning with tag rag
o Final painting
o
CHASSIS PAINTING

Washing
Drying
Primer painting
Flash off
Final painting
Flash off
Baking
PARAMETERS CHECKED

Depth of penetration of paint


Thickness of paint coating
Smoothness
Uniformity

REASON FOR REJECTION


Flow
Less paint
Crow footing

shade variation
Dust
Vendor fault
MATERIAL TESTING LABORATORY

Functions of Material Testing Laboratory:

Checking of Castings and Forgings (Dimensional and Metallurgical


Check)

Paint Testing
Rubber Testing
Forging and Casting
Forgings and Castings are pre-inspected before machining.
Check Dimension
as per drawing.

Metallurgical Test:
Depending on the criticality and size of lot, certain numbers of castings and forgings are selected
for testing. Thereafter a small piece is cut from each of these selected forgings and casting and
each of these piece undergoes following testing.
Chemical Composition Testing
Done using Computerized Spectrometer Here Argon gas is used and spark is produced. Thus
wavelength of spectrum produced is recorded in order to obtain chemical composition of the
forgings. Chemical Composition is generally Carbon, Tin, Chromium, Iron, and Nickel.

Microstructure Testing
Done on Microstructure Testing Machine. This test gives the arrangement of grains in the
chosen piece.
Hardness Testing
Done on Hardness tester Machine. Brinell hardness is checked prior to machining operation for
each of these castings and forgings. Thereafter heat treatment, Rockwell hardness is checked. For
extremely soft materials hardness testing is carried out on Microstructure Tester Machine.

PRODUCT SERVICE

1)TOOL ROOM:
In industry various types of tools are used. The tool room caters to the needs for
manufacturing of gigs, fixtures, gauges, dies, etc. During machining wear & tear of the tool
takes place. The tool room is provided in order to re-sharpen these tools.
FUCTIONS
Re-sharpening of the tools- whose wear & tear has taken place. This ensures that
there is no delay in production due to blunt tools.
New Jigs & Fixtures- In order to improve the production rate & quality of the work
& to decrease the job setting time, new jigs & fixtures are developed in the tool room.
Maintenance of old jigs & fixtures- Old jigs & fixtures that lose their accuracy due
to breakage or wear & tear are repaired in the tool room.
New development work- Any modification & development work is carried out in
tool room, for e.g. a new component is to be installed in a tractor, its die assembly is
developed in the tool room.
Manufacturing of measuring tools- Certain measuring tools used in the metrology
lab for quality check are manufactured in the tool room.
MACHINES USED IN TOOL ROOM.

Precision Grinding Machine


Jig Boring Machines
Dahlih Machine (Here die assembly is manufactured )
Lathe Machines (Re sharpening of tools takes place )
CNC Turning Machines (Here certain measuring tools are manufactured)

2) MANUFACTURING ENGG. DEPARTMENT


This department is commonly known as Industrial Engg. department. This department is
backbone of the industrial unit. All shops come under this department. It deals with the activities
related to industrial engg.
INTRODUCTION:
The Manufacturing Engg. Department (M.E.) plays a vital role in efficient and smooth working
of the manufacturing and developing programs of the company.
Industrial Engineering is engineering approach to the detailed analysis of the use and the cost of
the resources of an organization. The main resources are men, money, material, equipment and
machinery. The Industrial Engineer carries out such analysis in order to achieve the objective and
policies of an organization. It is not associated with meeting cost factors, but with organization
structure, administration, technology and human problems etc.
Earlier it was mainly employed to manufacturing industries for improving methods of
production, to develop production work standards and to formulate production contract and wage
policies. But with the advancement of technologies and industries, I.E also spread to nonmanufacturing like construction, transportation etc.
It is the most important and result oriented department in terms of production, planning,
designing, optimization of methods etc. Some functions involve planning of layouts of all the
shops to get maximum benefits of available space, setting workers time standards to perform a
certain job by motion study and implementing standards laid. Other functions of this department
also include selection of tooling, fixture etc.
In PTL the M.E. department is further divided into three sections:

Process planning
Plant and machinery
Work- study
APPLICATIONS OF M.E. DEPARTMENT:

Earlier it was mainly applied to manufacturing industries for improving methods of production,
to develop work standards or to formulate production control and wage policies.
Later on, the use of M.E. also spreaded to non-manufacturing activities such as construction and
transportation, farm and air-line operations and maintenance, public utilities, government and
military operations.But today it finds its major application in manufacturing plants and
industries.In an industry besides the production, other departments utilization M.E. concept is
marketing, finance, purchasing and industrial revolution etc.

RESPONSIBILITIES OF M.E. DEPARTMENT


To set up production norms for all production departments i.e. to set up time standard for the
entire job.
To design/improve work place arrangement to improve productivity and to create good
working conditions and environment for work place.
To design/improve material handling system to make its use and optimize its cost.
To design material storage system for optimizing utilization and minimizing cost.
To calculate efficiencies of shops and thereby incentives.
To set up new machines and to make process plan.
Design formats for management reports like rejection of manpower facilities, production target
v/s production efficiency.
Plant layouts: best optimum utilization of space can be achieved by optimum layout.
Installation of new machines and conveying systems.
Functions of M.E. department:
Receiving components and drawings from R&D.
Prepare and release of process sheet.
Assessment of direct labour requirements.
To make decisions for required equipments.
To make decision for purchasing new machines.
Installation of new machines at proper places.
Releasing of jigs, tools and fixture drawings.
Preparation of release of operating conditions of machines.
To study the machining time.
To make operation research.
Miscellaneous and advisory functions.

3) SWARAJ RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT UNIT:


ACTIVITIES
1. Design and development of new product based on market requirements.
2. Product improvement (Engine, Transmission, Sheet Metal, Hydraulics, and Steering based
on field performance reports.
3. Value Engineering
4. Product Reliability
5. Design, Development and commissioning of test reports.
6. Testing of components for performance and product reliability.
7. Assistance in vendor development.
8. Co-ordination, periodic testing and evaluation of tractor model at Central Farm Machinery
Training and Testing Institute (CFMTTI), Budni.

RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT


Expenditure on R&D during 2006-07: (Rs. in Crores)
Capital
Recurring
Total
Total R&D Expenditure as %age of Total Turnover 1.21

2.98
8.56
11.54

Major research and development activities have been:


1. Swaraj 724 FE Orchard Special tractor model commercially launched.
2. Swaraj 978 FE (72 HP) tractor model commercially introduced in domestic market.
3. New sheet metal with contemporary styling introduced on Swaraj 744 FE tractor model.
4. New sheet metal introduced on Swaraj 735 FE tractor model.
5. On-going product improvement for performance, reliability and value addition continued with
vigour.

TESTING OF ENGINES AT R&D


TESTING:
Before starting the engine the lubricating oil is filled into the engine and then engine is
mounted on the fixture. The flywheel is directly attached to turbine through connecting shaft
and engine is started. The After minute run-ning the tappet clearance is checked. Tappet
clearance is to be kept .25.005. The clearance is necessary otherwise the thermal expansion
of valve will alter the opening of closing of valve angles. After that engine is run at 2400 r
p.m. m. for 2.30 hours and then the engine is run at various r.p.m. and loads to calculate the
power, b.h.p. and s.f.c.
POWER OUTPUT:
The engine shop is having latest technology and all the information is available digitally. The
load can be increased or decreased r.p.m. or s.f.c. can be changed from within the electronic
cabin. Power test is done. on 2200 r.p.m. (Maximum r.p.m. of engine is 2400) where torque is
rated and is indicated on digital meter. The alteration in r.p.m. is made by varying the load and
fuel supply is kept constant. The power is calculated as follows
POWER =

(R.P.MTORQUE)/(7023.746)

H.P.

If the power calculated from above formula comes lower than prescribed limit than
usually fuel timing is altered. The fuel timing is altered with the help of F.I. pump. Usually the
engine is tested on 18 Celsius advancement By revolving the pump away from engine the
timing is reduced and by revolving F.I.P. toward the engine the time is advanced.
S.F.C.: It is one of the most important parameter for engine comparing. It is defined as the
ratio of amount of kg of fuel used per hour by the engine to power produced by the engine.
S.F.C.

(297000) / (POWERTIME) Gm/B.H.P/Hr.

Constant

fuel gravity volume of oil (100 cc) time

0.825 100 3600

297000

TORQUE BACKUP TEST:


It is capacity of engine for maximum load that after the engine r.p.m. Will decreased
to zero.
TORQUE (backup)

{T (max) T (rated)} / {T (rated)} 100

T (rated) is displayed by meter on 2200 50 r.p.m. and T


(max) is displayed by meter at 1500 + 100 r.p.m. T (max) is found by loss of r.p.m and
increased of torque. The engine is loaded till torque is max and after which the loaded cause
drop in torq

4) PRODUCTION PLANNING & CONTROL


INTRODUCTION :
Production can be defined as the transformation of raw material by manufacturing methods into
useful and valuable things needed by society. PPC is the very basis of manufacturing. Production
planning and control is the process of planning in an industry in advance of actual production it
consists of the following activities:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Determining the practicability of a product design.


Analyzing the product for best method of production
Determining the economic lot size
Select the best equipment
To Determining the best sequence of operations to manufacture each individual item,
part, assembly
6.
Designing or supervising the design of tools, jigs, fixtures, or other devices to best assist
the manufacturing equipment to function as planned.
7.
Estimating expenditure for equipment and tools and help making cost estimates on new
jobs.
8.
Setting, starting and finishing dates for each important item assembly and the finished
product scheduling.
9.
Controlling the inventory of raw materials and in process parts.
10.
Dispatching material, tooling and equipment to the plant locations.
11.
Keeping track of progress of production.
12.
Providing program evaluation review.
PRINCIPLES OF PPC
1. Investigation
2. Co-ordination
3. Evaluation
INVESTIGATION
It includes the following functions:
1.

4.

Organization and interpretation of information received from the selling, purchasing and
engineering departments.
2.
What production steps have to be performed as well as where and when to perform them.
3.
Calculation of materials requirements
Development of detailed production schedules

CO-ORDINATION
This activity consists of initiating action, which brings the needed materials, tools etc to the
proper machines and at the scheduled times.

EVALUATION
It consists of constantly reviving of production materials, methods, tooling, operating times etc.,
so that the planned manufacturing results are realized in terms of quantity, quality, time, and
location.
OBJECTIVES OF PPC
From the above discussion it is clear that there are basically two major and important objectives
of PPC:
1.

Planning the activities of production


Collect and organize the pertinent production information generated by the
selling, purchasing and engineering departments.

Translate the information collected above into production schedules, such that the
over-all plant facilities are economically used and the production requirements of each
department are satisfied.
2.
Controlling the production activities

Release the production orders in conjunction with the production schedules.


Revive production progress and initiate remedial action. If it becomes necessary to revive
production scheduling
MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENTS

Trucks of different types

Trolleys

Cranes of different types

Belt conveyors, overhead conveyors

Roller conveyors-commonly used

Chain conveyors

Hoists

Monorails

WORK INSTRUCTIONS FOR TESTING


Mount the tractor on to the roller.
Attach the weight of 1200 kg.
Start the tractor and raise the lift.
Run the tractor for 15 minutes.
If any problem then shifted to rework.
After this tractor is stopped and links are lowered.
Deload the tractor from the roller.

5) QUALITY ASSURANCE DEPARTMENT

ROLE OF QA:
Audit compliance to Quality Systems for manufacturing and allied operations as apart of
Management Information System on quality.

SCOPE OF AUDIT:
Finished product quality
Inplant components quality
Output quality and compliance to quality systems at each stage/area of inplant
manufacturing operations
Outsource components quality
Compliance to specified quality systems by the Venders in their manufacturing
operations.
AUDIT CONCERN:
Audit from periodic check on conformance to quality systems,audit concerns arise from feed
back on

Warranty

Field failure
Dealer pre delivery inspection
In house pre delivery inspection
Quality engineering reports on inplant and out sourced components

KEY AREAS:
Tractors ready for dispatch to dealers after final quality certification by Quality Engineering
(QE) department.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Tractors as dismounted from assy. Line before any rework is carrie3d out on them. this is
in pursuit of the operations objective of Zero defect dismount and dispatch
Stage wise audit of assembly shop operations.
Paint shop operations.
Outsource components reaching the assembly line.
Machine shop operations.
Inplant components reaching the assembly line.
Audit at Vender premises to check on compliance to prescribed Quality System in their
manufacturing operations.

AUDIT METHODOLOGY:-

Step-1: Refer to quality systems pertaining to the subject under audit in terms of
-Drawing / Specifications for output quality
-process sheets/job description for job contents,method , tools and measurement criteria.
-Quality Engineering specipications like controls charts and check lists.
Step-2: Prepare check lists specifying attributes to be audited and sample size.

Step 3: Following the check list,record actual against specifications.

Step4: Generate audit report on level of conformance highlighting.

6) MAINTANENCE DEPARTMENT

INTRODUCTION:
Many changes have taken place in the maintenance system and practice used in the industries
with the progress made by technology. Along with production, maintenance plays vital role. In
fact production and maintenance go side by side if a machine is under breakdown, it can not
subjected to production process with the advent of new modern technology, the entire concept of
maintenance has changed. Earlier maintenance practices were only confined to breakdown
maintenance, but now different types of maintenance practices are followed like:
1. Scheduled maintenance
2. Break down maintenance
3. Preventive maintenance
4. predictive maintenance

The following are the main objectives of maintenance:

To achieve the minimum breakdown level and to achieve the production target at
low cost.

To keep the plant in proper working conditions.

Machine and other facilities should be arranged so that they can be used to their
max capacity

The maintenance division of the factory ensures the availability of all the facilities
necessary for the performance of functions at optimum return of investment.

IMPORTANCE OF MAINTANENCE
1. Equipment break down leads to inevitable loss of production time ,which is prevented by
maintenance department
2. Plant maintenance plays an important role in the production management by preventing
breakdowns which caves inevitable shortfall of target, needs sub contracting work,
rescheduling of production, need of over time etc.
3. Routine check ups of facilities ensure safe and efficient operation of machinery
4. Maintains optimum production efficiency of machinery.
5. Helps in maintaining the operational accuracy and reduces the work content
6. Reduce breakdowns and concerned downtimes thus achieving the target of max
production at min cost.
7. Ensure safety of life and limbs of workers and machine operators.

At present the maintenance dept of PTL have five subsections.


1. Electrical maintenance cell
2. Engineering machine maintenance cell
3. Material handling equipment maintenance cell
4. Spare part planning and control cell
5. Engineering utility maintenance