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READINGMODULEFORSPM2013

SMKMERBAUMIRISARAWAK
PART1:MASTERINGTHEDEFINITION
PHYSICSTERM
Physicalquantity
Basequantity
Derivedquantity
Scalarquantity
Vectorquantity
Distance
Displacement
Speed

DEFINITION
FORM4CHAPTER1INTRODUCTIONTOPHYSICS
Isaquantitythatcanbemeasured.
Isaquantitythatcannotbedefinedinothertermsofphysicalquantities.

EXAMPLE/QUESTION

Isaquantitythatcanbedefinedinothertermsofphysicalquantitiesbyeithermultiplication
ordivisionorboth.
Isaquantitywithmagnitudeonly.
Example:distance,speed,time,mass,temperature
Isaquantitywithbothmagnitudeanddirection.
Example:displacement,velocity,acceleration,force
FORM4CHAPTER2FORCESANDMOTION
Isthetotallengthbetweentwopoints.
Measuretheactuallength.
Isthetotallengthbetweentwopointsatcertaindirection.
Measuretheshortcutlength
Distance
Istherateofchangeofdistance.
Speed=

Time taken

Unitofspeedisms1.
Velocity

Istherateofchangeofdisplacement.

Velocity,v=

Displacement

Time taken

Unitofvelocityisms1.
Acceleration

Istherateofchangeofvelocity.

Acceleration,a=

Change of velocity

Time taken

Unitofaccelerationisms2.
Anda=
Inertia

Momentum
Principleofconservationof
momentum
Impulse

v-u

No formula as it is not a physical quantity that can be


measured.
BUTinertiadependsonthemass.Biggermasshasbigger
inertia.
Momentum,p=mvm=mass,v=velocity
Unitofmomentumiskgms1
Statesthatinclosedsystem,totalmomentumbeforecollisionisequaltothetotal Elastic:m1u1+m2u2=m1v1+m1v2
momentumafterthecollisionsuchthatthetotalmomentumisconserved.
Inelastic:m1u1+m2u2=(m1+m1)v
Explosion:0=m1v1+m1v2
Isthechangeofmomentum.
Impulse=FtF=force,t=time
Impulse=mvmu
Unitofimpulseiskgms1
Isthetendencyofobjecttoresistthesuddenchangeactingonthesystem
OR
Isthetendencyofobjecttoremainatrestifrestorcontinuetomovewithuniform
velocityinstraightlineifmovingunlessexternalforceactingonit.
Istheproductofmassandvelocity.

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PHYSICSTERM
Impulsiveforce

DEFINITION
Istherateofchangeofmomentum.

EXAMPLE/QUESTION
Impulsiveforce,F=

mv - mu

Unitofimpulsiveforceiskgms2
Shorterimpacttime,biggerimpulsiveforce.
Force
Istheproductofmassandacceleration.
Force,F=mam=mass
a=acceleration
Unitofforceiskgms2orNewtonorN
Newtonsfirstlawofmotion Statesthatabodycontinuesinstateofrestoruniformvelocityinstraightlineunless Alwaysreferredtoinertiacondition!!
acteduponbyanexternalforce.
Newtonssecondlawof
States that the rate of change of momentum of moving object is directly Alwaysreferredtocollisionsystems!!
motion
proportionaltoandinthesamedirectionastheforceactingonit.

Newtonsthirdlawof
States that if one body exerts a force on another, there is an equal but opposite Alwaysreferredtoactionandreaction!!
motion
forcecalledreactionexertedonthefirstbodybythesecond.
(Ihitballaction)
(Theballcausesmyhandpainreaction)
Energy
Istheabilityofdoingwork.

Workdone
Istheproductofforceanddisplacementwhichisparalleltothedisplacementofthe Workdone,W=Fs[noangle]
object.
Workdone,W=Fscos[ifangle]
F=force
s=displacement
UnitofworkdoneisJouleorJ
Potentialenergy
Istheenergypossessedbytheobjectduetoitspositionorlocation.
Potentialenergy,Ep=mgh
m=mass
g=gravityvalue=10ms2
h=height

UnitofpotentialenergyisJoule
Kineticenergy
Istheenergypossessedbytheobjectduetoitsconditionofmovement.
Kineticenergy,Ek=mv2
m=mass
v=velocity

UnitofkineticenergyisJoule
Principleofconservationof Statesthatinaclosedsystem,theenergycannotbecreatedordestroyedbutitcan
energy
be changed from one form to another form that is the total energy is being
conserved.

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PHYSICSTERM
Power

DEFINITION

EXAMPLE/QUESTION

Istherateofworkdone.

Power,P=

WorkDone

Time

OR
Power,P=

Energy

Time

UnitofpowerisWattorW
Efficiency

Istheratioofoutputworkdonetotheinputenergysuppliedbythesystem.

Hookeslaw

Statesthattheextensionofspringisdirectlyproportionaltotheforceactingonit Force,F=kx
suchthattheelasticlimitisnotexceeded.
k=forceconstant
x=extensionofspring
Fistotheweightofobjectwhereweight=massx10
Is the ability of an object to resume to its original state once the applied force is
removed.
Istheforceperunitlengthofextension.
k=F/x

UnitofspringconstantisNm1
FORM4CHAPTER3FORCESANDPRESSURE
Istheforceactingnormallytothesurfaceperunitarea.
Pressure,p=F/A[ifsolid]
F=force
A=area

UnitofpressureisNm2orPascalorPa

OR
Pressure,p=hg[ifliquid]
h=depth
=densityofliquid
g=gravityvalue=10ms2

UnitofpressureisNm2orPascalorPa

OR
Pressure,p=76cmHg+unbalance[mercury]

Isthepressureexertedbytheatmosphereonthesurfaceoftheearth.

Elasticity
Springconstant

Pressure

Atmosphericpressure

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Efficiency,e=

OutputWork
x100%
InputEnergy

PHYSICSTERM
Pascalsprinciple

DEFINITION
States that in enclosed system, the applied pressure will be transmitted equally to
everypartofthefluidandalsotothewallofthecontainer.

EXAMPLE/QUESTION
F1 F2
=

A1 A2

AndA1d1=A2d2
A=area
d=distancemoved
Achimedesprinciple
Statesthatwhenanobjectisimmersedpartiallyorwhollyintoafluid,theweightof Buoyantforce,F=Vg
water being displaced due buoyant force is equal to the weight of object being =densityofliquid
immersed.
V=Immersedvolumeoftheobject
g=gravityvalue=10ms2
UnitofbuoyantforceisNewtonorN
Bernoullisprinciple
Statesthataregionwhereexperienceshighairspeedwillhaslowairpressureand Highspeedlowpressure
viceversa.
Lowspeedhighpressure
FORM4CHAPTER4HEAT
Thermalequilibrium
Isaconditionwheretwoobjectsincontacthavethesametemperatureandthereis
nonettransferofheatbetweentwoobjects.
Heat
Isaformofenergy.

Temperature
Isthedegreeofhotnessofanobject.

Specificheatcapacity
Istheamountofheatrequiredtoincreasethetemperatureof1kgobjectby1C Heat,H=mc
withoutchangeinphysicalstate.
m=mass,c=specificheatcapacity,=riseintemperature
UnitofheatisJouleorJ
Lowspecificheatcapacityfastergettinghot
Highspecificheatcapacityslowergettinghot
Waterisagoodcoolingagentasithashighspecificheat
capacity
Meltingpoint
Isthemaximumtemperaturepointthatcanbesustainedbytheobjectbeforethe Highmeltingpointcanwithstandhightemperature
objectstartstomelt.
beforeitgetsmelt
Boilingpoint
Isthemaximumtemperaturepointthatcanbesustainedbytheobjectbeforethe
objectstartstoboil.

Specificlatentheatoffusion Is the amount of heat required to change the 1 kg object physically from solid to Heat,H=mLf
liquidwithoutthechangeintemperature.
m=mass
Lf=specificlatentheatoffusion

Specificlatentheatof
vapourisation

UnitofheatisJouleorJ
Is the amount of heat required to change the 1 kg object physically from liquid to Heat,H=mLv
steamwithoutthechangeintemperature.
m=mass
Lv=specificlatentheatofvapourisation

UnitofheatisJouleorJ

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PHYSICSTERM
Boyleslaw
Charleslaw

DEFINITION
Statesthatforafixedmassofgas,thepressureofgasisinverselyproportionaltoits
volumesuchthatthetemperatureofgasiskeptconstant.
Statesthatforafixedmassofgas,thevolumeofgasisdirectlyproportionaltoits
absolutetemperaturesuchthatthepressureofgasiskeptconstant.

EXAMPLE/QUESTION
P1V1=P2V2
P=pressure,V=volume
V1 V 2
=
T1 T2

V=volume,T=temperaturemustbeinunitKelvin
T=(+273)K
Pressurelaw

Snellslaw

Mirror
Lens
Refractiveindex

Statesthatforafixedmassofgas,thepressureofgasisdirectlyproportionaltoits P1 P2
=

absolutetemperaturesuchthatthevolumeofgasiskeptconstant.
T1 T2

P=pressure,T=temperaturemustbeinunitKelvin
T=(+273)K

FORM4CHAPTER5LIGHT
Statesthattheangleofincidence,angleofreflectionandthenormaltothesurface
all lie in the same plane such that the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of
reflection.
Isanobjectwithonlyonesideoffocus/viewwhereitwillreflecttheincidentray.

Isanobjectwithtwosidesoffocus/viewwhereitallowstherefractionoflight.

sin i
Istheratioofsineofincidenceangletothesineofrefractedangle.
Refractiveindex,n=
sin r
imustbeinairandrinmedium

Apparentdepth
Realdepth

Isthedistanceofthevirtualimagefromthesurfaceofthewater.
Isthedistanceoftherealobjectfromthesurfaceofthewater.

Criticalangle

1
Is defined as the angle of incidence in the denser medium when the angle of
Refractiveindex,n=

refractioninthelessdensemediumis90.
sin c
c=criticalangle
Statesthatwhentheangleofincidenceisfurtherincreasesothatitisgreaterthan Example:mirage,opticalfibre
thecriticalangle,thenthelightisnolongerrefractedbutitisreflectedinternally.
Isapointwherealltherayswillfocusat.

IsthedistancebetweenthecentreofthelenswiththeprincipleF.

Isthereciprocalofthefocallengthofalens.
Poweroflens,P=1/f
f=focallength(mustconverttounitmetre)
UnitofpoweroflensisDioptreorD

Formulaoflens: 1 + 1 = 1

Totalinternalreflection
Focalpoint
Focallength,f
Poweroflens

Refractiveindex,n=

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Real Depth
Apparent Depth

u=objectdistance,v=imagedistance,f=focallength
Imagemagnification,m=v/u

PHYSICSTERM
Wave
Transversewave

DEFINITION
EXAMPLE/QUESTION
FORM5CHAPTER1WAVES
Isthevibrationoroscillationofparticlewhichtransfersenergywithouttransferring
matterandthesevibrationsarerepeatedperiodically.
Is a wave where the direction of vibrations of particles is perpendicular to the Anytypesofwavesexceptsoundwave!!
propagationofwave
Forexample:electromagneticwave,light,waterwave
#producecrestsandtroughs

Longitudinalwave

Isawavewherethedirectionofvibrationsofparticlesisparalleltothepropagation Soundwaveonly
ofwave
#Produceaseriesofcompressionsandrarefactions

Dampedoscillations

Isanoscillationwhereitsamplitudedecreaseswithtimebutthefrequencyremains
constantandthisvibrationwillcometoastop.

Resonance

Is the vibration where is forced frequency is equal to the natural frequency of the
object.
Asoundwhereitdependsonitsamplitude
Asoundwhereitdependsonitsfrequency
Refraction,diffraction,reflectionandinterference
Refractionpassesthrough/seethroughthemedium
frequencyconstant
decreaseinspeed,wavelength(deeptoshalloworlessdensetodenser)

Loudnessofsound
Pitchofsound
Phenomenonofwave
Refraction

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Example:Bridgefallsbywindblow

PHYSICSTERM
Diffraction

DEFINITION
Diffractionpassesthroughthegaporhole
frequency,wavelengthandspeedconstant
changeinshapeonlydependsonsizeofgap

EXAMPLE/QUESTION
Wavelengthissmallerthansizeofgap
diffractioneffectislessobvious
strongerenergyofwaveenteringthegap

Wavelengthisbiggerthansizeofgap
diffractioneffectismoreobvious
lesserenergyofwaveenteringthegap

Reflection

Interference

Diffractiongoandreboundedbyshinnysurfaceorreflector
frequency,wavelengthandspeedconstant
changeindirectionofmovingonly
Interferenceresultantofallwaves

AntinodeAlinejoiningalltheconstructivepoints
NodeAlinejoiningallthedestructivepoints

Wavelength,=

ax
D

a=sizeofgap/distancebetweensource
x=distancebetweentwoadjacentbrightfringeOR
distancebetweentwoadjacentdarkfringe
D=distancebetweenthescreenwithgaps

Monochromaticlight
Isonewavelengthoronecolouroflight

Coherent
Samefrequencyandsamephase

Electromagneticspectrum
Isthecontinuousspreadoflightrayintosevencolourswithdifferentwavelengths Gammaray(highfrequency,lowwavelength)dangerous
andfrequencies.
andkillscancercells
#Gamma,Xray,ultraviolet,visiblelight,infrared,microwave,radiowave
Xray(Scanning),ultraviolet(detectforgenote),
infrared(shortdistancelinking),microwave(heatingand
satellite),radiowave(aerial/signalreceiver)
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PHYSICSTERM
Charge

DEFINITION
FORM5CHAPTER2ELECTRICITY
Isthetotalamountofelectronsflow

EXAMPLE/QUESTION
Charge,Q=nen=numberofelectrons,e=1.67x1019C
Charge,Q=ItI=current,t=timeinseconds

UnitforchargeiscoulomborC
I=Q/t
UnitforcurrentisampereorA

##Lowcurrentifhighresistance!!
Higherresistanceproducemoreheat
morevoltage
lowercurrent

Unitforresistanceisohmor

Current

Istherateofelectronflow

Resistance

Istheoppositionofcurrentflow.
Note:Resistance,R=L/A
Higherresistancehigherresistivity,longerwirelengthbutthinnerwire
Coppergoodconductorofelectricity
Aluminiumgoodaselectriccableascheapandlowrustingrate
Tungstengoodasfilamentbulbasitcanionizeeasilytogiveoutray
Copperveryhighresistanceandthusitisgoodasheatingelement
Is the work done when one coulomb of charge passes from one point to another Voltage,V=IR
point

##Morevoltageifhighresistance!!
##Highvoltagedoesnotmeanhighcurrent!!
##Highvoltagecansayhighresistance!!
States that the potential difference across an ohmic conductor is directly OhmslawmeansV=IR
proportional to its current flow such that the temperature and other physical
quantityarekeptconstant!
##AnytypesofwiresobeyOhmslaw
##Bulbandheatingmaterialsdoesnotobeyohmslaw

Voltage
Potentialdifference

Ohmslaw

Electricalenergy

Totalworkdonetomoveonecoulombofchargeinonesecond

Electricpower

Istherateofelectricenergy

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Electricalenergy,E=VIttinsecond

InunitJouleorJ
Power,P=IV=V2/R=I2/R

InunitWattorW

PHYSICSTERM
240V,300W

Fuse

Electromagnet
Righthandgriprule
Flemingslefthandrule

Flemingsrighthandrule

Lenzslaw

Faradayslaw
Inducedcurrent

Thermionicemission

Cathoderayoscilloscope

DEFINITION
EXAMPLE/QUESTION
Means the device is supplied with potential difference of 240 V and releases the 240V,300WV=240
powerat300Joulesinonesecond
P=300
FromP=IV
300=I(240)
I=1.25A
Isanelectriccomponentinstalledinelectricsockettosurgethepowerdownonce Fusemustcangethoteasily
thecurrentisoverloadedbyburningthefuseitself
canbeburnteasily
lowmeltingpoint
highresistanceandproducesheatfast
FORM5CHAPTER3ELECTROMAGNETISM
Istheflowofelectricaroundthecoilofwirewhichproducemagnet

Statethatforacurrentcarryingconductor,thethumbwillpointtothedirectionof
currentflowwhereastherestoffingerwillpointtothemagneticdirection
Statethatwhenthethumb,forefingerandmiddlefingerareextendedattheright Forelectricmotorwhichcarriescurrent
angletoeachothersforsystemwhichcarriescurrent,thenthethumbwillshowthe Thumbdirectionofforce
magnetic force, the forefinger will point to the direction of magnetic field and the Forefingerdirectionofmagnet(fromnorthtosouth)
middlefingerwillpointtothecurrentdirection.
Middlefingercurrentdirection

Statethatwhenthethumb,forefingerandmiddlefingerareextendedattheright Forelectricdynamowhichgenerateelectriccurrent
angle to each others for system generating current, then the thumb will show the Thumbdirectionofforce
magnetic force, the forefinger will point to the direction of magnetic field and the Forefingerdirectionofmagnet(fromnorthtosouth)
middlefingerwillpointtothecurrentdirection.
Middlefingercurrentdirection

States that the direction of induced current is always opposing to the direction determinethedirectionofinducedcurrent
whichproducesthecurrent.
determinethemagneticpole(northorsouth)

Statesthatthemagnitudeofinducedcurrentisalwaysdirectlyproportionaltothe determinethemagnitudeofinducedcurrent
rateofmagneticfluxbeingcutbymovingmagnetinsolenoid
Is the produce of current by movement of magnet bar in solenoid and there is no
physicalcontactbetweenthem
FORM5CHAPTER4ELECTRONICS
Istheprocessofreleasingelectronsfromtheheatedcathode
Moreelectronscanbereleasedif
cathodeisheatedathightemperature
moresurfaceareaisexposedtoheat
typeofmaterialwhichcanproducemoreelectrons
Is a device used to display waveform, measure short time intervals or to measure
thepotentialdifference

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PHYSICSTERM
Rectification
Semiconductor

Logicgate

Radioisotopes
Radioactivity
Spontaneous
Random
Halflife
Whatisalpha

Whatisbeta

Whatisgamma

DEFINITION
EXAMPLE/QUESTION
Istheprocessofchangingalternatingcurrenttodirectcurrent
Usediode
Isamaterialwhichhastheconductivitybetweentheconductorandinsulatorandits ptypesemiconductorsilicondopedwithtrivalent
conductivitycanbeimprovedbyincreasingitstemperature.
majoritychargecarrierofhole

ntypesemiconductorsilicondopedwithpentavalent
majoritychargecarrierwhichis
calledelectron
Isgatewhichhasoneormorethanoneinputsbutwithonlyoneoutputandlogic
gatesarereferredtoswitch

FORM5CHAPTER5RADIOACTIVITY
Isunstablesubstancewhichhassameprotonnumberbutdifferentnucleonnumber
Is the spontaneous and random disintegration of unstable substance to become
stablenucleusbyemittingradiationsandhugeenergy
Meanshappenautomaticallybyitselfwithouttriggeredbyanyexternalsourcelike
temperatureorpressure
Meansthereisnowaytotellwhichradioisotopewillundergothedecayprocessand
whenitwillhappen
Isthetimetakenforhalfoftheradioactivesubstancetodisintegrateordecay

Alphaisheliumparticle
Range0fewcm(canbestoppedbypaper)
highionizingpower(canchangethestructureof)
positiveheavychargewithsmalldeflectiontoward
negativeplate
deflectupfromthemagneticfield
lowpenetratingpower
movesstraightin
Betaisafastmovingelectronbeam
Range0fewm(canbestoppedbyaluminiumfoil)
mediumionizingpowerandpenetratingpower
negativelightchargewithbigdeflectiontoward
positiveplate
deflectdownfromthemagneticfield
Gammaisanenergeticelectromagneticray
Range0fewhundredm
(canbestoppedonlybylead)
lowionizingpower
veryhighpenetratingpower(killthe.)
nochargeandnodeflectionneitherinelectricfield
normagneticfield

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PHYSICSTERM
Nuclearfusion
Nuclearfission

Chainreaction

DEFINITION
EXAMPLE/QUESTION
is the combining of two lighter nuclei to form a heavier nucleus, releasing a vast
amountofenergyduringtheprocess
isthesplittingofaheavynucleusintotwolighternucleiafterthenucleusofanatom 1 n 235U 91Kr 142Ba 3 1 n Energy
0
92
36
56
0
is bombarded with a neutron with the release of a large amount of energy during
theprocess.
isaselfsustainingreactioninwhichtheproductsofareactioncaninitiateanother Theprocessisexpandingandnonstopasthenumberof
similar reaction. For instance, as uranium atoms continue to split, a significant neutronskeepsonmultiplyingwithtime
amountofenergyisreleasedduringeachreaction.Theheatreleasedisharnessed
andusedtogenerateelectricalenergy.

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PART2:MASTERINGTHEPROBLEMSOLVING[EXPLAININGTHEPROCESS]
1

Diagram1showsthephenomenonofseabreeze.

1st:Betaisusedforpaperdetectionasithasmediumpenetratingpoweranditspenetration
powervarieswiththethicknessofpaper.
2nd:Betaislocatedunderneaththepaper.Theratemeter(GeigerMullertube)whichisconnected
tothesignalgeneratorislocatedabovethepaper.
3rd:Thedetectorismovedalongthepapertodetecttheamountofradioisotopeswhichhas
penetratedthroughthepaper.
4th:Theregionwhereshowshighreadingindicatesthatthepaperisverythinasmostofthe
betacanpenetratethroughit.So,thecompressorwillbetriggeredtostopcompressingthe
paper.
5th:Theregionwhereshowslowreadingwillindicatethatthepaperisverythickasmostofthe
betacannotpenetratethroughit.So,thecompressorwillbetriggeredtocompressthepaper

Diagram1
Using the concept of specific heat capacity, explain how the phenomenon of sea
breezeoccurs.
Answer
Seabreeze
1st:Seabreezehappensduringdaytime.
2nd:Thelandhaslowerspecificheatcapacity
thanthesea.
3rd:Thelandisfastergettinghotthanthe
seawhenexposedtosunlight.
4th:Theairmoleculesatlandarefaster
heatedup.
5th:Thehotairmoleculesatlandwillriseup
andreplacedwithcoolairfromthesea.
6th:Movementofcoolairmoleculesfromthe
seatothelandiscalledtheseabreeze.

Landbreeze[Extranote]
1st:Landbreezehappensduringnighttime.
2nd:Thelandhaslowerspecificheatcapacity
thanthesea.
3rd:Theseaisslowergettingcoldthanthe
seaatnightime.
4th:Theairmoleculesatseaareslowerbeing
cooleddown.
5th:Thehotairmoleculesatseawillriseup
andreplacedwithcoolairfromtheland.
6th:Movementofcoolairmoleculesfromthe
landtotheseaiscalledthelandbreeze.

Diagram2showsarelayusedinanelectricalcircuit.

Diagram2
Explaintheworkingprincipleofrelayswitch.
Answer

Diagram4showsaBunsenburner.

Diagram4
ExplainhowtheBunsenburnercanproduceasmallblueflameorbigyellowreddish
flame.
Answer
Smallblueflame
Whentheairholeisopened,thereisahigh
airspeedflowbetweentheinnerofBunsen
burnerwiththesurroundingair.
AccordingtoBernoullisprinciple,highair
speedwillresultinlowpressureinsidethe
Bunsenburner.
Thislowairpressurecannotpushupthe
flamehighandcausesasmallflame
Theflameisbluebecausethereisa
completecombustionastheairholeis
opened

1st:Theworkingprincipleofrelayswitchisbasedontheelectromagnetconcept.
2nd:Therelayswitchhasthesoftironcoreinsidewiththecoilofwire.
3rd:Whenasmallcurrentflowsintotherelayswitch,thesystemismagnetizedandproduces
magneticforce.
4th:Themagneticforcewillpulltheswitchandcompletethecircuit.
5th:Whenthecurrenttotherelayswitchiscutoff,thesystemisdemagnetizedandtheswitchis
released.

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Explain the arrangement of the paper thickness detector apparatus and state how
radioactivityisusedtodetectthethicknessofthepaper.
Explaintheprocessofdetectionofpaperthicknessinfactorywithuseofonenamed
radioisotope.
Answer

12

Bigyellowreddishflame
Whentheairholeisclosed,thereisnoair
speedflowbetweentheinnerofBunsen
burnerwiththesurroundingair.
AccordingtoBernoullisprinciple,lowair
speedwillresultinhighpressureinsidethe
Bunsenburner.
Thishighairpressurecanpushuptheflame
highandresultinbigflame
Theflameisyellowreddishbecausethe
combustionisnotcompleteastheairholeis
closed.

Youaregiventwocoils,P andQ,with100turnsand500turnsrespectively,asolid
coreanda240Va.c.powersupply.Usingallthematerialssuppliedandwiththeaid
oflabeleddiagram,showshowyoucanbuildasimplestepdowntransformer.
Answer

Diagram8.1andDiagram8.2showsanexperimenttostudytherelationshipbetween
thepressureandvolumeofairtrappedinanairtightcontainer.Thepistonsforboth
diagramsarepusheddownslowly.

AsimplestepdowntransformercanbeconstructedusingasoftUshapeironcorewithnumber
ofinputcoilsismorethantheoutputcorewhichisusingana.c.inputvoltageasshownbelow:

Remember:Transformermustuseinputa.cvoltage

Diagram8.1Diagram8.2
Theexperimentaboveisusuallyapplicableifagasexpandsorcompressedslowly.
Whyisthisso?
Answer

Explain how you would go to escape from being chased by a bull based on one
concept.
Answer

1st:TheBoyleslawisapplicableifthetemperatureofthegasisconstant.
2nd:Thegasmustbeexpandedorcompressedslowlyastoreducethecollisionbetweenthe
moleculesofgas.
3rd:Thecollisionofmoleculesincreasethefrictionofmoleculesbetweenthemandthisfriction
willproduceheat.
4th:Iftheheatproduced,thenthetemperatureofthegasisnotconstantalready.

1st:Iwillperformmyruninzigzagdirectionswithnodefinitedirectionofrun.
2nd:Thebullhasbiggermassifcomparedtome.
3rd:Thismeansthatthebullwillhasbiggerinertiaastheinertiadependsonthemass.
4th:Duetoinertia,thebullishardertochangeitsdirectionandwilllosecontrolandfall

Diagram7.1and7.2 showtwoidenticalblockA andblockB hangingbystringX and


string Z. In Diagram 7.1, the string W is given by an increasing gradually of pulling
force.InDiagram7.2,thestringYisgivenbyasharppullandfast.

1st:reducespowerlossduringtransmission
2nd:thesupplyofelectricityismorestableandreliable
3rd:electricitycanbedistributedtodifferentusersaccordingtothevoltagerequirement
4th:maintenanceandrepairworkofpowerstations,cableandpylonscanbedoneatanytime

Diagram7.1:PulledgentlyDiagram7.2:Pulledveryfast
(a) InDiagram7.1,explainwhatwillhappenifthestringW isgivenbyanincreasing
graduallyofpullingforce.
Answer

10

(b) InDiagram7.2,explainwhatwillhappenifthestringWisgivenbyasharppull
andfast.
Answer
IfthestringWisgivenbyasharppullandfast,thestringYitselfwillcrack.
Reason:
IfthestringYisgivenbyasharppullandfast,thestringYwillpossessaninertiawhichwill
tendtoresistthesuddenpullexertingontoit.Asaresult,stringYwillcrack.

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Explainwhyaspringiselastic?
Answer
1st:Undernormalcircumstances,thespringhasitsattractiveandrepulsiveforcesbetween
neighbouringatomswhicharebalancingoneanother.
2nd:Whenthespringisstretched,theattractiveforcesbetweenneighbouringatomsactto
againsttheforcethattriestoseparatethem.
3rd:Whenthespringiscompressed,therepulsiveforcesbetweenneighbouringatomsactto
resisttheforcethattriestobringthemtogether.
4th:Itisthecombinedactionoftheattractiveandrepulsiveforcesthatenablethespringto
resumetoitsoriginalshapeandsizewhentheexternalforcethatactsonitisremoved.

IfthestringWisgivenbyanincreasinggraduallyofpullingforce,thestringXwillcrack.
Reason:
ThepullingforcewillbetransferredfromstringWtothestringX.
StringXhastosupportthepullingforceandalsohastosupporttheweightofblockAat
thesametime.So,stringXwillcrack.

Largegeneratorsareusedtogeneratetheelectricitythatwillbeusedinthecountry.
ElectricityisdistributedthroughoutthecountrybytheNationalGridNetwork.
StatefouradvantagesintheuseoftheNationalGridNetworktodistributeelectricity
totheconsumers.
Answer

13

11 A small amount of impurities are normally added into the pure crystal of
semiconductorastoimprovetheconductivityofsemiconductor.

(a) Withaidofdiagram,explainhowyougotoproduceaptypesemiconductor.
Answer

12

1st:Asemiconductorlikessiliconhasfourvalenceelectrons.
2nd:Toproduceaptypesemiconductor,itmustbedopedwithelementwhichhasthree
valenceelectrons.
3rd:Elementwithindiumatomisdopedintothesiliconandproducesanemptyspacein
indiumasshownbelow,

Diagram12 showsthepatternofseawaveswhenapproachingthebeach.

Diagram12
ExplainintermsofthewavephenomenainDiagram12,whythewaterwavesfollow
theshapeofthebeachasitapproachestheshore.
Answer
1st:Whenthewavesrefractfromdeepseatoshallowersea,boththewavelengthandenergy
decrease.
2nd:Therefore,itbecomesweakerandfollowstheshapeofthebeach.

13

4th:Thisemptyspaceiscalledtheholeandbecomethemajoritychargecarriertothe
semiconductor.
5th:Asaresult,thesemiconductorbecomesptypewithmajoritychargecarrierwhichis
calledthehole.

Diagramshowsasoundwaveproducedbyvibrationofatuningfork.Thesoundwave
travelsinair.

WiththehelpofDiagram13,explainhowthesoundwaveisproduced.
Answer
1st:Whenatuningforkvibrates,airmoleculeswillvibrate.
2nd:Whenthetuningforkmovesforwards,theairiscompressed.
3rd:Whenthetuningforkmovesbackwards,theairlayersarepulledapartand
causetherarefaction.
4th:Therefore,aseriesofcompressionandrarefactionswillproducesound.
5th:Thesoundenergyispropagatedthroughtheairarounditintheformofwaves.

11 (b) Withaidofdiagram,explainhowyougotoproducentypesemiconductor.
Answer
1st:Asemiconductorlikessiliconhasfourvalenceelectrons.
2nd:Toproduceantypesemiconductor,itmustbedopedwithelementwhichhasfive
valenceelectrons.
3rd:Elementwitharsenicatomisdopedintothesiliconandproducesanextraelectron
aroundthearsenicasshownbelow,

14

Diagramshowsatransformer.Atransformerisoperatedbasedontheprincipleof
electromagneticinduction.

Explaintheworkingprincipleoftransformer.

1st:Theworkingprincipleoftransformerisbasedonelectromagneticinductionwiththeinput
voltagemustbealternatingcurrent.
2nd:Whenanalternatinginputcurrentflowsinprimarycoil,itinducesamagneticfluxaround
thecoil.
3rd:Thisinducedmagneticfluxwillbeinducedtothesecondarycoil.
4th:Themagnitudeofe.m.f.inducedtothesecondarycoilsdependsonthenumberofsecondary
coilsbesidesthecoreislaminatedorsoftornot.
5th:Thisinducede.m.fwillproduceaninducedvoltageandalsoinducedcurrenttothebulbto
lighton.

4th:Thisextraelectronwillmovefreelyandbecomethemajoritychargecarriertothe
semiconductor.
5th:Asaresult,thesemiconductorbecomesntypewithmajoritychargecarrierwhichis
calledtheelectron.

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14

PART3:QUESTIONANSWERORIENTATED[SELECTEDTOPICS]
1
Diagram1.1showsanverniercallipers.

10 11 12

Diagram 2.1 shows a student taking the reading of thermometer at three


differentpositions,P,QandR.

13 14 15

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Mainscale

Vernierscale

Diagram1.1
Namethephysicalquantitybeingmeasuredbyverniercalipers.

(a)

(b)

(i)

NamethepartlabeledZ.

(ii)

StatethefunctionofpartZ.

(c)

Whatisthesensitivityoftheverniercalipers?

(d)

(a)

(b)

Temperature

Diameter
Tail

Vectorquantity
Whatisthesmallestscaledivisionofthescaleofthethermometerin
Diagram2.1?

(c)

(d)

Whatisthecorrectpositionofthestudenttotakethereadingofthe
scaleofthermometer?

(e)

What is the reading of the thermometer based on your position in


2(d)?

(f)

Explainwhythemercuryisusedinthermometer?

0.01cm

0.1C

Nameonemeasuringinstrumentwhichismoresensitivethanvernier
calipers.
Micrometerscrewgauge

(e)

Whatisthetypeofphysicalquantityyounamein2(a)?Tickthecorrect
answerintheboxprovided.
Scalarquantity

Tomeasurethedepth

Diagram2.1
Namethephysicalquantitybeingmeasuredbythermometer.

AtpositionQ

Diagram1.2showsthereadingoftheverniercaliperswhenthejawsis
closed.

28.7C

Itissensitivetotheheat.
Itdoesnotsticktothewallofcapillarytubeinthermometer.
Itissensitivetowiderangeoftemperature.
Itisagoodheatconductor

Diagram1.2

BasedonDiagram1.2:
(i) Namethetypeoferroroccurred.
(ii)

Nameoneprincipleinvolvedforthemeasuringofthermometer.

(h)

Stateawaytoincreasethesensitivityofthermometerbeingmade?
Makethecapillarytubenarrowerwiththinnerstem.

Statethevalueoftheerror.

(i)

Nameatypeoferrorduetothewrongpositioningofeyesduringscale
reading.
Parallaxerror

Valueis0.03cm[Remember:Negativereadfrombehind]

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(g)

Thermalequilibriumconcept

Zeroerror

15

Diagram3.1showsanimageisformedbyacurvedmirror.

(g)

Explain how to use a concave mirror to heat up water in a container


usingsolarenergy.
1st:concavemirrorcanreflecttheparallelsunlight.
2nd:Thereflectedraysareconvergingtofocalpoint
3rd:Thefocalpointisplacedwiththewatertobeheated

(a)

(b)

Diagram3.1
Namethelightphenomenoninvolved.

(h)

Diagram 3.3 shows a microscope. You are given two convex lenses P
andQ,withfocallengthsof20cmand5cmrespectively.Bothofthe
lensesareusedtobuildamicroscope.

Reflection

NamethetypeofmirrorasshowninDiagram3.1.
Convexmirror

(c)

(i)

CompletetheraydiagraminDiagram3.2toshowtheformation
ofimage.

Diagram3.3
Whatismeantbyfocallength?

FocallengthisthedistancebetweenthecentreoflenswiththeprincipalF.

Diagram3.2

Answer

(ii)

(d)

Stateoneuseofthismirrorindailylife

Stateonecharacteristicoftheimageformed.

Distancebetweentheobjectiveand
eyepiecelensmustbebiggerthanthe
sumoffocallengthsofbothlens
Storethemicroscopeatcoolanddryplace

Asmirroratsharpcornerofroad//parkingarea
Asmirrorinsidethesupermarkettoviewunwantedactivitiesofshoplifter

(e)
(f)

Whythismirrorisusedin3(d)insteadofothertypesofmirrors?
Haswiderviewofvision
Whathappentothesizeofimageiftheobjectisplacednearertothe
mirror?

Installoneconcavemirrorunderneaththe
slaid

Sizeofimageincreases

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Using an appropriate physics concept, suggest and explain suitable


modifications to enable the microscope to form brighter and clear
image.Yourmodificationscanbeemphasizedonthefollowingaspects:
Theselectionoflensasobjectivelensandasaneyepiece
Thediameterofthelens
Thedistancebetweentheobjectivelensandeyepiece
Conditionoftheplacetostorethemicroscope
.Additionalcomponenttothemicroscope
Answer
Suggestion
Shorterfocallengthasobjectivelens
Longerfocallengthaseyepiecelens
Diameteroflensmustbebig

Upright//Diminished//Virtual

16

Reason
Producebigimagemagnification
Morerefractionoflightsandthusthe
imageisbrightandclearq
Atnormaladjustment

Preventtheactivitiesoffungusonthe
lenses
Thereflectedrayisconvergingtothe
slaid

Diagram 5.4 shows an astronomical telescope to be used to view distant


objects.

(a)

Whatismeantbyfocallength?

(b)

UsingDiagram6.1andDiagram6.2,compare;
(i) Thefocallengthofthelens.

(ii)

(iii) Theheightofimage,h1andh2.

(iv) State the relationship between the object distance and the
heightofimage.

FocallengthisthedistancebetweenthecentreoflenswithitsprincipalF.

Boththelenseshavethesamefocallength.

Diagram5.4
Table5.4showsthecharacteristicsoffourdifferenttelescopes.
Telescope Typeof
Focallengthof
Poweroflens Diameterof

lens
objectivelens
lens
S
Convex
40
10
5.0
T
Concave
10
40
5.0
U
Convex
10
40
2.5
V
Concave
40
10
2.5
Explainthesuitabilityofeachcharacteristicofthetelescopeanddetermine
the most suitable telescope to be used to observe very far object. Give
reasonforyourchoice.
Answer

u1isshorterthanu2.
h1islongerthanh2.

Shortertheobjectdistance,longertheheightofimage.

(v)

(c)

Diagram6.3showsanobject,Oplacedatthefrontofaconcavelensof
focallength2cm.Thelightraysoftheobjectpassingthroughthelens
usingthelightphenomenonin6(b)(ii).

Reason
Thelightisconvergingtoonepoint
Toviewdistantobject
Toproducebigmagnificationofimage
More refraction of lights and thus the
imageisbrighterandclearer
So,thetelescopeSischosenbecauseitusesconvexlens,focal lengthoftheobjectivelensis
long,powerofthelensisbigandthediameterofthelensisbig.

Diagram6.1andDiagram6.2showtwoidenticalobjectslocatedatdifferent
positionsinfrontofidenticalconvexlens.Realimageswithdifferentheight
areproduced.

(i)

Diagram6.3

Sketchraydiagramoftheobjecttoshowanimageisformed.

(ii)

Statethreecharacteristicsoftheimageformed.

(iii) Stateoneuseofconcavelens.

Diagram6.1

Name the light phenomenon that occurs in Diagram 6.1 and


Diagram6.2.
Refraction

Characteristics
Useconvexlens
Focallengthofobjectivelensmustbebig
Poweroflensisbig
Diameteroflensmustbebig

Theobjectdistance,u1andu2.

Upright//Diminished//Virtual
Tomakespectaclelens

Diagram6.2

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17

Diagram 7.1 shows a method used to detect leakage of pipes lay


underground. A little radioisotope substance is dissolved in the water that
flowsinthepipes.AGeigerMullertubewhichisconnectedtotheratemeter
is then moved over the pipes according to the layout plan of the
undergroundpipes.

(ii)

Explainyouranswerin7(d)(i).
Alphaispositivechargeandthusdeflectedtonegativeplate.
Betaisnegativechargeandthusdeflectedtopositiveplate.

(iii) Calculatethenumberofparticleandparticlethatemittedin
theThorium234decaysafterwritingthedecayequation.
Answer
234
90

4
0
Th 226
88 Ra +2( 2 He )+2( 1 e )+Energy

So,releasetwoalphasandtwobetas.

Diagram7.1
Table7.1showsthereadingsoftheratemeteratthedifferentlocations.
LocationofGeigerMullerTube A
B
C
D
E
F
Readingoftheratemeter
290 295 284 372 290 216
(countsperminute)
Table7.1
(a) Whatismeantbyradioisotope?
(b)

(c)

Based on Table 7.1, state the location on the pipe where the leakage
takesplace.Statereasonforyouranswer.

Diagram 7.2 shows a nuclide Thorium234,

234
90

Th is placed in a

container.Thorium234nuclidedecaystoanuclideRadium226, 226
88 Ra
byemittingparticleandparticle.
Thoriumnuclide

Bekas

(i)

(v)

(d)

Table7.1showsthecharacteristicsoffiveradioisotopesP,Q,R,SandT.
Radioisotope Halflife Ionizing Radiation
Stateof
power
matter
P
5minutes
Low
Gamma
Liquid
Q
8days
High
Alpha
Solid
R
6hours
Low
Gamma
Liquid
S
5years
Low
Beta
Solid
T
7hours
High
Alpha
Liquid
Table7.1
Asamedicalofficer,youarerequired todeterminethemostsuitable
radioisotopeasaradiotherapytreatmentforabraintumor.Explainthe
characteristicsofallthefiveradioisotopesgivenandthen,choosethe
mostsuitableradioisotopetobeused.Justifyyourchoice.
Answer

Definethemeaningofhalflife.

Reason
Does not give long term effect to the
patientasitdecaysfast
Theionizingpowermustbelow
Does not change the structure of
substantialcells
Usegammaradiation
Has high penetrating power which can
killthecancercells
Stateofmatterisliquid
Easy to put into the area of tumor by
injection
So, the radioisotope P is chosen as its halflife is short, has low ionizing power, use
gammaradiationandisinliquidstate.

Diagram7.2
InDiagram7.2,drawthepathofparticleandparticle.
Answer

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Characteristics
Useshorthalflife

Nuklidathorium

Container

Thorium234 has halflife of 20 days and initial mass of 48 g.


CalculatethemassofundecayedThorium234after60days.

Halflifeisthetimetakenforhalfoftheradioactivesubstancetodecay.

LocationDshowstheleakagetakesplace.
Becausesuddenincreaseinthereadingofratemetershowingthattheradioisotopeis
comingoutfromtheleakagetobedetectedbyratemeter.

(iv)

48g24g12g6g
202020
So,massundecayedis20g.

Radioisotope is an unstable nucleus which has same proton number but different
nucleonnumber.

18

Neptunium239( 239
93 Np )has93protonsanddecaystonuclideXwithproton
numberof94.
ThemassofNeptunium=239.04251am.u
massofnuclideX=239.02312a.m.u
Massofelectron=0.00054a.m.u,1a.m.u=1.67x1027kg,
Speedoflight,c=3x108ms1
(a) Whatisthemeaningofprotonnumber?

(b)

Protonnumberisthetotalnumberofprotoncontainedinnucleus.

NametheradiationgivenoutinthedecayofNeptunium239.
Betaparticle

(c)

WritethedecayequationforthedecayofNeptunium239.
239
93 Np

0
239
94 X + 1 e +Energy

(d)

(i)

Statethetypeofnuclearprocessfor8(c).

(ii)

Calculatethemassdefect,inkg,inthisnuclearprocess.

Nuclearfission

Characteristics
Typeofreactionisfission
Halflifeofnuclearfuelmustbelong

Reason
Reactioncanoccuratlowtemperature
Canbeusedforlongertimewiththeleast
ofreplacement
Specificheatcapacitymustbelow
Heatupfaster
Materialofshieldmustbeconcrete
Lessleakageofradiation
So,thedesignRischosenbecauseitstypeofreactionisfission,halflifeofthefuelis
long,specificheatcapacityofgasislowandmaterialoftheshieldisconcrete.

Totalmassbefore=239.04251a.m.u
Totalmassafter=239.02312a.m.u+0.00054a.m.u
=239.02366a.m.u
Totalmassdefect=239.04251a.m.u239.02366a.m.u
=0.01885a.m.u
=0.01885x1.67x1027kg
=3.14795x1029kg

(iii) Calculatethetotalenergyreleasedinthisprocess.

FromEinsteinstheory,E=mc2
So,energy=(3.14795x1029)(3x108)2J
=2.83x1012J

(e)

Diagram 8.1 shows the schematic diagram of a nuclear reactor at a


nuclearpowerstation.

Diagram8.1

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Table8.1showsthefourdesignsP,Q,RandSofnuclearreactorwith
differentspecifications.
Design Typeof
Halflifeof
Specificheat
Materialof
reaction nuclearfuel capacityofgas shield
P
Fusion
Long
Low
Brick
Q
Fission
Short
High
Concrete
R
Fission
Long
Low
Concrete
S
Fusion
Short
High
Brick
Table8.1
You are required to determine the most suitable design of nuclear
reactorsothatthenuclearenergycanbeusedefficientlyandsafelyin
the generation of electricity. Determine the most suitable design and
justifyyourchoice.
Answer

(f)

Table8.2showsthecharacteristicsoffourradioisotopesP,Q,RandS.
Radioisotope Halflife Typesof Stateof
Ionising
ray
matter
power
P
7hours Alpha
Solid
High
Q
7years Gamma
Solid
Low
R
10days Gamma Liquid
High
S
8years
Beta
Solid
Low
Table8.2
Asafactoryengineer,youarerequiredtodeterminethemostsuitable
radioisotope that can be used to detect the volume of guava juice in
tin.Determinethemostsuitableradioisotopeandgivethereasonfor
yourchoice.Answer
Characteristics
Reason
Uselonghalflife
Canbeusedforlongertimewithlessrefillmentcost
Usegammaray
Canpenetratethetintosee
Physicalstateissolid
Easytohandle
Ionizingpowerislow
Doesnotchangethetasteofjuiceinside
So,radioisotopeQischosenasitshalflifeisshort,usegammaray,insolidstateand
haslowionizingpower.

19

Diagram9.1andDiagram9.2showmovementsofidenticalbarmagnetinto
thesolenoid withthesameforceastoproduce current.Bothsolenoidsare
madeofsamewireswhichareconnectedtoazerocenteredgalvanometer.

Coilofinsulatedcopperwire
Gegelungdawaikuprumbertebat

Magnet

Magnet
Softironcore
Terasbesilembut

Diagram9.1Diagram9.2
(a) Underline the correct answer in the bracket to complete the sentence
below.
The method of producing current without electrical supply is called
(electromagnet,electromagneticinduction).
(b) OnDiagram9.1andDiagram9.2:

(i) StatethepolarityofregionP.

(ii) Namethelawusedtodeterminethepolarityin9(b)(i).

(c)

BasedonDiagram9.1andDiagram9.2,compare:
(i) Thenumberofturnsofcoils

Diagram9.3
Explainhowthebicycledynamoworkstoproducealternatingcurrent
tolightupthelamp.
1st:Thecoilrotateswithinthemagneticfield.
2nd:Magneticfieldlinescutbythecoil.
3rd:Cutofmagneticfieldlinescausestheinducedcurrentflowinthecircuit

(g)

Diagram9.4showsamovingcoilammeterwhichislesssensitive.

Northpole
Lenzslaw

Diagram9.4
Explainhowyouwoulddesignamovingcoilammeterthatcanfunction
better.Inyourexplanation,emphasizethefollowingaspects:
NumberofturnsofcoilMaterialofcore
ShapeofthemagnetStiffnessofhairspring
Typeoftheammeterscale
Additionalcomponenttogiveaccuratereading
Answer

NumberofturnsofcoilsinDiagram9.1ismorethaninDiagram9.2

(ii) Deflectionofthepointerofthegalvanometer
DeflectionofpointerofgalvanometerishigherinDiagram9.1thaninDiagram
9.2

(d)

Statetherelationshipbetweenthenumberofturnsofcoilsand
(i) deflectionofthepointerofthegalvanometer

(ii) magnitudeofinducedcurrent

(e)

State what will happen to the deflection of galvanometer if a soft


magnetisused?

(f)

Morenumberofturnsofcoils,moredeflectionofthepointerofgalvanometer

Suggestion
Morenumberofturnsofcoils
Softironcorematerial
Curvemagnet
Lowstiffnessofhairspring
Stripmirrorunderthepointer
Hasadjustmentscrew

Morenumberofturnsofcoils,highermagnitudeofinducedcurrent

Deflectionofgalvanometerwillincrease

Diagram9.3showsacrosssectionofabicycledynamowhichhastwo
magnets with difference pole, a coil of insulated copper wire. The
outputofthedynamoisconnectedtothebicyclelamp.

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20

Reason
Increasemagneticfieldstrength
Canbemagnetisedordemagnetizedeasily
Produceradialmagneticfield
Thepointeriseasiertodeflect
Toavoidparallaxerror
Tocorrectthezeroerror

10

Diagram10.1showsthreetransformersX,YandZ.Eachtransformerhasits
own specific number of turns of primary and secondary coils respectively.
Each transformer is connected to 240 V alternating current suppliers. The
output for each transformer is connected to electric filament bulbs in
differentarrangement.

(d)

A student wants to build a simple transformer. Table 10.1 shows the


characteristicoffourcores.
Core
Shapeofthe Materialof
Typeof
Thicknessof
core
core
core
wire
A
Softiron
Laminated
Thick
B
Steel
Single
Thin
C
D

TransformerXTransformerYTransformerZ
Diagram10.1
(a) Whatistransformer?

(b)

(i)

StatethetypeoftransformerusedinDiagram10.1.

(ii)

Stateonereasonwhythea.c.voltageissupplied.

Sothatthevoltagecanbealternatedaccordingtothechangingmagneticflux
beinginducedtosecondarycoilintransformer

(iii) Statethefunctionofdiodeinthecircuit.

(b)

Statetheprincipleappliedfortheworkingprincipleoftransformer.

(c)

Thin
Thick

Characteristics
Reason
ShapeofcoreisUshape
Centralizethemagnetfromleaking
Usesoftironcorematerial
Canbemagnetizedordemagnetizedeasily
Thecoreislaminated
Toreduceeddycurrent
Usethickwire
Lowresistance
So,coreDischosenbecauseitcoreisUshape,madeofsoftiron,laminatedanduse
thickwire.

Stepdowntransformer

Single
Laminated

Table10.1
Explain the suitability of the characteristics given so that it can produce the
mostefficienttransformer.Choosethebestcoreandjustifyyourchoice.
Answer

Transformerisadeviceusedtostepuporstepdowntheinputa.cvoltage.

Steel
Softiron

Tochangethea.cvoltagetod.cvoltage

(e)

Diagram10.2 showsacrosssectionofamovingcoilmicrophone.

Electromagneticinduction

Whentheswitchison,0.25Acurrentflowsthroughtheprimarycoilin
eachtransformer.Allthebulbslightsupnormally.
(i) Calculatetheinputpower.
Inputpower,P=IV=0.25x240
=60W

(ii)

All the transformers in Diagram 10.1 have the same output


voltage.Calculateitsoutputvoltage.

Diagram10.2
Using an appropriate concept in physics, suggest and explain suitable
modifications or ways to enable the microphone to detect sound effectively
andgeneratebiggercurrentbasedonthefollowingaspect:
(i)thicknessofdiaphragm(ii)strengthofthematerialfordiaphragm
(iii)numberofturnsofcoil(iv)diameterofthewireofcoil
(v)strengthofmagnet

Byratio:1200turns240V
800turns?
So,1200/800=240/?
?=160V

(iii) CalculatetheoutputpowerforallthetransformersX,YandZ.
OutputpowerfortransformerX=12W+12W+12W=36W
OutputpowerfortransformerY=24W+12W+12W=48W
OutputpowerfortransformerZ=18W+18W+18W=54W

Characteristics
Usethickerdiaphragm
Highstrengthofdiaphragm
Usemoreturns
Biggerdiameterofwirecoil
Higherstrengthofmagnet

(iv) Between transformer X, Y and Z, which one has the highest


efficiency?Why?
Transformer Z. Because its output power is closed to input power with its
efficiencyof90%

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21

Reason
Canwithstandhighpressureofsoundvibrations
Longlasting
moremagneticfluxcut
Reduceresistance
Producestrongermagneticflux

11

Diagram 11.1 shows an apparatus used to investigate one physics concept.


When an air is blown from region P, the water level in the arms of tube
changesasshown.

(a)

(b)

Diagram11.1
Namethephysicsprincipleinvolved.

(f)

Table 11.1 shows four Bunsen burners, P, Q, R and S, with different


specifications.
Bunsen StructureofBunsenburner Meltingpoint Density of
burner
ofmaterial
material
P
High
High

High

Low

High

Low

Low

Low

Bernoullisprinciple

(i)

ComparetheairspeedatregionPandregionQ.
AirspeedatregionPislowerthanatregionQ.

(ii)

ComparetheairpressureatregionPandregionQ.
AirpressureatregionPishigherthanatregionQ.

(iii) ExplainwhythereisadifferenceinairpressureatregionPand
regionQ.
AccordingtoBernoullisprinciple,regionwhichhashighairspeedwillhaslow
pressureandviceversa.
AtregionP,theairspeedislowbutwithhighpressure.
AtregionQ,theairspeedishighbutwithlowpressure.

(c)

CalculatethedifferenceinwaterpressurebetweenregionPandregion
Q.Giventhedensityofwateris1000kgm3.

Table11.1
You are required to determine the most suitable Bunsen burner that
canproducebiggerblueflameandportable.
Study the specifications of all the four Bunsen burners from the
followingaspects:
(a)Sizeofgasnozzle(b)Sizeoforifice
(c)Meltingpointofthematerial(d)Densityofthematerial
Explainthesuitabilityoftheaspects.Justifyyourchoice.

Differenceinwaterpressure=hg
=(0.05)(1000)(10)Pa
=500Pa

(d)

Suggest three ways by which the difference in water pressure can be


increased.Givereasonsforyouranswers.
Suggestion1:increasethespeedofairflow
Reason:differenceinairpressurebetweenPandQwillbebigger
Suggestion2:reducethediameteroftubeQ.
Reason:higherspeedproduceatQresultinlowerpressureatQ
Suggestion3:reducethediameterofarms
Reason:thearmswillbemoresensitivetosmallchangeinpressure

(e)

Characteristics
Reason
Smallgasnozzle
Producehighairspeed
Sizeoforificeisbig
MoreairflowintotheBunsenburner
Highmeltingpoint
Canwithstandhightemperaturewithoutmelt
Lowdensity
Lighterandportable
So,BunsenburnerRischosenbecauseitssmallgasnozzle,smallorifice,hashigh
meltingpointandlowdensitymaterial.

Whatwillhappentothewaterlevelifthenonuniformhorizontaltube
isreplacedwithuniformhorizontaltube?
Thedifferenceinwaterlevelwillbereversed.

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22

12

Diagram12.1showsanordinarybicycle.

(c)

Diagram12.4
Theobjectiveistotraveltherocketasfaraspossible.Usingtheappropriate
physicsconcepts,suggestandexplainthefollowingaspects:
(i)Theshapeoftherocket(ii)Volumeofwatertobefilledtobottle
(iii)Thestabilityofthemotion(iv)Densityofmaterialtotherocket
(v)Angleoflaunching

Diagram12.1
You are required to give some suggestions to enable the cyclist to ride the
bicycle safely at higher speed. Your explanations are based on following
characteristics:
(i)
Massofbicycle
(ii)
Typeofmaterialforthebodyofbicycle
(iii)
Widthoftyres
(iv)
Typeofbrakingdistance
(v)
Theattireoraccessoriesforthecyclist
Answer
Suggestion
Themassofbicyclemustbesmall
Materialforbodymustbelowdensity
Widthoftyresmustbebig
Usehydraulicdiscbrake
Weartightattire
Wearglove
Wearhelmet

(b)

Answer
Suggestion
Theshapeofrocketisaerodynamics
1/3ofthebottleisfilledwithwater
Addwingstothebody
Densityofthematerialislow
Launchat45fromhorizontal

Reason
Smallmassproducehigheracceleration
Lighterforcyclisttoride
Stablewhileriding
Canstopthebicycleinshorterdistanceand
shorterbrakingtime
Reduceairfriction
Bettergriponhandles
Protecttheheadofcyclistoncefall

Diagram 12.2 and Diagram 12.3 shows the situation of the canopy of
thelorrybeforelorrymovesandwhenthelorrymovesatahighspeed.

Diagram12.2Diagram12.3
Explainwhythecanopyofthelorryliftsupwhenthelorrymovesata
highspeed.Nametheprincipleinvolved.

(d)

Reason
Reducesairfrictionwhileflying
Gainmomentumtolaunch
Stablewhileflyingandnotwobble
Nottooheavytofly
Getmaximumprojectilewithmaximum
distancetraveled.

Diagram12.5 showsfourracingcars,P,Q,R andS,withdifferentspecifications.


Car
Shape
Ridgeson
Engine
Materialfor
tyre
power
thecarbody
P
Yes
518kW
Lightand

elastic
Aerodynamics
Q
745kW
Heavyandstiff
None

Aerodynamics
R
Yes
518kW
Heavyand

elastic
Invertedaerofoil
S
None
745kW
Lightandstiff

Invertedaerofoil
Diagram12.5
Youarerequiredtoinvestigatethespecificationsgivensothatthecarcanrun
veryfast.Determinethemostsuitablecarandjustifyyourchoice.
Characteristics
Reason
Theshapeisinvertedaerofoil Producedownwardforce
Noridgeontyre
Canmovefast
Enginepowerisbig
Producebigacceleration
Materialislightandstiff
Nottooheavytomovebutyetcanwithstandforce
So,carSischosenbecauseitisinvertedaerofoil,noridgeontyres,enginepowerisbig
andmaterialofbodyislightandstiff.

1st:Beforelorrymoves,theairspeedoutsideandinsidethecanopyissame.
2nd: When the lorry moves, the air speed outside the canopy is high causing low
pressureoutside.Insidethecanopy,theairspeedislowbutwithhighpressure.
3rd:HighpressureinsidethecanopypushesupthecanopyasshoninDiagram12.3
4th:PhysicsprincipleinvolvedistheBernoullisprinciple.

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Diagram12.4showsawaterrocketmadefromanempty1.5litreplasticbottle
byaddingwaterandpressurizingitwithairforlaunching.

23

13

Diagram 13.1 shows a submarine floating in sea water due to the effect of
buoyantforce.

(a)

(b)

(ii)

(iii) Deducetherelationshipbetweentheweightoftheshipandthe
weightofthewaterdisplaced.

(iv) A ship that travels round the world will has Plimsoll symbol as
showninDiagram13.4.

Explainhowasubmarineisabletosubmergeintodeepseawater.

Explainwhytheboatisabletofloat?

Weightoftheshipisequaltotheweightofwaterdisplaced

1st:Tosubmerge,thelowervalveoftheballasttankisopenedtoletinthewater.
2nd:Theuppervalveisopentoletoutthetrappedairinsidetheballasttank
3rd:Whentheweightofsubmarineishigherthanbuoyantforce,thesubmarinestarts
tosubmerge.
4th:Theloweranduppervalvesareclosedwhenthesubmarinehasreachedthedepth
required.

(c)

(i)

Theboatdisplacesthewaterandthusgainsthesamebuoyantforcetofloat.

Buoyantforceisanupthrusttotheobjectfromwatercausingtheobjecttofloat.

SeaRiver
Diagram13.3
Nametheprincipleappliedforthefloatingoftheboat.
Archimedesprinciple

Diagram13.1
Whatisthemeaningofbuoyantforce?

Diagram13.2showstheairballoonwhichisusedasaweatherballoon
to carry a radiosonde instrument for collecting data about the
atmosphere.

Diagram13.4
StatethecommonfunctionofthePlimsollline.
To guide navigator the maximum weight load limits that can still be safely
loadedbytheshipbeforeitstartstosink.

(i)

Diagram13.2
StatetheArchimedesprinciple.

Archimedes principle states that the when the object is immersed partially or
whollyintofluid,theweightofwaterdisplacedisequaltotheweightofobject
beingimmersed.

(ii)

Explainwhyaweatherballoonthatisrisingupintheairwillstop
atcertainaltitude.
1st:Densityofairdecreasesasthealtitudeincreases
2nd:Buoyantforcebecomesmaller
3rd:Atcertainheight,theweightofairdisplacedisequaltotheweightof
balloon.
4th:Therefore,nonetforcetopushtheballoonup.

(d)

(e)

Youarerequiredtogivesomesuggestionsonhowtodesigntheboatin
Diagram 13.3 as to increase the floating force and safer. Explain the
suggestionsbasedonthefollowingaspects:
Materialused
Shapeofboat
Densityofboat
Additionalcomponents
Safetyfeature
Answer
Suggestion
Materialusedmustbewithlowrusting
rate(fibrecomposite)
Shapeofboatisstreamline
Densityofboatislight
Haslifejacketandtyre
Installperiscope

Diagram 13.3 shows two boats of the same weight floating on the
surfaceofwaterintheseaandintheriver.

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24

Reason
Longlastingwithoutrust
Reducewaterfrictionwhileflying
Cancarrymoreloadbeforeitsinks
Forpassengertofloatinemergencycase
Toviewhiddenobjectwhichmaycollide
theboat

14

(a)

Table 14.1 shows four hot air balloons P, Q, R and S with different
features.
Balloon Sizeand
Numberof
Typeof
Temperatureof
volume
burners
balloon
airinside
fabric
P
Smalland
1
Synthetic
100C
3
800m
nylon
Q
Largeand
2
Synthetic
120C
3
2500m
nylon
R
Largeand
1
Canvas
60C
2500m3
S
Smalland
2
Canvas
70C
800m3
Table14.1
You are required to investigate the hot air balloon which is able to
carry three or four people to a higher altitude in a shorter time.
Determinethemostsuitableballoonandjustifyyourchoice.
Answer

Reason
Candisplacemorewaterandthusgains
morebuoyantforce
Usemoreairtank
Cantrapmoreairtogainmorebuoyant
force
Higherpressurethatcanbetolerated
Cansubmergedeeperwithoutcrackdue
waterpressure
Shapeofsubmarineisstreamline
Reducewaterfrictionwhilemoving
So,thesubmarineQischosenbecauseithashighvolumeofballasttankwithmoreair
tanks,cantoleratehigherpressureandisinstreamlineshape.

Reason
Candisplacemoreairandgainshigherbuoyant
force
Usemoreburners
Fasterheatingtheairinsidetheballoon
Usesyntheticnylon
Resistancetoheatwithoutmelt
Hightemperatureinsideballoon
Hotairislighter
So,theballoonQischosenbecauseitisbigsizewithhighvolume,usemoreburners,
theballoonismadeofsyntheticnylonandtemperatureofairinsideishigh.

(b)

Theweightofaboatwithoutloadis15000N.Theboatisthenloaded
withaheavybox.Thevolumeoftheimmersedportionoftheboatis
5.0m3.
(i) Calculatethebuoyantforceexertedtotheboat.
[Densityofseawateris1020kgm3]

Fromformula,buoyantforce,F=Vg
=1020x5x10
=51000N

(ii)

Calculate the maximum weight of the box so that the boat will
notsinkcompletely.
Weightofboat+weightofloadload=buoyantforce
15000N+weightofload=51000N
Weightofload=36000N

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You are asked to investigate the characteristics of four submarines


showninTable14.2.
Volumeof Number
Maximum
Shapeofsubmarine
ballasttank ofairtank pressuretobe
tolerated
3000litre
15
4.5atm
P

2500litre
30
6.0atm
Q

350litre
3
6.1atm
R

400litre
1
2.0atm
S

Table14.2
Explain the suitability of each characteristic of the submarines and
determinethesubmarinewhichcantravelfaster,staylongerindeeper
seawaterandabletocarrymorecrew.Givereasonsforyourchoice.
Answer
Characteristics
Volumeofballasttankishigh

Characteristics
Bigsizeandhighvolume

(c)

25

15

Diagram15.1

Diagram15.2

Diagram15.3

Diagram15.1showsoneendofaspringisfixedtoawoodenblock.
Diagram15.2showsthespringiscompressedbyasteelballofmass0.52kg
usingaforceF.
Diagram15.3showsthesteelballmovesaftertheforce,Fisremoved.
[Thespringconstant=50Nm1]

(a)

Whatismeantbyelasticity?

(ii)

Theelasticityofaspringcanbeexplainedbyonelaw.Statethat
law.
Hookeslaw

(d)

Whenthespringiscompressed,itslengthdecreasesandreturnsback
to its original length after compressive force is removed due to
elasticity property of a material. Based on the forces between atoms,
explainwhythespringiselastic.

(e)

Diagram15.4showsatrampoline.Itusestheelasticpropertyofa
materialtorebounceapersonupwards.

RefertoabovenotePage13..

Whatismeantbyforce?

(b)

(i)

Nametheformofenergystoredincompressedspringasshown
inDiagram15.2.

(ii)

CalculatethevalueofF.

Diagram15.4
Youarerequiredtogivesomesuggestionstoimprovethedesignofthe
trampolinesothatitcanbeusedbythechildrensafelyandcanjump
higher.Explainthesuggestionsbasedonthefollowingaspects:
(i)thenumberofspringused
(ii)springconstant
(iii)thematerialusedforframe
(iv)thematerialusedforfabric
(v)extrafittingordesignofthetrampolinetoensuresafety

Elasticpotentialenergy
FromF=kx
=50x(0.200.15)
=2.5N

(iii) Statetheconversionofenergywhentheballisreleased.

(iv) Calculatethespeedofball,v.

Elasticpotentialenergyischangedtokineticenergy
Workdonetocompressspring=kx2
=(50)(0.200.15)2
=0.0625J
Fromkineticenergy:mv2=0.0625
(0.52)v2=0.0625
v=0.49ms1

(v)

Suggestion
Usemorespringinparallel
Lowspringconstant
Mainframeismadeofsteel
Usenylonforfabric
Hasnetaroundtheedgeoftrampoline

Statetheprincipleyouusedtofind(iv).
Principleofconservationofenergy

(i)

Elasticity is the ability of an object to resume to its original state once the
appliedforceisremovedwithelasticlimitisnotexceeded.

Forceistheproductofmassandacceleration

(c)

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Reason
Increasetheelasticityofspring
Canextendorcompressmore
Strongmaterialwhichdoesnotbreak
Doesnottear
Topreventthechildrenfromslippingout
tothefloor

16

AtypicaltorchlightwithbatteriesisshowninDiagram16.1.

(a)

(i)

(ii)

DrawacircuitdiagramforthetorchlightinDiagram16.1.

Reason
To reduce the resistance of the power socket
extensionastheresistanceincreaseswithlength
Once one of the fuse is burnt due overloaded of
that socket, the rest of the sockets can still
function
There is a power surge To shut down the whole current to the power
protection
socketifthereisaelectriccurrentleakage
Must have head plug To flow the unused current to the earth so that
earthing
theuserwillnotbeelectrocuted
So,thetypeSischosenbecauseithasnoextensioncordlength,havefusefor
everysocket,haspowersurgeprotectionandhaveheadplugearthing.

Directcurrent

(b)

Answer
Characteristics
No extension cord
lengthisneed
Must have fuse for
everysocket

Diagram16.1
Namethetypeofcurrentusedinthetorchlight.

(c)

Diagram16.2showsatwodoorrefrigeratorforhouseholduse.

Energy efficiency and safety are important considerations in the


purchaseanduseofelectricalproductsandappliances.
(i) Afuseinapowerplugislabeled8A.
Whatdoesthelabel8Amean?
Meansmaximumcurrentbeingloadedtothepowerplugis8A.

(ii)

Table16.1showsfourtypesofpowersocketextensionsP,Q,R
andSavailableinasupermarket.
Type

Type

Extension
cord
length
5m

None

5m

None

Number
offuse
Four
sockets
onefuse
Four
sockets
onefuse
Each
socket
onefuse
Each
socket
onefuse

Power
Surge
Protection
Available

Not
Available

Not
available

Available

Earthing
system

Diagram16.2
Using the knowledge about heat flows, explain the modification
needed to produce a refrigerator which is constantly cold, energy
savingandlastingforthepurposeofkeepingthefreshnessofthefood
stored in it. Your modification should be based on the following
characteristics:Materialusedtomakethedesk,Typeoflampusedin
refrigerator, Power of the refrigerator, Air circulation in the
refrigerator,Specificheatcapacityofthecoverofrefrigerator

Not
available

Available

Not
available

Available

Characteristics
Thedeskismadeofplastic
UseLEDlamporlampoflowpower
andjustlightwhenthedoorisopen
Usehighpowerofrefrigerator

Reason
Doesnotrustandlonglasting
Does not heat up the refrigerator inside due
tothelampofbulb
Therefrigeratorwillbemorecoldtokeepthe
freshnessoffoodstored
Thefreezermustbeinstalledatthe The cool air has higher density will move
highestpartinsidetherefrigerator downtocoolthelowerpartoffoodandthus
causes the air circulation. Hot air at lower
part will move up and cooled down by the
freezer.
The specific heat capacity of the Slower conducting the heat outside into the
coverofrefrigeratormustbehigh.
refrigerator.

Table16.1
Using physics concepts, explain the suitability of the power
socketextensionsforeachaspectwhichcanbeusedsafelyand
efficiently for normal home use. Determine the most suitable
socketextensionandjustifyyourchoice.

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27

17

Diagram17.1showsahairdryerlabelled240V,500Wconnectedtoathree
pinplug.Diagram17.2showsthefuseinthethreepinplug.

(b)

(i)

Whatisthemeaningofthelabel0.5Aonthefuse?

(ii)

Table17.1showsthespecificationofafewmetalstobeusedas
afusewire.
Diameter Resistivity
Metal Melting Specificheat
point/C capacity/Jkg1C1
W
1100
900
Big
Low
X
600
900
Small
High
Y
1100
240
Big
Low
Z
700
240
Small
High
Table17.1
Explain the suitability of each characteristic of the four metals
and determine the most suitable metal to be used as the fuse
wire.Givereasonsforyourchoice.

Maximumcurrentthatcanbeloadedtothefuseis0.5A

Reason
Easymeltwhenhot
Fastergettinghot
Produceshigherresistancewhichcan
convertcurrenttoheat
Theresistivitymustbehigh
Produceshighresistance
So,themetalZischosenbecauseitsmeltingpointislow,specificheatcapacity
islow,smalldiameteranditsresistivityislow.

(d)

Fusetakessometimetomeltorblow.Afastblowingfuseisrequired
toprotectsemiconductorequipmentswhichcannotstandhighcurrent
surge for too long. When a fuse blows, sparking may occur and
produceshightemperature.

Reason
Hashigherresistancewhichcangethotfaster
Easilygetbrokenwhenhot

Enoughtobreakdownthe240V,2000Wsemiconductor
devicewhichneedsonlyacurrentof8.33A
Themeltingpointmust Fastergettingmeltandshortopenthecircuitwhenthe
below
circuitoverheated
So,thefuseQischosenbecauseitsthicknessoffusewireisthin,cartridgetyeismade
ofglass,fuseratingis10Aandthemeltingpointislow.
##Remember:Thefuseitselfmustbecangethotfasterwithhighresistanceandeasily
getmeltsothatthecircuitisshortopenandthusprotecttheelectricalcomponentfrom
gettingburnt.

Giventhehairdryerlabelled240V,500W

VoltagePower
FromPower,P=IV
500=I(240)
I=2.08A

(iii) Calculatetheenergyusedbythehairdryerwhenitisswitched
onfor10minutes.

Characteristics
Thethicknessoffuse
wireisthin
Thecartridgetyemust
beglass
Thefuseratingis10A

ThehairdryerinDiagram17.1isswitchedon.
(i) Calculatethecurrentflowingthroughthehairdryer.

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Table 17.2 shows the specifications of five fuses that can be used to
protectasemiconductordevice.
Fuse Thicknessoffuse
Cartridge
Rating Melting
wire
tye
point
P
Medium
Rubber
10A
Medium
Q
Thin
Glass
10A
Low
R
Thin
Ceramic
13A
Low
S
Thick
Plastic
10A
High
Table17.2
Determine the most suitable fuse to protect a 240V, 2000 W
semiconductormaterialdevice.Studythespecificationsofallfivefuses
givenandjustifyyourchoice.

Characteristics
Themeltingpointmustbelow
Specificheatcapacitymustbelow
Thediameterofmetalmustbelow

(c)

Statewhetherthe0.5Afuseissuitabletobeusedintheplug.

Power=Energy/Time
Energy=PowerTime
=500(1060)J
=300000J@300kJ

Hashighmeltingpoint,hashighresistance,haslowspecificheatcapacity

(ii)

Not suitable. The hair dryer needs 2.08 A to function. This current of 2.08 A
whichpassestothefuseof0.5Awillburnthefusedirectlybeforeworkingup
thehairdryer.

Diagram17.1Diagram17.2
(a) State three properties of the material of the heating element in the
hairdryer.

28

18

19

Diagram 18.1 and Diagram 18.2 shows an experiment to study the


relationship betweenthepressureandvolumeofairtrappedinanairtight
container.Thepistonsforbothdiagramsarepusheddownslowly.

Diagram18.1Diagram18.2
(a) StatethephysicalquantitybeingmeasuredbyBourdongauge.

(b)

BasedonDiagram18.1andDiagram18.2;
(i) Comparethevolumeofthegasintheairtightcontainer

(ii)

(iii) Temperatureofthegasintheairtightcontainer
(i)

(ii)

(ii)

StatethesensitivityoftheBourdonGauge.

(b)

(i)

State the correct position of the eye while taking reading from
theBourdonGauge?

(ii)

Whatisthepressureofthegasinsidetheroundbottomflaskas
shownbytheBourdongauge?

(c)

The round bottom flask is then heated. Would the reading of the
Bourdongaugeincreaseordecrease?

(d)

(i)

Stateonelawthatyouusedin(c).

(ii)

Definethelawyoustatein(d)(i).

Increases

Statethegaslawinvolved.

Pressurelaw

Boyleslaw

Using your answer in (b)(i) and (b)(ii), state the relationship


betweenthevolumeofgasandthereadingofBourdongauge.
VolumeofgasisinverselyproportionaltothereadingofBourdongauge

(i)

165Pa

The temperature of the gas in the airtight container for both diagram are
same.

(c)

(a)

Perpendiculartothescale

ThereadingofBourdongauge
ThereadingofBourdongaugeinDiagram18.1islowerthaninDiagram18.2

5Pascal[#smallestscale]

Volume of gas in the airtight container in Diagram 18.1 is more than in


Diagram18.2

(iii) Definethegaslawyounamein(c)(ii).

Pressurelawstatesthatforafixedmassofgas,thepressureofgasisdirectly
proportional to its absolute temperature such that the volume of gas is kept
constant.

Boyleslawstatesthatforafixedmassofgas,thepressureofgasisinversely
proportionaltoitsvolumeatconstanttemperature.

(d)

(e)

An experiment is carried out to investigate the relationship between


the pressure, P and the temperature, of a fixed mass of a gas as
showningraphbelow.

Asyringecontains50m3ofairatapressureof100kPa.Thispistonis
pulled outwards slowly so that the air expands. What would be the
volumeoftheairwhentheairpressuredropsto80kPa?

(i)

FromBoyleslaw:P1V1=P2V2
(100)(50)=80(V2)
V2=62.5m3

What is the value of temperature, To when the pressure of the


gasiszero?

(ii)

WhatisthenamegiventoTo?

The experiment above is usually applicable if a gas expands or


compressedslowly.Whyisthisso?
TheBoyleslawisapplicableifthetemperatureofthegasisconstant.Thegasmustbe
expandedorcompressedslowlyastoreducethecollisionbetweenthemoleculesofgas.
The collision of molecules increase the friction of molecules between them and this
frictionwillproduceheat.Iftheheatproduced,thenthetemperatureofthegasisnot
constantalready.

(e)

273C

Diagram19.1
Whatismeantbysensitivity?

Sensitivityistheabilitytodetectthesmallchangeinitsreading

Gaspressure

Diagram19.1showsaBourdongaugewhichisusedtomeasuregaspressure
insidearoundbottomflask.

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Absolutezerotemperature

29

20

Diagram20.1showsacarandalorrystoppingataredtrafficlight.Whenthe
trafficlightturnsgreenasinDiagram16.2,thecarisfoundtomoveaheadof
thelorry.

P
Q
M
N
S
Answer

Diagram20.1Diagram20.2
(a) Whatismeantbymass?
Massisthequantityofmattercontainedbyanobject.

(b)

BasedonDiagram20.1andDiagram20.2,comparethemassesofthe
vehiclesandtheirabilitytospeedahead.Relatethemassofthevehicle
and the way it can start moving from rest to deduce a concept in
physicswithregardtothemotionofobjects.

(c)
(d)

Definethephysicsconceptyounamein(b).
Basedonthephysicsconceptstatedin(b)(i),explainwhyadriverlurch
forwardswhenacarheisdrivingcomestoasuddenhalt.

(g)

Whenthecarcomestoasuddenhalt,theinertiaisverybigactingontothedriver.The
inertiawillcausethedrivertocontinuetomoveforwardalthoughthecarhasstopped.
Asaresult,thedriverwillbesurgedforward.

(e)

(f)

Reason
Topreventthebackhoefromsinkingintosoft
ground
Liquidhasverylowcompressibility

Diagram 20.4 shows a transformer connected between a 240 V a.c.


powersupplyandtwolightbulbs.Thebulbsareatnormalbrightness
andthereadingoftheammeteris0.25A.

You are asked to investigate the characteristics of each backhoes in


Table20andchooseabackhoethatcandoheavyworks,anexampleof
a backhoe is shown in Diagram 20.3. Explain the suitability of the
characteristics each backhoes. Determine the most suitable backhoe.
Givereasonforyourchoice

(1)

Diagram20.4
StatethetypeoftransformerinDiagram20.4.

(2)

Whatistheoutputvoltageofthetransformer?
6V

(3)

Calculatetheefficiencyofthetransformer?
Inputpower,P=IV=2400.25=60W
Outputpower,P=12W+24W=36W
Efficiency=(36/60)100%=60%

(4)

Explainwhythetransformermustusea.c.inputvoltage?
Sothatthevoltagecanbechangedeasily

Diagram20.3

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Stepdowntransformer

Centre
of
gravity
Large
Low
Large
Low
Small
High
Medium
Low
Medium
High

Explainhowyouwouldgotoescapefrombeingchasedbyabullbased
ononeconcept.
1st:Iwillperformmyruninzigzagdirectionswithnodefinitedirectionofrun.
2nd:Thebullhasbiggermassifcomparedtome.Thismeansthatthebullwillhas
biggerinertiaastheinertiadependsonthemass.
3rd:Duetoinertia,thebullishardertochangeitsdirectionandwilllosecontrolandfall

Base
area

Fluidusedinthehydraulicsystem
isliquid
Themassmustbebig
Thebackhoewillbemorestable
Thebaseareamustbebig
Ensurethatthebackhoewillnotcollide
Thecentreofgravitymustbelow Stablefromfalling
So,thebackhoePischosenbecauseitstyreisbig,fluidusedinhydraulicsystemis
liquid,haslargemass,thebaseareaislargeandhaslowcentreofgravity.

Inertiaisthetendencyofanobjecttoresistthesuddenchangeexertingontheobject.

Fluidusedin Mass
hydraulic
system
Large
Liquid
Large
Large
Liquid
Small
Large
Gas
Large
Medium
Liquid
Large
Large
Liquid
Large

Characteristics
Thesizeoftyremustbebig

The mass of the lorry is more than the car causing the lorry has less ability to speed
ahead.Thebiggermassoflorrycausesthelorryhardertostartmovingfromrest.The
physicsconceptinvolvedistheinertia.

Typeof
Sizeof
Backhoe tyre

30

21

Diagram21.1showsabrightspot,M,formedonthescreenonthecathode
rayoscilloscope,CRO,whenitisswitchedon.

(a)

(b)

CalculatethevalueofthevoltageshownbyN.
Valueofvoltage=5Vperdivision2divisions
=10V

Diagram21.1
Whatisthemeaningofcathoderay?

(f)

TheCROinDiagram21.2isconnectedtoalternatingcurrentsupply,a.c
andthetimebaseissetoff.
On Diagram 21.3 below, sketch the output waveform that will be
displayedonthescreen.

Diagram21.3

Answer

Cathoderayisafastmovingelectronbeam

Whatisthemeaningofthermionicemission?
Thermionic emission is the process of releasing electrons from a heated cathode
surface.

(c)

Nametheparticlethatproducesthebrightspot,M,whenithitsthe
fluorescentscreenoftheCRO.

Electron

(d)

(e)

(g)

StateonecommonfunctionofCRO.
To display waveform //To measure short time interval // To measure the potential
difference

Explainhowtoproduceabrightspot,MonthescreenofCRO?
Thed.cvoltageissuppliedtotheCROwiththetimebaseissetoff.

Diagram21.2showsthebrightspot,Nwhenadirectcurrentd.c.supply
isconnectedtotheYinputoftheCRO.

(h)

Diagram 21.4 and Diagram 21.5 show two circuits which consist of
identicalammeters,drycellsandsemiconductordiodes.

Diagram21.4Diagram21.5
(1) Nameanexampleofpuresemiconductormaterial.

(2)

Silicon
ThecurrentflowisinforwardbiasinDiagram21.4causesanammeterreading
butnoreadinginDiagram21.4duetothereverseofdiodewhichhasblocked
thecurrentflow

Diagram21.2
TheYgainoftheCROissetat5V/divisionwiththetimebaseisset
off.

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Explainthedifferenceinthereadingsoftheammeters

(3)

Basedontheanswerin(h)(2),statethefunctionofdiode.
Toallowtheflowofcurrentinonedirectiononly

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22

Diagram22.1showsthepatternofseawaveswhenapproachingthebeach.

ItisobservedthatthefourpendulumsB,C,DandEwilloscillatewith
differentamplitudesbutwiththesamefrequency
(i) Whatisthemeaningofamplitude?

(ii)

(iii) Stateonereasonforyouranswerin22(d)(ii).

(iv) Namethephenomenonstatedin22(d)(iii).

(e)

Ultrasonicechoesarewiselyusedinmedicinetoseetheinternalorgansof
insidethebody.Diagram22.3showstheuseofultrasoundscanneracrossthe
motherswombtoseetheunbornbabies.

Amplitudeisthemaximumdisplacementofwavefromtheequilibriumposition

(a)

Diagram22.1
NamethewavephenomenonshowninDiagram22.1.

PendulumC
HasthesamelengthwiththependulumA

Refraction

(b)

Explainintermsofthewavephenomenain22(a),whythewaterwaves
followtheshapeofthebeachasitapproachestheshore.

Resonance

Whenthewavesrefractfromdeepseatoshallowersea,boththewavelengthandthe
energydecrease.Therefore,itbecomesweakerandfollowstheshapeofthebeach.

(c)

Diagram22.1showstheseashoreofafishingvillage.Duringtherainy
season, waves are big. One year the waves eroded the seashore,
causedthejettytocollapseanddamagedthefishermensboats.
To prevent similar damage in the future, the fishermen suggest
building retaining walls and relocating the jetty. You should use your
knowledgeofreflection,refractionanddiffractionofwavestoexplain
thesesuggestion,toincludetheaspects:
i.thedesignandstructureoftheretainingwall
ii.thelocationofthenewjetty
iii.thesizeorenergyofthewaves.
Answer
Suggestion
Reason
Designaninclinedconcretebarrier
Jettyisbuildatbay
Builtdiffractionbarrier(slitvery
small)forshippassage
Barrierisbuiltfromastrong
material/concrete
Designthehigherbarrier

Ultrasonic waves
Gelombang ultrasonik

(d)

Diagram22.3
Table22showsthecharacteristicsoftheultrasoundscannerW,X,YandZ.

Waveisrefractedwithdecreasingwavelength
Waveatbayiscalmer
Lesswaveenergypassingthrough

Typeofwave

W
X
Y
Z

Mechanical
Mechanical
Electromagnet
Electromagnet

Frequencies
range(Hz)
<20000
>20000
<20000
>20000

Penetrating
power
High
Low
Low
Low

Ionizing
power
Low
Low
High
High

Characteristics
Reason
Usemechanicalwave
Ultrasonicneedsmediumtotravel
Usehighfrequency
Theimagescannedisclear
Uselowpenetratingpower
Doesnothurtthefoetus
Uselowionizingpower
Doesnotchangethestructureofcellsoffoetus
So, scanner X is chosen because it use mechanical wave, use high frequency, low
penetratingpowerandlowionizingpower

Diagram22.2showsaBartonspendulumwhichconsistsoffivesimple
pendulums hanging on a horizontal string. When A is pulled and
released,itwillcausetheotherfourpendulumstooscillate.

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Scanner

Table22
Explain the suitability of each characteristic in Table 22 that can be used as
ultrasound scanner to scan the image of foetus safely. Determine the most
suitableultrasoundscannertobeusedandhence,justifyyourchoice.

Noteasilycorrosive/broken//canpreventa
stronghardwave
Watercannotoverflow

Diagram22.2

Ultrasound scanner
Pengimbas ultrasonik

Foetus

Whichpendulumoscillateswiththemaximumamplitude?

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23

Diagram 23.1 and Diagram 23.2 shows water waves passing through the
entranceoftwodifferentharbours.

(i)

Namethephenomenoninvolved.

(ii)

What will happen to the frequency, wavelength and speed of


waveafterpassingthroughthegap?

Refraction

Frequency:unchanged
Wavelength:decreases
Speedofwave:decreases

Diagram23.1Diagram23.2
(a) Namethetypeofwaveofwaterwave.

(b)

(i)

Namethephenomenoninvolvedinbothdiagrams.

(ii)

What will happen to the frequency, wavelength and speed of


waveafterpassingthroughthegap?

(iii) CompletethewavepatterninDiagram23.3.

Transversewave
Diffraction

Frequency:unchanged
Wavelength:unchanged
Speedofwave:unchanged

(c)

(f)

BetweenDiagram23.1andDiagram23.2,whichoneshowstheobvious
diffractioneffect?Explainwhy?

Deep area

Shallow area

Kawasan dalam

Kawasan cetek

Diagram23.4showsadriverthatisdrivingunderahotsun,seesapool
of water appearing on the road ahead, but the pool of water
disappearsasthecarapproachesit.

Diagram23.1showsobviousdiffractioneffect.
Becausethesizeofgapislessthanthewavelengthofthewave

(d)

BetweenDiagram23.1andDiagram23.2,whichoneshowsthebigger
energywaveenteringthegap?

Diagram23.2

(e)

(i)

Diagram23.4
Namethisnaturalphenomenonasobservedbythedriver.
Mirage

Diagram23.3showsthewavesenteringtwodifferentmediums.

(ii)

Statethephysicsconceptthatisinvolvedinthisphenomenon.
Totalinternalreflection

(iii) When light rays propagates from a denser medium to a less


dense medium, state what happen to the direction of the
refractedrays.

(iv) Stateoneapplicationofthisphenomenon.

Refractedawayfromnormal
Opticalfibre

Diagram23.3

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PAPER3EXPERIMENTS
DEPTHWITHPRESSURE
Diagram 1.1 shows a scuba diving in a sea notices that the water pressure
acted on his eardrums is greater when he dives at greater depth.

ANSWER

(a)
(b)
(c)

Thewaterpressureisinfluencedbythedepthofwater
Whenthedepthofwaterincreases,itswaterpressureincreasesalso
Tofindtherelationshipbetweenthedepthwiththewaterpressure
(i)
ManipulatedVariable:depthofwater
(ii)
RespondingVariable:waterpressure
ConstantVariable:densityofwater
Apparatus: Metre rule, manometer, water, rubber tube, measuring cylinder,
(iii)
thistlefunnel,rubbersheet
Materials:water

(iv)

Diagram 1.1
Based on your knowledge of the pressure and observation above:
[1 mark]
(a) State one suitable inference.

(b)

State one suitable hypothesis.

(c)

With the use of apparatus such as thistle funnel, a manometer and other
apparatus, describe an experiment framework to investigate the
hypothesis stated in 1(b).
In your description, state clearly the following:

[1 mark]

(i)

Aim of the experiment

(ii)

Variables in the experiment

(iii)

List of apparatus and materials

(iv)

Arrangement of the apparatus and materials

(v)

The procedure of the experiment which include the method of


controlling the manipulated variable and the method of measuring
the responding variable

(vi)

The way you would tabulate the data

(vii)

The way you would analyse the data

(v)

(vi)

(vii)

OperationalDefinitions:
Thedepthofwaterismeasuredusingmetrerule
Thewaterpressureismeasuredfromdifferenceheightbetweenthecolumn
ofwaterinmanometermeasuredusingmetrerule
The experiment is started by lowering the thistle funnel into the water to
depth,x=2cm.Thereadingofdifferenceinheightofwatercolumn,h,ofthe
manometerisrecorded.
Theprocedureisrepeatedwiththedepthsof4cm,6cm,8cm,10cmand12
cm and the respective readingof the manometer are read respectively from
metrerule.
Depthx/cm Differenceinheightofcolumn,h/cm
2

10

12

Agraphofdifferenceinheightofwatercolumnagainstthedepthisplotted.

[10 marks]

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DENSITYOFLIQUIDWITHPRESSURE
Diagram 2.1 shows a scuba diving in a sea notices that the water pressure
acted on his eardrums is greater compared to fresh water at same depth.

ANSWER

(a)
(b)
(c)

Thewaterpressureisinfluencedbythedensityofwater
Whenthedensityofwaterincreases,itswaterpressureincreasesalso
Tofindtherelationshipbetweenthedensityofliquidwiththewaterpressure
(i)
ManipulatedVariable:densityofwater
(ii)
RespondingVariable:waterpressure
ConstantVariable:depthofthistlefunnelimmersed
Apparatus: Metre rule, manometer, water, rubber tube, measuring cylinder,
(iii)
thistlefunnel,rubbersheet
Materials:water,salts

(iv)

Diagram 2.1

Based on observation above:


(a) State one suitable inference.

(b)

State one suitable hypothesis.

(c)

With the use of apparatus such as thistle funnel, salts, a manometer and
other apparatus, describe an experiment framework to investigate the
hypothesis stated in 2(b).
In your description, state clearly the following:

[1 mark]
[1 mark]

(i)

Aim of the experiment

(ii)

Variables in the experiment

(iii)

List of apparatus and materials

(iv)

Arrangement of the apparatus and materials

(v)

The procedure of the experiment which include the method of


controlling the manipulated variable and the method of measuring
the responding variable

(vi)

The way you would tabulate the data

(vii)

The way you would analyse the data

(v)

(vi)

(vii)

[10 marks]

OperationalDefinitions:
Thedepthofthistlefunnelisfixedat10cm.
Thewaterpressureismeasuredfromdifferenceheightbetweenthecolumn
ofwaterinmanometermeasuredusingmetrerule
Densityofwaterisdeterminedfromthemassofsaltsdissolved
Theexperimentisstartedbydissolving200gofsaltintothewaterwithfixed
volumeofV.Thethistlefunnelimmersedintothewatertodepth10cm.The
reading of difference in height of water column, h, of the manometer is
recorded.
Theprocedureisrepeatedwiththeamountofsaltdissolvedof400g,600g,
800g and 1000g and the respective reading of the manometer are read
respectivelyfrommetrerule.
Amountof
Differenceinheightofcolumn,h/cm
salt,m/g
200

400

600

800

1000

Agraphofdifferenceinheightofwatercolumnagainstthemassofsaltis
plotted.

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DEPTH WITH READING OF SPRING BALANCE (BUOYANT FORCE)


Diagram 3.1 shows a boy lifted up a rock in the sea water.
Diagram 3.2 shows the boy lifted up the rock at the surface of the sea water.
He feels much heavier than before.

Diagram 10.1
Diagram 10.2
Based on your knowledge of the buoyant force and observation above:
[1 mark]
(a) State one suitable inference.

(b)

State one suitable hypothesis.

(c)

With the use of apparatus such as tall beaker, spring balance, a metal
rod and other apparatus, describe an experiment framework to
investigate the hypothesis stated in 3(b).
In your description, state clearly the following:

ANSWER

(a)
(b)
(c)

Theimmersedistanceaffectsthebuoyantforce
Whentheimmersedistanceincreases,itsbuoyantforceincreasesalso
Tofindtherelationshipbetweentheimmersedistancewiththebuoyantforce
(i)
ManipulatedVariable:immersedistance
(ii)
RespondingVariable:buoyantforce(decreaseinspringbalancereading)
ConstantVariable:densityofwater
Apparatus:springbalance,beaker,metrerule,load
(iii)
Materials:string,tapwater

(iv)

[1 mark]

(i)

Aim of the experiment

(ii)

Variables in the experiment

(iii)

List of apparatus and materials

(iv)

Arrangement of the apparatus and materials

(v)

The procedure of the experiment which include the method of


controlling the manipulated variable and the method of measuring
the responding variable

(vi)

The way you would tabulate the data

(vii)

The way you would analyse the data

(v)

(vi)

(vii)

Operationaldefinition
Theimmersedistanceismeasuredusingmetrerule
Thebuoyantforceismeasuredfromthedecreaseinspringbalancereading
(readinginairreadinginwater)
Theexperimentisstartedbyimmersingtheloadintothewatertoadepthof,
d=2cmandthebuoyantforceactingtothewoodenblockcanbecountedby
thechangesinthereadingofspringbalance,F1isrecorded.
Theexperimentisthenrepeatedbyimmersingtheloadtodepthof4cm,6
cm,8cm,10cmand12cmandtherespectivechangesinthereadingofspring
balance,Farerecorded.
Immersedepth,d/cm
Buoyantforce,F/N
2

10

12

Agraphofbuoyantforceagainsttheimmersedistanceisplotted.

[10 marks]

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TRANSFORMER (NUMBER OF TURNS OF SECONDARY COILS WITH INDUCED


CURRENT/VOLTAGE)
Diagram 4.1 shows a substation in a residential area in Shah Alam. The number of
turns of primary coil of the transformer is 200 with the voltage of 450V while the
numberofturnsofsecondarycoilofthetransformeris107withthevoltageof240V.

(a)
(b)

ANSWER

(c)

Themagnitudeofinducedcurrentdependsonthenumberofturnsofsecondarycoils
When the number of turns of secondary coils increases, the magnitude of induced
currentincreasesalso
To investigate the relationship between number of turns of secondary coils
(i)
withthemagnitudeofinducedcurrent
MV:numberofturnsofthesecondarycoil
(ii)
RV:Magnitudeofinducedcurrentorpotentialdifference
CV:numberofturnsofprimarycoils/strengthofmagnetused
Apparatus:softiron,ammeters/voltmeter,Cshapemagnetbars,a.cpower
(iii)
supply,bulb,connectingwires

(iv)

Diagram4.1

Basedontheaboveobservation;
(a) State one suitable inference.

(b)

State one suitable hypothesis.

(c)

With the use of apparatus such as ammeter, voltmeter, constantan wire,


metre rule and other apparatus, describe an experiment framework to
investigate the hypothesis stated in 4(b).
In your description, state clearly the following:

[1 mark]
[1 mark]

(i)

Aim of the experiment

(ii)

Variables in the experiment

(iii)

List of apparatus and materials

(iv)

Arrangement of the apparatus and materials

(v)

The procedure of the experiment which include the method of


controlling the manipulated variable and the method of measuring
the responding variable

(vi)

The way you would tabulate the data

(vii)

The way you would analyse the data

[10 marks]

OperationalDefinitions:
Theinducedcurrentismeasuredusingammeter
Setuptheapparatusasshown,witha240Vaccurrentsupplywith50turns
ontheprimarycoil.
Setthesecondarycoilsothatthenumberofturnsn=20
Switchonthepowersupply,measurethecurrent,I(withtheammeter)that
passesthroughthesecondarycoil.
Repeatstep2and3forn=40,60,80and100turns.
Numberofsecondarycoils,n Inducedcurrent,I/A
20

40

60

80

100

Graph of induced current, I/A against the number of secondary coils, n is


plotted.

(v)

(vi)

(vii)

ALSO READ
-SWING OF PENDULUM BOB
-MASS/VOLUME OF WATER WITH BOILING TIME
-ANGLE OF INCIDENT WITH ANGLE OF REFRACTION
-DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO SPEAKERS WITH DISTANCE BETWEEN
TWO LOUD SOUNDS
-NUMBER OF TURNS WITH INDUCED CURRENT (LENZS LAW)
-SPEED/HEIGHT OF MAGNET BAR DROPPED WITH INDUCED CURRENT
(LENZS LAW)

ENDOFREADINGOFMODULE

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37