Anda di halaman 1dari 11

CH Wong B. Sc.

(Hons) [USM]

Chapter 4

Chapter 4

Reproduction

4.1 Sexual and Asexual Reproduction


1.
2.

3.

The production of new individuals from living


organisms is called reproduction.
Reproduction is an important process that increases
the number of individuals of the same species and
replaces those that die. It ensures the continuation
of reproduction.
There are two types of reproduction, namely sexual
reproduction and asexual reproduction.

Sexual Reproduction
1. Sexual reproduction involves two parents of different
sexes. It requires male and female structures.
2. It involves the fusion of sex cells. A male gamete
fertilizes a female gamete and a zygote is formed
(Figure 4.1).

4
5
6
7

The advantage is that it requires only one


individual to reproduce.
The disadvantage is that there is no variation of
characteristics in the new individuals.
Asexual reproduction is carried out by lower level
animals such as Amoeba, Paramecium, H y d r a and
plants like onions, ginger, mosses and algae.
The different types of asexual reproduction include
binary fission, budding, spore formation, vegetative
reproduction and regeneration.

Binary Fission
1 Binary fission is the division of a single parent cell
into two identical daughter cells.
2 Organisms that show binary fission are Amoeba,
Paramecium and bacteria.
3.
4.

The fusion of genetic materials from the two


gametes results in the production of a new
individual with variations.
There are two types of fertilization-external
fertilization and internal fertilization.
(a) Internal fertilization
(i) In the process of mating, the male animal
introduces sperms into the female's body.
(ii) The fertilization of the female's egg takes place
inside her body. The zygote also develops in her
body.
(iii) It occurs in reptiles, insects and human beings.
(iv) Very few gametes are required as the chance of
fertilization is high.
(b) External fertilization
(i) This type of fertilization takes place outside the
body of the female. For example, the male and the
female gametes fuse in the water.
(ii) The zygote develops in the water.
(iii) It occurs in frogs, toads and fish.
(iv) Disadvantages: Fertilization may not occur if
the eggs are carried away by the water or eaten
by predators. Therefore, more gametes have to be
produced to overcome this problem.

Asexual Reproduction
1 Asexual reproduction involves only one parent. It does
not involve sex cells.
2 Fertilization of gametes does not take place.
3 New individuals that are formed are identical to the
parent and contain the same genetic materials as the
parent.

Budding
1 Budding is the process of bud formation at the side
of the parent organism.
2 Organisms such as Hydra and yeast reproduce by
budding.
3 A bud starts off as a swelling which grows bigger
to resemble the parent.
4 The bud becomes mature and finally drops off from
the parent. It becomes a new individual as shown in
Figure below:

Hydra

Yeast

Tel : 07-3554611

H/P : 019-7832212

CH Wong B. Sc. (Hons) [USM]

Chapter 4
Spore formation
1 Spore formation occurs in non-flowering plants such as
mosses and ferns. These plants are able to produce
spores. Spores are produced by cell division in the
sporangium of a moss.
2 The mature sporangium then bursts open to release
mature spores. The spores are small and light. They
are scattered by the wind. When the spores fall on a
suitable environment, they germinate and grow into
new plants.

4.2 Male Reproductive System

1
2

Vegetative reproduction
1 Vegetative reproduction is the formation of new plants
from the vegetative structures of a flowering plant
other than the flowers.
2 Examples of vegetative structures are the leaves, bulbs,
rhizomes, suckers and tubers.
3 Examples of plants that reproduce by vegetative
reproduction are ginger, onions, bananas and potatoes.

Regeneration
1 Regeneration is the ability of the fragments of certain
organisms to grow and develop into completely new
individuals.
2 Organisms like flatworms and starfish reproduce
by regeneration.

Comparison
Reproduction

between

Sexual

and

Asexual

Human beings carry out sexual reproduction. Sexual


reproduction involves the male and female
individuals.
The male reproductive system as shown in figure
above consists of the following parts.
(a) Testis
A pair of testes (singular: testis) produce male sex
cells or gametes called sperms and male sex
hormones from puberty onwards.
The testes are found inside a sac called the
scrotum. Production of sperms requires a
temperature lower than the body temperature and
hence the scrotum hangs outside the body.
The male sex hormone produced by the testes
arc called the testosterone.
The production of sperms and testosterone begins
when the male is between 12 and 16 years old.
(b) Sperm ducts / vas deferens
A sperm duct is a long tube which starts from the
testis. It connects the testis to the urethra. It
transports the sperms from the testis to the urethra.
(c) Sex glands
Sex glands consist of the seminal vesicles and the
prostate gland.
Seminal vesicles are a pair of glands which release
fluid. This fluid contains nutrients that provide
energy for the sperms to swim. Sperms are
temporarily stored in these glands.
The fluid together with the sperms forms the semen.
Semen leaves the penis through the urethra.
(d) Urethra
It is a tube which runs through the center of the
penis. It carries sperms in the semen to the outside of the
body and into the body of the female. It also
transports urine.
(e) Penis
It contains erectile tissues with numerous blood
spaces. When these spaces are filed with blood,
the penis becomes erect and hard.
The penis is a muscular organ which ejaculates
sperms into the reproductive organ of the female
(vagina) during sexual intercourse.
The route taken by sperms from the place of production
to the body of the female:

Tel : 07-3554611

H/P : 019-7832212

CH Wong B. Sc. (Hons) [USM]

Chapter 4

4.

Structure and function of sperms :

(a) The sperm is the smallest cell in the human body,


about 0.01-0.05 mm long.
(b) It is shaped like a tadpole. It is divided into
three parts-the head, neck and tail.
(c) The head contains the nucleus which carries
genetic material to be transferred from the
father to the offspring. It also contains the
acrosome which is a sax containing enzymes
that will break down the egg membrane so that
the sperms can penetrate the egg.
(d) The head of the sperm will pierce through the
cell membrane of the ovum during fertilization.
(e) The neck contains mitochondria which provide
energy for the activity of the sperm.
(f) The tail of the sperm helps the sperm to swim
Changes in Males during Puberty
1 Puberty is the stage when boys and girls become
adult who are sexually mature.
2 Puberty usually starts at around 12-14 years for
boys and 11-13 years for girls.
3 Puberty
is
accompanied
by
physical,
physiological and emotional changes. In males, these
changes are brought by the sex hormone called
testorerone.
4 The changes that occur in males include
(a) the voice deepens
(b) the body becomes more muscular
(c) hair grows on the face (beard, moustache) and
body (armpits, pubic region)
(d) the testes mature and start producing sperms
and testosterone
(e) emotional changes like being attracted to the
opposite sex.

4.3 Female Reproductive System

a place for the growth and development of the foetus.


2 It consists of the ovary, Fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix,
vagina and vulva (Figure 4.11).
(a) Ovary
A pair of ovaries is situated below the kidneys.
It is the female reproductive organ which is responsible for
the production of ova (singular: ovum) and female
sex hormones.
(b) Fallopian tubes
Fallopian tubes are also known as the oviducts.
Each of the ovaries is connected by a Fallopian tube to the
uterus. The walls of the tube contain muscles that contract
rhythmically to produce rippling movements. The inner lining of
the tube is covered with cilia (finger-like projections).
When a mature ovum is released by the
ovary, it will be collected by the funnel of
the Fallopion tube and carried by the cilia
towards
the
uterus.
The
rippling
movements of the Fallopian tube help to
move the ovum along.
Fertilisation of the female gametes by the
male gametes takes place in the Fallopian
tube.
(c) Uterus
The uterus is a muscular organ with thick
walls.
It has a rich supply of blood capillaries.
It is the place where the implantation of
the fertilised ovum occurs.
The embryo develops into the foetus in
the uterus. The baby grows in the uterus
during pregnancy.
(d) Cervix
The cervix is the narrow opening of the
uterus.
It consists of a ring of muscles which closes
the lower end of the uterus.
It secretes mucus which enables the sperm
to swim easily.
The cervix becomes wider during the birth
of a baby.
(e) Vagina (birth canal)
The vagina is a muscular tube that leads'
from the vulva to the uterus.
Sperms are deposited here during sexual:
intercourse.
The vagina serves as the birth canal. It
widens during childbirth to make way for
the delivery of a baby.
(f) Vulva
The outer opening of the vagina.

1 The female reproductive system produces the female


gamete called the ovum. It also provides

3 Structure of the ovum (Figure 4.12)


(a) The ovum is the largest cell inside the
human body.
(b) It measures about 0.1 mm in diameter. (c) It is
spherical in shape, has a nucleus and
cytoplasm.

Tel : 07-3554611

H/P : 019-7832212

CH Wong B. Sc. (Hons) [USM]

Chapter 4

pubic region.
(f) Menstruation begins.
(g) Emotional changes, like experience mood
swings due to changes in their hormone level
and attracted to the opposite sex.

4.4 Menstrual Cycle


1.

Puberty in Females
1. Females usually reach puberty earlier than males.
Puberty begins between the ages of 11 and 13 years
old.
2. Changes that occur to the body of the female are as
follows:
(a) Ovaries start to release mature ova and
produce sex hormones.
(b) Growth rate increases.
(c) Breasts grow bigger.
(d) Hips become wider.
(e) Hair growth on the armpits and around the

Menstruation is the monthly discharge of blood


from the uterus via the vagina.
2. This is usually the first sign of puberty in females.
3. The menstrual cycle is a cycle of events that take
place in the reproductive organ every month.
4. Usually, the average menstrual cycle of an adult
woman is 28 days.
5. However, in younger girls, the menstrual cycle ranges
from about 21 to 33 days.
6. Factors like, emotional disturbances, stress, mental
fatigue, illness and an unbalanced diet may cause the
period to be irregular.
7. The menstrual cycle begins with menstruation.
(a) During menstruation, the lining of the uterus wall
is sloughed off.
(b) This usually occurs during the 1st to the 5th day of the
menstrual cycle.
8. After menstruation, repair and growth of the uterine lining
occurs.
(a) The uterine lining becomes thickened, spongy and
well supplied with blood vessels.
(b) This occurs between the 6th to 10th days.
9. Ovulation takes place between the 13th to the 15th
day,
(a) In ovulation, the mature ovum is released by
the ovary into the fallopian tube.
(b) During this period, the uterine wall is ready for
embryo implantation
10. The 11th to the 17th day is known as the fertile phase.
During this period, sperms in the vagina are likely to
cause fertilization.

Tel : 07-3554611

H/P : 019-7832212

CH Wong B. Sc. (Hons) [USM]

Chapter 4

11. The fate of the uterine lining depends on whether


fertilization takes place or not.
(a) If fertilization takes place
(i) the uterine wall will not breakdown and will
remain in the thickened state.
(ii) the zygote will develop into an embryo which will
then implant itself into the uterine lining.
(b) If fertilization does not occur
(i) the uterine wall will be broken down.
(ii) the lining will be discharged together with
blood through the vagina. This marks the
beginning of menstruation.

4.5 Fertilization and Pregnancy

1.
2.

3.

12. During menstruation, women are susceptible to


vaginal infection because bacteria that grow in blood are in
contact with the reproductive tract.
13. Personal cleanliness and hygiene are very important
during menstruation. Observing hygiene prevents
infection of the reproductive organs. One such
measure is to change sanitary pads frequently.
14. A woman may experience premenstrual syndrome.
She may experience abdominal pain, emotional
changes, headache and weakness.
15. During pregnancy, menstruation ceases for a while until
after the baby is born.
16. Women stop menstruating when they are about 50 to 55
years old. This stage marks the end of their fertility
and is called menopause.

4.

5.
6.
7.

Fertilization is the process whereby the sperm fuses


with the ovum to form the zygote. It occurs in the
fallopian tube.
During sexual intercourse, millions of sperms
are released from the penis of the male into the
vagina of the female. However, only about 100
will reach the ovum.
The sperms swim with the help of their tails, from
the vagina through the cervix. Then they enter the
uterus and go up the Fallopian tubes or oviducts.
The lifespan of a sperm is about 72 hours. If a
mature ovum is present in the oviduct, the sperms
will surround the ovum.
(a) Only one sperm will successfully penetrate the
membrane of the ovum.
(b) The head of this sperm enters the ovum. Its tail
is left outside.
(c) A membrane is formed immediately around the
ovum. This membrane prevents other sperms from
entering.
The nucleus in the head of the sperm then fuses
with the nucleus of the ovum.
The fusion between the sperm and the ovum forms
a zygote. This process is called - fertilization.
Once a zygote is formed the female becomes
pregnant and a fetus will develop in the uterus.

Tel : 07-3554611

H/P : 019-7832212

CH Wong B. Sc. (Hons) [USM]

Chapter 4
8.

The zygote will first divide to form two cells, four


cells and subsequently a ball of cells called the
embryo.

9.

The early embryo will then travel down the fallopian tube
to the uterus.
10. Eventually, the embryo sinks in and becomes
embedded in the uterus lining and we called as
implantation.

11. The different stages shown in Figure above are as


follows:
(a) Ovulation (A)-A mature ovum is released
into the oviduct.
(b) Fertilization (B)-Fusion of the nuclei of a
sperm and an ovum to form a zygote.
(c) Development of the zygote (C)
The zygote divides into two cells after 30 minutes.
The cells divide repeatedly to form a ball of
cells called the embryo.
The embryo moves down the oviduct and
enters the uterus. The movement of the
embryo is assisted by the rippling movements of
the uterine wall.
(d) Implantation
On reaching the uterus, at about 7-8 days after
fertilization, the embryo attaches or implants
itself into the thickened lining of the uterus. It
sinks into the soft tissues of the uterine wall.
This process is called implantation.
(e) The cells of the implanted embryo continue to
divide many times.
12 The embryo grows into a fetus and finally into a
baby in the uterus.

13 The period of pregnancy is from the time of


fertilization until the birth of the baby. Pregnancy
lasts about 9 months or 40 weeks.
14 Development of the embryo
(a) The embryo that is implanted in the uterine wall
continues to grow inside a sac. This sac is called
the amnion. The fetus is surrounded by the amniotic
fluid.
(b) The embryo gets nutrients and oxygen from the
blood vessels in the uterine lining.
(c) Finger-like projections grow from the embryo
into the lining of the uterus. This eventually forms
the placenta.
(d) The embryo has now developed into a fetus.
15 Development of the fetus
(a) The fetus is joined to the placenta by the umbilical
cord.
(b) The umbilical cord contains a vein and an artery.
(c) The vein carries blood rich in nutrients and oxygen
from the placenta to the fetus.
(d) The artery carries waste products such as urea
and carbon dioxide away from the fetus to the
placenta. These substances diffuse into the
mother's blood.

(e) In the placenta, the fetus blood and the mother's


blood do not mix.
(f) The fetus continues to grow and increase in size.
It begins to resemble a human being.

16 Birth of the baby


(a) At about nine months, the baby is ready to be
born.
(b) The mother starts to feel small contractions in the
uterine wall.
(c) Then the amnion bursts, and the amniotic fluid
flows out.
(d) The uterus muscles contract very strongly. These
contractions push the baby out through the
cervix and the vagina.

Tel : 07-3554611

H/P : 019-7832212

CH Wong B. Sc. (Hons) [USM]

Chapter 4

4.6 Importance of Prenatal Care


Please try to do own short notes.

4.7 Importance of Research in Human


Reproduction.
1.
2.

Two main issues concerning human reproduction are


sterility and birth control.
The advancement of science and technology helps to
overcome these two problems.

Sterility
1. Sterility means the inability to produce children.
Problems with the reproductive system of the husband
or the wife or both may result in a couple who cannot
have children.
2 Sterility in females may be due to
(a) Defective reproductive organs
(b) Abnormal ovulation or inability of the ovary to
produce ovum
(c) Blocked oviduct due to tissue growth or infection
(d) Inability of the zygote to implant in the uterine
lining after fertilization

(e) Health problems like high blood pressure and


diabetes
Sterility in males may be due to
(a) Defective reproductive organs like the penis unable
to ejaculate sperms into the vagina
(b) Low sperm count
(c) Deformed and weak sperms produced by the testis
(d) Inactive sperms which are unable to swim to meet
the ovum
Sterility problems can be overcome by getting medical
advice. Specialist doctors like obstetricians and
gynecologists are usually consulted. Some methods to
overcome sterility are as follows.
(a) Nutrition
Taking nutritious food and avoiding the intake of
harmful substances like drugs and alcohol.
(b) Drug treatment
(i) Hormone pills or injections are given to females
with ovulation problems, and to males with low
sperm counts.
(ii) Hormones will stimulate the release of ovum in
the female. In the male, hormones will stimulate
the production of more and active sperms.
(c) Surgery
(i) Growth of tissues inside the oviducts and sperm
ducts may cause blockages. These blockages may
prevent fertilization or implantation.
(ii) The removal of the growth through surgery
may increase the chances for fertilization to take
place.
(iii) The removal of the growth inside the uterus
may enable implantation of the zygote.
(d) In vitro fertilization (IVF)
(i) In vitro means made to occur outside the
living body. Hence in vitro fertilization involves
the fertilization of a human egg outside the body.
This method is used to make test tube babies.
(ii) IVF is recommended for couples who are
unable to have children because the wife has
blocked oviducts.
(iii) First the wife is injected with a hormone to
stimulate the ovary to produce eggs.
(iv) The doctor makes a small incision in the body
wall. A laparoscope is inserted to suck out the eggs.
(v) The eggs are transferred into a glass dish
containing nutrients and oxygen. Some semen from
the husband is then mixed with the eggs. Fertilization
between the eggs and sperms takes place in the
culture solution.
(vi) The fertilized eggs are kept in the solution for
a few days. They are observed under the
microscope as they develop into embryos.
(vii) When the embryo reaches the eight cell stage, it
is introduced into the wife's uterus through the
vagina.
(viii) Implantation of the embryo takes place and the
embryo develops into a fetus.
(ix) This technique is lengthy and complex and the
success rate is low.

Tel : 07-3554611

H/P : 019-7832212

CH Wong B. Sc. (Hons) [USM]

Chapter 4

Birth Control or Contraception


1. Couples may decide when they are ready to have
children or how many children they plan to have by
practicing various methods of birth control.
2. Birth control basically means preventing pregnancy
by
(a) Stopping the production of eggs (ovulation)
(b) Stopping the sperms from reaching and
fertilizing the ovum
(c) Stopping the implantation of the embryo in the
uterus
3. Contraceptive pills
(a) These are taken by a woman everyday, for 21 days
after menstruation.
(b) These pills contain a combination of hormones
which prevent the production of ovum. Thus the
pill prevents pregnancy by stopping ovulation.
4. Natural method

(a) An example of the natural birth control method


is the rhythm method.
(b) The rhythm method, or calendar method, is the
oldest and most widely practiced method of
natural family planning.
(c) The couple avoids having sexual intercourse
especially during the unsafe period in the
menstrual cycle that is the fertile phase.
(d) This method is based on the assumptions that

(i) Ovulation occurs 14 days before the beginning of


menstruation, plus or minus two days
(ii) The sperm can survive in the woman's body
for about three days
(iii) The ovum survives for 24 hours
Condoms
(a) It is a thin rubber sheath used by a man.
(b) It is worn over the man's erect penis before
intercourse to prevent the sperms from entering
the vagina of the woman.
(c) It helps to prevent the infection of sexually
transmitted diseases such as AIDS.
(d) It is reliable, easy to obtain and to use.
Intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD)

(a) It is also known as intrauterine device (IUD).


(b) It is a plastic or copper wire coil.
(c) It is fitted inside the uterus by a doctor and can be
left inside for 2-3 years.
(d) It prevents sperms swimming up the uterus,
fertilization and the implantation of the embryo.
(e) When it is removed pregnancy can occur.
7 Spermieides
(a) These are chemical substances in the forms of
foams, jellies or creams.
(b) It is introduced into the vagina of the woman
before intercourse. It kills the sperms that are
released into the woman's body.
(c) It is not effective on its own and must be used with
other methods such as the condom or diaphragm.
8 Vasectomy
(a) This method is also known as male sterilization
and requires minor surgery.
(b) It is irreversible. The man must be very sure that he
does not want any more children.

Tel : 07-3554611

H/P : 019-7832212

CH Wong B. Sc. (Hons) [USM]

Chapter 4
(c) The sperm ducts are cut and then tied to prevent
the sperms traveling from the testes to the urethra
and penis.
(d) No sperm will be released through the penis.

(b) Some are unisexual. They only have either the


male or the female organs.
9

Ligation
(a) It is also known as female sterilization. It
involves a more complicated surgery compared
to a vasectomy.
(b) Like a vasectomy, it is irreversible and usually
carried out on a woman who does not want any
more children.
(c) The middle part of the oviducts is cut and the open
ends are clipped or tied.
(d) It stops the released ovum from getting into the
oviduct. Thus it prevents fertilization.

Structure and function of the flower

Please list down the importance of research on human


reproduction.

Pedicel / flower
stalk

1.
2.

4.8 Sexual Reproductive System of Flowering


Plants.
1
2
3

Flowering plants reproduce by sexual reproduction.


The flower is very important in the reproductive system
of the plant.
Flower produces the male and female gametes for
sexual reproduction. They produce seeds which
finally grow into new plants.
(a) Some flowers are bisexual. These flowers have
both the male and female reproductive organs.

3.

4.

The parts of a flower are the sepals, petals, stamens and


pistil. They are arranged in four rings and are attached
to the receptacle at the end of the flower stalk.
Sepals form the outermost ring of the flower. They are
usually green in color and may look like leaves. They
protect the flower during their bud stage.
Petals form the second ring of the flower.
a. They are the most obvious parts of the flower.
They are usually brightly colored and often
scented.
b. At the bud stage, the petals protect the stamens and
pistil of the flower.
c. When the flower is in full bloom, the brightly
colored petals attract insects for pollination.
Stamen is the male reproductive organs of the flower.
Each stamen is made up of two parts:
(a) Filament long stem-like structure. It is attached to
the receptacle at one end and holds an anther at the
other.
(b) Anther is made up of two to four lobes. Inside the
anther are pollen sacs where the pollen grains are
formed.

Tel : 07-3554611

H/P : 019-7832212

CH Wong B. Sc. (Hons) [USM]

Chapter 4

5.

The anther may have different shapes. Pollen grains


may also have different shapes and sizes.

4.9 Pollination

(a) Each pollen grain has two nuclei inside the


cytoplasm.
(b) The cytoplasm is surrounded by two layers of
walls.
(c) The surface of the pollen grain is rough, to
enable it to stick to the stigma.
(d) The bigger nucleus is called the generative
nucleus. The smaller one is called the tube
nucleus.
(e) The generative nucleus forms the male
gametes.

The pistil is the female reproductive organ of the


flower. It is also known as the carpel. Each pistil is
made up of the following parts:
(a) The stigma, which has a sticky surface for the
pollen grains to attach (for example the
hibiscus
flower).
Some
flowers
have
featherlike stigmas to catch the pollen grains
(for example grass and maize flowers).
(b) The style joins the stigma to the ovary, it is
made up of soft tissues which allows the
pollen tube to grow down towards the ovule.
(c) The ovary, is attached to the receptacle of the
flower. It surrounds and protects the ovules
inside.
(d) The ovules are attached to the ovary wall. Inside
the ovule is the ovum (egg), the female gamete.

10

Tel : 07-3554611

H/P : 019-7832212

CH Wong B. Sc. (Hons) [USM]

Chapter 4

11

Tel : 07-3554611

H/P : 019-7832212