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Comment

I.E.2.ii.

TYPO Should read GSSG and H2O

16

III.A.1.

43

III.D.

77

IV.C.

81

VI.C.1

GSSH and H20


Nave B-cells cannot mature to plasma
cells
EPO is useful in a subset of patients,
especially those with cancer
Asymptomatic at birth with holosystolic
machine-like-murmur
Click and murmur become louder

85

I.A.

Adenovirus is the most common cause


Screening for colorectal carcinoma
occurs via endoscopy
Urobilinogen is also partially resorbed
When spread to regional lymph nodes
occurs
Congenital extension of cerebellar

CORRECTION Rhinovirus is the most common cause.

Serum creatinine kinase


phagocytosis is enhanced by opsonins
(IgG and C3a)
Symptoms of skin bleeding include
petechiae, ecchymoses (> 3mm),
purpura (> 1 cm)
Aminolevulinic acid dehydrogenase
(ALAD) converts ALA to porphobilinogen

TYPO Should read serum creatine kinase

113 XI. C.
118 I.D.7.
139 V.D.
178 IV.A.
198 III.C.1.ii.
13

IV.E.1

31

II. B. 2.

43

IV. B. 2.

49

I. B

Intravascular hemolysis occurs


episodically, often at night during sleep

74

G. 3.

Nitrates vasodilate coronary arteries

96

Table 9.5, Squamous cell


carcinoma (under
characteristic histology)

Kertain pearls or intracellular bridges

CORRECTION Pre and Pro B-cells cannot mature (to nave B-cell)

UPDATE EPO is useful in patients with cancer. However, EPO has more recently become contraindicate
its growth effects on cancerous cells.
CORRECTION Murmur is continuous (throughout systole and diastole).
CORRECTION Click and murmur become softer with squatting.

CORRECTION Screening occurs via colonoscopy (not endoscopy).

CLARIFICATION Urobilinogen is colorless. However, it is oxidized to urobilin, which gives urine its yellow
CORRECTION Cancer from the lower 1/3 of vagina goes to inguinal nodes, and cancer from upper 2/3
regional iliac nodes.
CORRECTION Congenital extension of cerebellarvermis and tonsils through the foramen magnum.

CORRECTION C3b (and not C3a) is the opsonin. Should read (IgG and C3b)

CORRECTION Ecchymoses are >1cm and purpura are > 3mm. Should read include petechiae, purp
(>3mm), and ecchymoses (>1cm)
TYPO The enzyme is ALA dehydratase (not dehydrogenase).

CLARIFICATION More recent studies show that hemolysis occurs throughout the day. Hence, the color
(hemoglobinuria) seen in the first void upon awakening is mostly due to urine production and concentratio
hemoglobin overnight (as opposed to hemolysis occurring mostly at night). Of note, my explanation in the
remains partly true and is an excellent way to remember the pathophysiology of this disorder.
CLARIFICATION Nitrates do result in coronary artery vasodilation. However, a more significant effect is
vasodilation of veins. This results in decreased venous return to the heart, which in turn, decreases preloa
hence, stress on the myocardium.
TYPO intracellular should read intercellular

105 VI. B. 3.
128 V. A.
199 Fig. 18.9

May rupture leading to bleeding from the


gastroduodenal artery (anterior ulcer) or
acute pancreatitis (posterior ulcer)
Thick glomerular basement membranes
on H&E, often with tram-track
appearance
Gout. A, Tophi. B, Postive birefringence.

CORRECTION The gastroduodenal artery lies posterior to the duodenum. Hence, rupture of a posterior
anterior) ulcer would lead to bleeding from the GDA. Should read gastroduodenal artery (posterior ulce
acute pancreatitis (posterior ulcer).

CLARIFICATION Tram-track appearance can be seen in both type I and type II MPGN. However, it is m
commonly seen with type I (USMLE examiners do ask about this!).

CORRECTION The crystals in gout exhibit negative birefringence (and not, positive birefringence). This
correct in the text, but needs to be corrected in the image caption.

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