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Group 3: Juarez, V. & Somozo, B.D.M.H.

April 24, 2015

CHEM 14.1, FAB1

May 10, 2015

Experiment No. 7
Acids, Bases and Salts

ABSTRACT
Analytical chemistry is the science of obtaining, processing, and communicating information about the
composition and structure of matter. In other words, it is the art and science of determining what matter is
and how much of it exists2. Quantitative Analysis, a chemical analysis under Analytical Chemistry is
performed to accurately determine the concentration, amount or percentage of one or more elements in a
test sample5, was used for this experiment. Acid-Base Titration, usually used to find the amount of a
known acidic or basic substance through acid base reactions1, was the method of quantitative analysis
done in this experiment. Initially, the 0.1M NaOH titrant was prepared by diluting 10mL 1M NaOH to
100mL distilled water. The three trials of analytes were prepared by diluting 2mL of Silver Swan vinegar
to 50mL distilled water. 2 drops of Phenophthalein was then added to each trial. In order to reach the
point of neutralization, 15.5mL, 14.6mL, and 14.5mL of the titrant was used. The calculated
concentrations of each trial are 0.775M, 0.73M, and 0.725M. Their average of 0.743M is close to the

theoretical molarity of vinegar with a percent error of 0.93%


sample5, was used for this experiment. Acid-

INTRODUCTION

Base Titration was the method of quantitative


Analytical chemistry is the science of obtaining,

analysis done in this experiment. Acid-Base

processing, and communicating information

titrations are usually used to find the amount of a

about the composition and structure of matter. In

known acidic or basic substance through acid

other words, it is the art and science of

base reactions. The analyte (titrand) is the

determining what matter is and how much of it

solution with an unknown molarity. The reagent

exists2. It is necessary to determine the

(titrant) is the solution with a known molarity that

constituents of a solution in order to better

will react with the analyte1. The concentration of

understand the characteristics of the solution.

a certain substance can affect its strength and how

Quantitative Analysis, a chemical analysis under

the substance may react in further chemical

Analytical Chemistry is performed to accurately

reactions. It also affects the characteristics of the

determine

substance.

the

concentration,

amount

or

percentage of one or more elements in a test

And

knowing

substances

concentration can help equip one with the


1

knowledge of how to properly handle the

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

substance. Objectives of this experiment were the


proper preparation of the reagent via dilution,

Results

determination of the endpoint of an acid-base


titration, and determination of the concentration

15.5mL, 14.6mL, and 14.5mL of the titrant was

of acetic acid in vinegar3.

needed in order to reach endpoint. The calculated


concentrations from these values were 0.775M,

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

0.73M, and 0.725M respectively. The average of


concentration of the three trials is 0.743M.

Initially, preparation of the 0.1M NaOH titrant

Percent error was 0.93%.

from an available concentration of NaOH was


done. The available concentration of NaOH was

Discussion

1M. Approximately 10mL of 1M NaOH was


diluted to 100mL distilled water to make a 0.1M

According to the data, average acetic acid

solution of NaOH. This solution was used in the

concentration was roughly around 0.743M, which

proceeding steps.

meets

the

federally

required

minimum

concentration of 4 g of acetic acid per 100 mL


Next was the titration procedure. The buret was

(0.667M or 0.7M.) of vinegar6. It was also close

thoroughly rinsed with NaOH. Then, it was filled

to the theoretical molarity of Silver Swan vinegar,

with the prepared 0.1M NaOH solution and the

which is 0.750M. It is important that the air space

air space at the tip was removed. It was set to zero

at the tip of the buret is removed for the volume

reading and then clamped to the iron stand. 2mL

of the reagent will be compromised. Washing and

of the acid from the sample, vinegar of the brand

rinsing the buret afterwards with the prepared

Silver Swan, was transferred via pipet to a 100mL

solution will ensure that the buret has the least

Erlenmeyer flask. 50mL of distilled water and 2

possibility

drops of phenolphthalein was added to the flask

chemicals. Titration is relevant since it is used to

with the diluted acetic acid. The acid was then

find the concentration of the test substances1.

titrated with the prepared base until the

Percent error was 0.93%. Possible source of error

appearance of a permanent light pink coloration.

was inaccurate measurement of the volumes of

The final reading of the buret was recorded. The

the substances to make the reagent, namely 1M

buret was re-filled to the zero reading for the next

NaOH

trials. 3 trials were made. The concentration of the

inconsistencies in the resulting concentration.

analyte was calculated and averaged. Percent

Another is the possibility that distilled water in

error was also noted.

the titrand may have reacted with CO2 in the

of

and

contamination

distilled

from

water,

other

causing

atmosphere or may already have carbon dioxide

Percent Error

in it4 forming carbonic acid, which may have

% = |

0.750 0.743
| 100
0.750

= 0.93%

affected the results.


CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Calculations
The final concentrations of acetic acid of the three
3 =

trials with 15.5mL, 14.6mL and 14.5mL 0.1M

( () )( )( )
( 3 )( () 3 )

NaOH used in the experiment are 0.775M, 0.73M


and 0.725M respectively. Their average of
0.743M is close to the theoretical molarity of

%
=|


| 100

0.750M. Percent error is 0.93%. The objectives


were met. Though it would be recommended that
a more accurate measurement of the substances

Trial 1

used to prepare the reagent be done. Ensuring that

3 =

the water used in the solutions is as free from

(0.0155 )(0.1
)(1

3 )

(1 )(0.002 3 )

carbon dioxide4 or any other compound that


might affect its pH is also imperative to lessen the

chance of error.

Trial 2

REFERENCES

3 =
(0.0146 )(0.1

)(1

3 )

(1 )(0.002 3 )

(1)Acid-Base

Titrations.

http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Analytical_Chemist

ry/Quantitative_Analysis/Titration/AcidBase_Titrations (accessed May 7, 2015).

Trial 3
3 =
(0.0145 )(0.1

)(1

3 )

(1 )(0.002 3 )

(2)Analytical
=

Chemistry.

http://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/careers/colleg
e-to-career/areas-of-chemistry/analytical-

chemistry.html (accessed May 7, 2015).


Average Molarity of CH3COOH
. 3 =

(3)Committee on General Chemistry. Acids,

0.775+0.73+0.725
3

Bases and Salts. In Laboratory Manual in General

= .

Chemistry 1, 2012th ed.; Committee on General


Chemistry: Manila, 2012; pp 65-70.
(4)Stoichiometry in Solution Standardization of
Sodium Hydroxide. Macalester College Web site.
http://www.macalester.edu/~kuwata/Classes/200
405/chem%20111/111l%20experiment%208%20%20naoh.pdf (accessed May 8, 2015).

(5)Quantitative

Chemical

Analysis.

http://www.labtesting.com/services/materialstesting/chemical-analysis/quantitative-chemicalanalysis/ (accessed May 7, 2015).

(6)The

Analysis

of

Vinegar.

http://wwwchem.csustan.edu/consumer/vinegar/
analysis.htm (accessed May 8, 2015).
I hereby certify that I have given a substantial
contribution to this report and I did not copy
and/or quote from any resource material unless
being cited as reference. I am make known that
failure to accomplish the second clause would be
grounds for plagiarism and a failing grade for my
final lab report.

Beah Davee Marie H. Somozo, 2014-35733