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1

PEMASANGAN VOLTAN TINGGI 11KV


1.0

H.T / L.V Comparison


1.
2.
3.
4.

Difference in tariff
Cable linkage
Size of cable
Load can be added easily

2.0 TNB Requirement


11 kV
3.3/22 kV
66 kV

1.5MVA
5MVA
20MVA

3.0 Fault level


Fault level at main board 31MVA at 11 kV
650MVA at 22 kV
350MVA at 11 kV
120MVA at 11 kV
If

350 x 106
3 x 11,000

13KA (baru)
18KA (lama)
= 18.4 kA

Fixed portion
Rated voltage - 12 kV
Continuous normal current 630A
Short circuit rating 184 rms at 11KV

4.0 CIRCUIT BREAKER


Is a mechanical switching device able to make, carry and interrupt current in a
circuit under normal condition and to carry for a specified time and to make and
interrupt current arising in a circuit under defined abnormal condition.
5.0 CIRCUIT BREAKER PARAMETERS
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
6.0

Rated normal current (A)


Making current / capacity (A)
Breaking current (KA)
Breaking capacity (KA)
Short time withstand current (KA)
Rated voltage (KV)
Opening time (ms) mula buka hingga arka habis, sepatutnya lebih cepat
dari closing time
Closing time (ms)

BREAKDOWN VOLTAGE
a. Udara

b. Hampagas -

20 kV 0.5 cm (5mm spark gap)


150 kV 0.5 cm (5mm spark gap)

OCB guna earthing truck


Voltage transformer spout perlu juga diasingkan
11KV panel maximum 19 bilangan sebaris
Safety clearance 8 6
Work clearance

3 for 11 kV
4 for 11 kV to 33 kV

4
PENCAWANG PEMBAHAGIAN UTAMA (PPU)

RMU Ring Main Unit (Unit Gegelang Utama)


OFF POINT Titik Buka
Pengasingan Secara Sectionilising

5
7.0

Additional Vector
12.7KV
6.35KV

- sefasa
- tidak sefasa

8.0 Subtractional Vector


0 KV
11KV

- sefasa
- tidak sefasa

6
9.0

SUBSTATION EARTHING
11 kV substation
33 kV substation
132 kV substation

earthing kurang 3 ohm


earthing kurang 2 ohm
earthing kurang 1 ohm

For 33 kV use earthing grid, earthing mat or earthing plate


9.1 PEMBUMIAN/GROUNDING/EARTHING
a.
b.

System earthing
Equipment earthing

Disambung kepada jisim am bumi dengan berkesan (effectively earth) supaya


peranti perlindungan boleh berkendali.
For wire grounded system

a.

Ground potential
V G = IF x RF
Grid potential rise (GPR)

b.
c.
d.

Pass fault current to neutral


Avoid thermal & mechanical damage
Operation of protective equipment including surge protection

Relay action
IEC approach
t 0.2 second,

VT = 600V

0.2 t 2 second,

VT = 120/t volt

t 2 second,

VT = 60 volt

Vtouch = (1.5 rho + 1000) 0.157 volt


t
Vstep = (6 rho + 1000) 0.157 volt
t
Electric arc temperature is up to 8,000 10,000 deg. C
Differential Protection Protected zone / Unit protection
Liquid Resistor
Neutral Earthing Resistor

Pilot wire protection


Merz price
voltan tetimbang
arus mengeliling (Solkor R / Rf), 33 kV

D
- differential relay
REF - restricted earth fault
SBEF - standby earth fault
Bulcholf relay
Oil temperature trip (OTT)
Oil temperature alarm (OTA)
Winding temperature trip (WTT)
Winding temperature alarm (WTA)
OTT & WTT OTA & WTA -

80% to 95%
100% to 105%

Underground Cable -

Translay 11KV
Solkor R, Rf 33KV

Overhead lines

IDMT O/C & E/F

+ IDMT O/C & E/F

Restricted Earth Fault (REF)


Device

No

Break Load
Current
No

Break Fault
Current
No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Circuit
Breaker

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

F/S, S/F

Yes*

Yes

Yes

Yes

Isolator
(disconnector)
Switch

Carry Fault
Current
Yes

Make on Fault

until fuse blow

Breaking capacity

25 kA

Making

1.8 x 2 x 25 kA = 63.6 kA

Rated short time

21.9 kA for 3 saat

Rated operating duty

3 minute in MVA or kA

10

10.0TRANSFORMER
Tap Changer
OFF load tap changer
ON load tap changer
Tap changer is at primary winding
There are 5 position:
Tap 1

11,550V

Tap 2

11,275V

Tap 3

11,000V

Tap 4

10,725V

Tap 5

10,450V

Vector Group
DY11, DY1, Yy1,

Zy11

Output side lag by 30% or lead by 30%

433V

11

11.0 MENGUJI ALATUBAH


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Rintangan penebatan
Keterusan
Tekanan (HT side)
Turn ratio
Power factor test
Oil test

Penebatan (IR test)


Range: 1000V
A coil

A ke bumi

Mohm

B coil

B ke bumi

Mohm

C coil

C ke bumi

Mohm

Bacaan 100Mohm keatas dianggap baik


Keterusan
Range: paling rendah
A ke B

0 ohm

B ke C

0 ohm

C ke A

0 ohm

Bahagian Voltan Rendah


a. Rintangan penebatan, range 500V
a ke bumi

b ke bumi

c ke bumi

n ke bumi

100Mohm keatas

b. Keterusan, range paling rendah

12

a ke b :
b ke c :
c ke a :
a ke n :
b ke n :
c ke n :
Ujian nisbah (tap pada kedudukan 3)

13

12.0

UJIAN MINYAK
BS 5784 / IEC 156
Minyak:

BS 148

Penebatan untuk solid, flash over di-electric is for liquid, spark over

OLD -

Sphere 7mm diameter, distance 4mm

NEW -

Sphere 12.5mm radius, distance 2.5mm

Test 30 kV for 1 minute. What is the breakdown voltage


Ambil minyak dari bahagian bawah transformer atau conservator tank
Rehat 10 minit
Naikkan KV sehingga flash over
1. Ujian pertama

30 kV, rehat 5 minit

2. Ujian kedua

25 kV, rehat 5 minit

3. Ujian ketiga

35 kV, rehat 5 minit

4. Ujian keempat

50 kV, rehat 5 minit

5. Ujian kelima

30 kV, rehat 5 minit

6. Ujian keenam

27 kV, rehat 5 minit


197 kV bahagi 6 = 32.8 kV

14
Silica gel (cobalt chloride)
Test minyak tiap-tiap tahun
Asid test
1.0mg / g

Pottasium Hydroxide (KOH)

0.5mg / g

check again after 4 month

Stream-line filter for filtering oil without de-energised the transformer


Loading
Load transformer up to 80% taking into account load only up to 50%
Largest transformer is 60MVA

15
13.

PRESSURE TEST
Anything contain inductor or capacitor such as transformer or cable or motor must
be tested using DC. Only busbar, breaker or RMU are suitable for AC pressure
test.

16

14.

PENGUJIAN SISTEM PEMBUMIAN PENCAWANG

Soil resistivity test conducted if possible:


11KV sus-station

< 3 ohm

33KV sub-station

< 1 ohm

Power station

< 0.5 ohm

Earth Electrode Testing


Potentiometer principle, based on two values

C = Potential
R = V/I

C = Current

17
15.

UJIAN TEKANAN
It is a pre-commissioning test or after fault has been repaired. Test insulation
and continuity first before pressure test. The purpose of the pressure test is:
-

To ensure equipment is able to withstand the nominal or system operating


voltage

Normally done at twice the system voltage as a guide:


Standard is 2 x rated voltage + 2
Equipment to be tested are BUSBAR, TRANSFORMERM SWITCHGEAR,
CABLE
Test duration
1 minute AC at any frequency, 15 minutes DC
AC test only for busbar and switchgear
DC test only for transformers and cables because of present of inductance and
capacitance
For old equipment the test voltage may be reduced but the time has to be
longer (15 minutes)
If the cable or transformer is already connected and not possible to be
separated DC test can be applied
Between phases
Between all phases and earth

34kV for 15 minutes


25kV for 15 minutes

Screen cable does not permit phase to phase test because the screen is earth.
Screen is to make the voltage level even throughout the insulation of the
cable. Most 22kV and above cables has to be screened otherwise the
insulation thickness is very much thicker.
Note: All terminal not under test must be effectively earth.

16.

UJIAN TEKANAN KABEL


For 11 kV cable
25 kV DC 15 minutes

18
AC 1 minute (destructing test)
Between phases and earth

Fail conditions:
1. The kV could not go higher to 25 kV
2. The kV raise and then drop
3. The leakage is very high

19

15.1

UJIAN TEKANAN VACUUM CIRCUIT BREAKER


To check the integrity of the vacuum in the interrupter
Use VACUUM CHECKER (pressure test set) show green and red
If vacuum checker is not available pressure test can be used
Check the length of the break are all the same (contact gap)
If the voltage cannot go
For 11KV breaker, test at 40 kV DC for 15 minutes or 25kV AC for 1 minute

20

15.2

UJIAN TEKANAN OIL CIRCUIT BREAKER


First test:
Test all terminal to the frame/body. The breaker ON position. Check the leakage
current and taken for future reference.

Second test:
To test between phases. Circuit breaker ON position

Third test:
-

Test between IN and OUT


Circuit breaker OFF position
To make sure the gap can withstand test voltage

21

AC

1 minute

11 kV 24 kV (2 times rated voltage + 2)

= (2 x 11 kV + 2) = 24 kV

1. Uji semua punca ke frame OCB, ON position


2. Antara fasa
Breaker ON position
3. Antara MASUK dan KELUAR, OFF position

22
PROTECTION
Unit Protection

The relay only works on the different values in a current path


Types of Relays
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Attracted armature relays (movable armature)


Induction relays (IDMT)
Thermal relays (bi-metallic concept)
Mechanical relays (pressure switch, liquid level, temperature level)
Solid state relays

DC scheme available: 30V DC, 220V DC,110/220V DC

23

Base power: 1000 kVA


Z% : 4.75%
Fault level on MSB = 1 MVA
0.0475

= 21.05 MVA

Prospective 3 phase short circuit current = Fault level


3 x 415

= 21.05 x 106
3 x 415
= 30 kA

Full load current

= 1 x 106
3 x 415

1400A

The ACB or MCCB used must have trip rating equal or greater than 1400A
and short circuit breaking capacity equal or greater than 30kA
The MSB must have rated short circuit current equal or greater than 30kA for
3 seconds
Rated making capacity of the main switchboard and busbar support
= 1.5 x 2 x 30kA

= 63.63kA (peak)

1.5 is factor for fuse or circuit breaker

24
2 is conversion RMS to peak
Example 2

Z % = 5%
Fault level on MSB

= 12.5 x 106
0.05

= 25MVA

Prospective 3 phase short circuit current

Full load current

= 12.5 x 106
3 x 400

= 25MVA
3 x 415

= 2500 A

= 35 kA

= 2.5 kA

Voltage drop consideration


-

caused by large starting current of machine, heavy industries

Voltage drop = Start kVA of motor x % impedance


Rated kVA of transformer
Example
A 500 kVA transformer supplying to a 500h.p, 400V motor would have estimated
transient voltage dip during starting. The value of transformer reactance is 5.4 p.u
Calculate the value of the voltage dip in the system
KVA of the motor

= 500 x 746
0.85

= 438 kVA, round figre = 500kVA

25

Assuming starting current: 4 times


Voltage dip = 4 x 500 x 5.4%
500

= 21.6%

Acceptable value is less than 15%


It is advisable that if a transformer is supplying to a machine load with high
starting current it need to be generously oversized to at least 2 times the rated kVA
of the magnitude of the voltage dip. We can also use A.C drive as alternative.