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1

SISTEM BEKALAN KUASA TANPA GANGGUAN (UPS)


1.

PENGENALAN
Bekalan kuasa bantu adalah satu perkara yang sangat mustahak bagi
menjamin agar perjalanan sesuatu sistem itu tidak terganggu. Sistem
bekalan kuasa tanpa gangguan (UPS) adalah salah satu sistem kuasa
bantu yang amat terjamin dan berteknologi tinggi. Kegunaannya
adalah berbeza iaitu mengikut keperluan beban tetapi pada
kebiasaannya ianya terhad kepada beban-beban yang kritikal sahaja
umpamanya komputer, PABX, dsb.

2.

MENGAPA SISTEM UPS ITU PERLU


Untuk pengetahuan, harga bagi sesuatu UPS itu adalah jauh lebih
tinggi daripada harga sebuah set janakuasa tunggusedia. Jadi
kenapakah kita masih mahu menggunakan sistem UPS. Jawapan bagi
soalan ini ialah keperluan kuasa bantu yang stabil dan terjamin bagi
sesuatu beban yang kritikal dimana gangguan kuasa tidak boleh
berlaku walau sesaat pun. Contohnya bagi sistem komputer, jika
berlakunya gangguan kuasa ianya akan kehilangan isian didalam
memorinya. Begitu juga dengan sistem lampu landasan kapal terbang
(bagi kategori II keatas), gangguan kuasa tidak boleh melebehi satu
saat.

3.

JENIS-JENIS SISTEM UPS


Sistem UPS terbahagi kepada beberapa jenis tetapi yang biasa
digunakan ialah:
i)
ii)

Jenis Unitary
Jenis Parallel

Jenis Unitary

Jenis Parallel

4.

PEMILIHAN SISTEM UPS


Perkara-perkara utama yang harus diambilkira semasa membuat
pemilihan sistem UPS yang sesuai dengan kehendak kita adalah:
a.

Kuasa

Kuasa yang dikehendaki bagi sesuatu pemasangan hendaklah


ditentukan. Ada dua cara bagi menentukan kuasa sistem UPS iaitu
memilih saiz sistem UPS yang boleh menampung beban semasa dan
beban tambahan dimasa akan datang. Cara ini akan melibatkan kos
permulaan dan kos penyelenggaraan yang tinggi sedikit oleh kerana
kemungkinan sistem UPS ini beroperasi bukan pada kecekapan yang
tinggi, tetapi dalam jangkamasa panjang ianya boleh menjimatkan.
Cara kedua ialah dengan menghadkan kepada beban tersambung
sahaja. Ini adalah dengan menentukan saiz sistem UPS sahaja tetapi
keperluan bagi membolehkan sistem UPS ini dipertingkatkan dimasa
hadapan perlu diadakan. Kos permulaan dan penyelenggaraan bagi
cara ini adalah lebih murah.
ii)

Peraturan Voltan

Peraturan voltan keluaran dapat memberi panduan mengenai kualiti


peralatan yang dicadangkan itu. Pada kebiasaannya kita hendaklah
menentukan bahawa peraturan voltan adalah plus / minus 1% dalam
keadaan tetap dan perubahan voltan keluaran berada dalam jeda
(range) +10% hingga 2% daripada nilai terkadar keatas jumlah
beban.
iii)

Herotan Harmonik (Harmonic Distortion)

Aras herotan harmonik keseluruhannya hendaklah ditentukan. Ini


sebenarnya mengukur kualiti gelombang bentuk sinus yang
dikeluarkan oleh sistem UPS. Pihak pengeluar komputer biasanya
memberikan kadar maksimumnya sebanyak 5% sahaja.

iv)

Frekuensi

Beban komputer pada kebiasaannya boleh menerima perubahan


frekuensi dalam kadar plus / minus 1% sahaja.
v)

Kemuatan Beban Lebih

Oleh kerana terdapatnya beban yang boleh menyebabkan arus rempuh


(inrush current) masuk yang tinggi semasa ianya dihidupkan,
kemungkinan sistem UPS yang dicadangkan itu terpaksa dinaikkan
saiz sebanyak 100 250%, tertakluk kepada jenis beban.
5.

KOMPONEN UTAMA SISTEM UPS


Antara komponen utama sistem UPS ialah:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Penerus (rectifier)/battery charger


Static transistor inverter
Electronic static switch
Bateri
Manual maintenance by-pass circuit

Katalah satu pemasangan mempunyai beban kritikal yang berkadaran


seperti berikut: 40KVA, 30KVA, 15KVA, 10KVA dan 50KVA.
Beban 10KVA mempunyai
selama 200ms, dihidupkan
tidak menyebabkan arus
pemasangan ini ialah 0.2
hadapan yang dijangkakan
maksimum semasa.

arus rempuh masuk bersamaan 4 x In


sekali dalam sehari. Beban-beban lain
rempuh masuk. Faktur kuasa bagi
menyusul. Keperluan tambahan masa
adalah sebanyak 20% daripada beban

Penentuan mengenai tatarajah optimum


Keadaan beban stabil
P = (40+30+15+10+50) KVA = 145KVA
Katalah tambahan beban akan dimasa hadapan sebanyak 20%

P = 20% x 145 = 30KVA


Pu = (145 + 30) = 175KVA
Muatan terpasang tidak boleh kurang daripada Pu. Pa /175KVA
Saiz sistem UPS bagi Unitary Chain piawai yang paling hampir ialah
200KVA
5.1

Kekangan (Constrains)
Beban Lebih Fana (load transient) dari inductive load seperti motor
dan yang seumpamanya.
Kes yang paling berat ialah apabila beban 10KVA dihidupkan selepas
beban-beban lain. Beban puncak akan menjadi:
Pp = 40 + 30 + 15 + (4x10) + 50 + 30 = 205KVA
Muatan beban lebih yang dibenarkan ialah 1.7 kali ganda iaitu 1.7 x
200 = 340KVA.
Oleh itu saiz 200KVA itu adalah memadai.
Sistem UPS memberi kuasa bantu selain bateri apabila bekalan kuasa
terputus. Bateri ini mengeluarkan arus terus oleh itu kuasa yang
dikeluarkan perlu ditukar kepada arus ulangalik. Ini diperolehi dengan
adanya penyongsang (inverter).
Jenis-jenis bateri yang boleh digunakan bagi tujuan ini adalah:
a.
b.

Sel asid plumbum (lead acid cell)


Kadmium-nikel (nikel cadmium)

Jenis bateri yang lazim digunakan ialah kadmium nikel atas sebabsebab penyenggaraan yang minimum, lasak dan ketahanannya
sehingga 10 tahun jika disenggara dengan baik.

5.2

Pemilihan Saiz Bateri


Untuk mendapatkan saiz bateri yang tepat, dua nilai adalah
dikehendaki iaitu:
i) Arus discaj atau kuasa discaj
ii) Tempoh discaj dimana bateri dikehendaki membekal kuasa semasa
kuasa utama terputus.

6.

RUMUSAN AM
Penggunaan sistem UPS adalah yang terbaik bagi menjamin bekalan
kuasa Bantu yang berterusan dan stabil tetapi ada beberapa perkara
yang perlu diambil ingatan semasa membuat pemilihan serta
keputusan bagi memesan dan memasang sistem tersebut. Diantaranya
ialah:
i)

ii)

Oleh kerana kos sistem UPS ini adalah tinggi, keputusan untuk
memasang sistem ini perlulah mendapat justifikasi yang
memuaskan. Beban-beban yang penting dan kritikal perlu
dikenalpasti. Ini sangat mustahak bagi mempastikan bahawa
sistem UPS yang akan dipasang itu nanti akan beroperasi pada
tahap yang optimum.
Selain daripada yang tersebut diatas, penggunaan set janakuasa
tunggusedia sebagai bekalan kuasa Bantu kedua adalah
difikirkan perlu dan mustahak agar tempoh penggunaan sistem
UPS dapat dikurangkan kerana tempoh bantu sistem UPS
bergantung kepada saiz dan keupayaan bateri. Tempoh yang
panjang dari yang sewajarnya akan hanya menambahkan kos
pemasangan.

SENGGARAAN SISTEM UPS

7.1

Rectifier dan Inverter


System UPS jenis rectifier dan inverter tidak memerlukan senggaraan
berkala secara khusus sebab ia adalah alat elektronik. Secara amnya
alat elektronik hendaklah dijaga kebersihannya terutama dari habuk.

Selain itu yang penting adalah suhu dan peredaran udara bilik UPS.
Suhu yang tinggi akan mengakibatkan komponen elektronik cepat
rosak. Kalau bilik UPS mempunyai alat hawa dingin itu adalah yang
sebaiknya. Kalau tidak system peredaran udara hendaklah dipastikan
dalam keadaan baik.
Alat UPS moden mempunyai self-diagnostic system dimana ia akan
memberitahu kita apa-apa masaalah yang terdapat didalam sistemnya.
7.2

Bateri
Jika bateri jenis tanpa senggaraan (maintenance free battery) tiadalah
senggaraan yang perlu dibuat kepada bateri kecuali pastikan caj bateri
adalah baik dan masih mempunyai kuasa yang mencukupi.
Jika bateri jenis lead acid, paras elektrolid hendaklah sentiasa
dipastikan melebihi paras minima, ketumpatan bandingan elektrolid
diantara 1.1 ke 1.2.
Periksa keadaan caj bateri masih NORMAL, kalau lemah hendaklah
ditukar kepada yang baru
Sambungan kepada bateri-bateri hendaklah dalam keadaan bersih dan
baik (good contact).
Sekali sekala atau sebulan sekali ujian hendaklah dibuat untuk
memastikan system UPS berfungsi dengan baik iaitu dengan
memutuskan bekalan normal (TNB) dan pastikan UPS boleh
berfungsi seperti yang diharapkan.
Untuk trouble shooting dan pembaikan komponen elektronik didalam
alat UPS selalunya pembekal dipanggil untuk kerja-kerja tersebut
disebabkan kepakaran yang mereka ada serta bekalan alat ganti yang
hanya boleh diperolehi dari pembekal jenama tersebut sahaja.

8 Specification for UPS


Scope
The UPS shall be continuous duty, solid state, transistorized. It shall operate
in conjunction with existing electrical system to provide continuous quality
power for electronic equipment loads.
System Description
Components
The UPS shall consist of the following major components
-

Rectifier / battery charger


Static transistor inverter
Electronic static switch and reserve supply
Manual maintenance by pass circuit
Input, battery, reverse, output and by pass switches
Battery / optional battery cubicle

Microprocessor Control and Diagnostic


Operation and control of the UPS shall be provided through the use of
microprocessor control logic. Indications, measurements and alarms together
with power history and battery autonomy shall be shown on an eight
characters liquid crystal display.
Start up, shut down, manual transfer offload to reserve and retransfer
back to inverter shall be by clear step by step routines shown on the display.
Options
a. Remote mimic to display status of remote alarm, with audible alarm,
audible alarm mute, test pushbutton and mimic AC supply on/off
switch
b. Computer interface via a 15way D connector to signal UPS on,
reserve to load, AC input fail and battery low
c. Remote terminal display up to 10 meters distance of the alpha
numeric diagnostic via a RS 232C port

d. Easy 10 remote colour or monochrome terminal display up to 10


meters distance of the diagnostic both graphically and alpha
numerically
e. Easy 1000 as (d) above except transmission by a RS 422 interface
allowing a distance of up to 1000 meters
f. Life remote monitoring of the UPS status by a service center
g. Remote emergency power off to STOP the inverter
h. Thermal and magnetic shunt trip circuit breakers in lieu of main
switches
i. Input and/or output isolation transformers mounted in a matching
cabinets
j. Input current harmonic distortion filter mounted within the UPS, to
limit the THD to less than 10% and improve input power factor to 0.9
k. 12 pulse rectifier / battery charger to limit input current THD to less
than 12%
l. Input current harmonic distortion filter. Mounted in a matching
cubicle in conjunction with (k) above to limit input current THD to
less than 5%
m. Input and/or output RFI suppression filters to external to the UPS
n. Battery insulation alarm dependent if isolation transformers option
fitted
o. Cooling air inlet dust filters to increase protection to IP40
p. Parallel operation for both a common battery and common output with
up to 6 UPS
MODES OF OPERATION
The UPS shall be designed to operate as an on-line reserve transfer system in
the following modes:
Normal
The critical load is supplied continuously by the inverter. The
rectifier/battery charger derives power from the commercial AC source and
supplies DC power to the inverter whilst simultaneously maintaining the
battery in fully charged condition. The static switch monitors and ensures the
inverter tracks the reserve supply frequency. This means any automatic
transfer to the reserve supply due to an overload etc. is frequency
synchronized and does not cause an interruption to the critical load.

10

Overload
In the event of an inverter overload, manual stop or failure the static
switch will automatically transfer the critical load to the reserve
supply, without interruption.
Emergency
Upon failure or reduction (-15%) of the commercial AC power the
critical load is supplied, without any switching, by the inverter
drawing its power from the associated battery.
There shall be no interruption to the critical load upon failure,
reduction or restoration of the commercial AC power.
Recharge
Upon restoration of the commercial AC power, the rectifier/charger
powers the inverter and simultaneously recharges the battery. This
shall be an automatic function and shall cause no interruption to the
critical load.
By-pass Mode
If UPS maintenance is required or repair necessary, by manually
operating the by-pass switch in the correct sequence, it shall be
possible to isolate the main modules for maintenance or repair but
continue to supply the load from the reserve supply.
Transfer/retransfer of the critical load is accomplished by
automatically synchronizing the UPS to the reserve supply and
paralleling the inverter with the reserve source, before closing or
opening the by-pass switch as appropriate.
Battery Servicing
If the battery is taken out of service for maintenance, it shall be
disconnected from the rectifier/charger and inverter by means of a
switch. The UPS shall continue to function and meet all the
performance criteria specified except for the standby period.

11

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
Applicable standards
BS 2772 part 1/IEC 2041 (CE) 44-5) Electrical equipment of
industrial machines
BS 5486 part 1 and 2/IEC 439.2 (CEI 17-13) Low-voltage switchgear
assemblies
BS 4417/IEC 146 (CEI 22-1) Uninterruptible power supplies
BS 5490/IEC 529 (CEI 70-1) Protection enclosure degree
BS 3182/IEC 364 Building electrical installation
BS 5645/IEC 76 TBA (CEI 14-4, CEI 64-8, CEI 20-22)
Components
All active electronic devices shall be solid-state and shall not exceed
manufacturers recommended operating parameters for maximum
reliability.
Grounding
The UPS output AC neutral shall be electrically isolated from the UPS
chassis. The UPS chassis and signal ground system shall be connected
together and to a common ground point.
The UPS output AC neutral shall be connected to the commercial AC
power neutral ground in the installation.
EMI Suppression
Electromagnetic effect shall be minimized to ensure that computer
system or other similar electronic systems shall neither adversely
affect nor be affected by the UPS.
Materials
All materials and parts comprising the UPS shall be new and of
current manufacture.

12

RECTIFIER/BATTERY CHARGER
General / Input
Incoming commercial AC power shall be converted to a regulated DC
output by the rectifier/battery charger. Commercial AC normal voltage
380, 400 or 415 volts + 10% -15%, 3 phase, 3 wire, frequency 50Hz
(or 60Hz option) plus minus 5%.
The rectifier/battery charger shall be a 6 pulse, 3 phase fully
controlled rectifier bridge with constant voltage/constant current
characteristic.
Voltage Regulation
The rectifier/battery charger output voltage shall not deviate by more
than plus minus 1% RMS under the following conditions:
a. No load to 100% load variation
b. Primary input voltage and frequency variations up to the stated
limits
c. Ambient temperature variations within specified range
Walk-in/Soft Start
The rectifier/battery charger shall contain a timed walk-in circuit that
causes the unit to assume the load gradually over a period of 10
seconds after the input voltage is applied.
Power Factor
The rectifier/battery charger shall have an input power4 factor of
equal or greater than 0.8 lagging with nominal input voltage and in the
automatic float charge state.
Ripple
The rectifier/battery charger shall be provided with an output L-C
filter to limit the ripple to equal or less than 2% RMS maximum in the
automatic float charge state with the battery disconnected.

13

Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)


The maximum voltage THD on the input shall be equal or less than
15%.
The maximum current THD on the input shall be equal or less than
30%. The current drawn is not sinusoidal but includes harmonics
expressed in % of the fundamental as shown in Table (A) below. If a
5th harmonic trap option is specified the expected harmonics will be as
shown below (B).
Harmonic
5 Harmonic
7th Harmonic
11th Harmonic
13th Harmonic
17th Harmonic
19th Harmonic
THD
th

A
29%
5%
7%
1%
3%
1%
30%

B
5%
5%
7%
1%
3%
1%
10%

Capacity
The rectifier/battery charger shall have sufficient capacity to support a
fully loaded inverter and simultaneously maintain the battery in a fully
charged float condition.
After partial or complete discharge of the battery, the rectifier/charger
powers the inverter and automatically starts recharging the battery as
follows:
- at constant current (set at 10% of nominal capacity at 10 hour
rate) up to the recharge voltage level.
- at recharge voltage level until the threshold value of the
automatic return to float voltage has been reached.
A pushbutton located inside the equipment shall also be provided for
manually initiating a first charge or recharge boost cycle. The rectifier
output voltage shall be normally adjustable up to 2.7volt per cell. An
internal switch shall be provided to automatically select the correct

14

float charge voltage for sealed lead-acid or vented nickel cadmium or


vented lead acid cells.
The recharge cycle shall be preset at 12 or 24 hours.
Overvoltage Protection
The rectifier/battery charger shall be automatically turned-off if the
DC voltage exceeds the maximum preset value.
Automatic Battery Checking
The charging status of the battery shall be automatically continuously
checked by monitoring the charge current ripple and if out of preset
limits, an alarm shall be shown on the LCD display.
Electrical Characteristic

15

Battery
When operated with a sealed maintenance free lead-acid battery, the
preset operating parameters shall be as follows:
Input Voltage
Nominal voltage
Float voltage
Boost voltage
End of battery discharge
voltage

380V
384 V
435 V
441 V
320 V

400V
408 V
463 V
468 V
340 V

415V
420 V
476 V
483 V
350 V

TRANSISTOR INVERTER
General/Input
The inverter shall use pulse width modulation (PWM) technology to
generate three phase sinusoidal AC power. The inverter shall operate
within specification over the nominal rectifier/battery charger output
voltage range.
Output
The inverter output shall be controlled by a microprocessor.
Voltage 380, 400, or 415 volts and neutral 50Hz or 60Hz option, 3
phase, 4 wire.
Maximum power in kVA or kW or both at 0.8 power factor lagging
shall be declared.
Voltage Regulation
The inverter steady state output voltage shall not deviate by more than
plus or minus 1% in a steady state condition for input voltage
variations within quoted limits and plus 10% - 8% for 0 to 100% load
step and vice versa.

16

Frequency Regulations
The inverter steady state output frequency when synchronized to
reserve shall not deviate by more than plus minus 1% or optionally
4%.
Frequency Slew Rate
Frequency slew rate shall be less than 0.8Hz per second and
controlled by the microprocessor controlled logic.
Frequency Control
The output frequency of the inverter shall be controlled by a quartz
oscillator, which can be operated as a free running unit or as a slave
for synchronized operation with a separate AC source.
The accuracy of the frequency control shall be plus minus 0.0005%
when free running and be controlled by the microprocessor controlled
logic.
Total Harmonic Distortion
The inverter shall provide harmonic neutralization and filtering to
limit the total harmonic distortion in the output voltage to less than
2% with a linear load.
Voltage Transient Response
The inverter transient voltage shall not exceed +105 8% when
subjected to a load application of 0 to 100% load.
Transient Recovery
The output voltage shall return to within plus minus 2% within 50
miliseconds after a load step application of 100%.
Overload

17

The inverter shall be capable of supplying an overload of 125% for 10


minutes, 150% for 10 seconds at 0.8 PF lagging. Short circuit current
for 1 second shall be 200%.
Voltage Adjustment
The inverter shall have the option to compensate for line voltage drop
of 0%, 2%, 4% or 5%.
Inverter Shut-down
Upon sensing an internal failure, the inverter electronic-control shall
instantaneously remove the inverter from the critical load, transfer to
reserve if within limits and then shut itself down.
Inverter DC Protection
The inverter shall be prorected against DC overvoltage and
undervoltage according to the following recommended values for the
standard number of sealed lead acid cells.
DC overvoltage protection: 2.5 volts per cell
DC undervoltage warning: 1.8 volts per cell
DC undervoltage protection: 1.67 volts per cell
Output Voltage Symmetry
The inverter shall guarantee the symmetry of the oiutput voltages at
plus minus 1% for balanced loads or plus minus 3% for 100%
unbalanced load.
Phase Displacement
Phase angle displacement between the three phase voltage shall be:
-120 degree plus mminus 1 degree balanced load
-120 degree plus minus 100% unbalanced load

18

Load Fuses
The inverter shall be capable of rupturing within 10milisecond the
following fuse types:
Extra fast semiconductor: equal or less than 50% nominal UPS output
current
Fast: equal or less than 30% nominal UPS output current
Slow: equal or less than 10% nominal UPS output current
ELECTRONIC STATIC SWITCH
General
The electronic static switch shall be a naturally commutated, fully rated,
high speed, solid state transfer device and rated for continuous duty
operation.
The electronic static switch shall provide the following transfer and
retransfer operations.
- Uninterrupted transfer to by-pass automatically initiated by the
following conditions:
a. Output overload period expired
b. DC voltage out of limit
c. Inverter failure
d. Over temperature period expired
- Uninterrupted manual transfer/retransfer to/from bypass
initiated from the control panel
- Uninterrupted automatic transfer from bypass whenever the
inverter is capable of assuming the load
- Uninterrupted automatic retransfer shall be inhibited by the
following conditions:
a. Manual transfer to bypass
b. Multiple transfers shall be limited to three transfers
/retransfer operation. The fourth transfer shall leave the
load on the by-pass source
c. UPS failure
- All transfer and retransfers are inhibited by the following
conditions:

19

a. By=pass voltage out of limits


b. By-pass frequency synchronization out of limits
Voltage
The maximum operating voltage shall be 480V with a transfer inhibit
voltage setting of plus minus10% of nominal.
Transfer Time
The switching time from inverter to reserve and vice versa shall be less than
0.5milisecond when synchronized.
The automatic retransfer delay time back to inverter from reserve after a
transfer from inverter to reserve shall be 10 seconds.
The transfer time when out of synchronization shall be 20milisecond
Overload
The electronic static switch shall be capable of supplying an overload of
150% continuously. The overload capability for shorter periods shall be in
the range of milliseconds.
Manual Maintenance By-pass
A manually initiated make-before-break transfer to bypass shall be provided
for routine maintenance purposes.
MIMIC PANEL
The UPS shall have a mimic panel with LED to indicate the configuration of
the main switches and sub-assemblies.
Measurement
The UPS mimic panel shall be able to display the following measurement:
Frequency
Phase voltages to neutral

20

Phase currents
Rectifier current
Battery current (with polarity indicated)
Battery voltage
Indications:
Rectifier Status:
Rectifier healthy/failure
DC voltage within/outside limits
Battery connected/disconnected
Battery charging/charged
Battery discharging
Battery discharged
Inverter Status:
Inverter voltage within limits
Inverter off
Inverter running
Inverter in manual control mode
Inverter inhibited
Inverter healthy
Inverter in synchronization with reserve supply
Reserve Status:
Reserve voltage within/outside limits
Reserve frequency within/outside limits
Output Status:
Load on inverter
Load on reserve
Load on bypass
Load disconnected
Time on inverter
Time on reserve

21

Alarms
Rectifier:
AC mains input failure
AC mains input incorrect phase rotation
AC mains input out of limits
Battery charge failure
Rectifier bridge fault
Battery switch open
Battery earth fault
Battery discharging level 1
Battery discharging Level 2
Battery recharging
Maximum battery recharge time exceeded
Battery disconnected or earth fault
Inverter:
Over temperature
Operating in overload
Overload shutdown
VCE saturation shutdown
Current limit shutdown
Over temperature inhibit
DC high voltage shutdown
DC low voltage shutdown
Inverter out of synchronization
Reserve:
Input switch open
Input failure
Incorrect phase rotation
Voltage out of limits
Frequency high
Frequency low
Static switch transfer inhibited
Static switch in manual mode

22

Output:
Output switch open
Bypass switch closed
Load on reserve
Load on bypass
Load not supplied
REMOTE ALARMS AND CONTROL
Volt-free change-over contacts rated at 125V 1A shall be provided for the
following conditions:
Rectifier ON
Battery shutdown imminent
Inverter ON
Load on reserve
Summary alarm
Rectifier on is activated by:
AC mains input present
Correct input phase rotation
AC mains input within tolerance
Rectifier/battery charger fault
Battery shutdown imminent is activated by:
Battery switch closed
Battery shutdown imminent
Inverter on is activated by:
Inverter in synchronization with reserve
Inverter output voltage within tolerance
Load on reserve is activated by:
Reserve switch closed
Output switch closed

23

Bypass switch closed


Load not supplied by inverter
Any of the above will cause the appropriate N.O contact to close and
N.C contact to open. In every case the summary alarm contacts will
operate as above.
In addition there shall be the following facilities:
Battery fuse blown indication to UPS
Emergency power off to provide an electronic stop signal to the
inverter. It does NOT disconnect the AC supplies, load or battery.
Auxiliary contact for diesel generator changeover inhibits the static
switch when the generator is operating
Battery insulation failure indication to UPS
MECHANICAL SPECIFICATION
Enclosure
The UPS shall be housed in a free-standing modular enclosure with
removable panels to the back and sides and protection as standard to IP20.
Ventilation
Forced redundant air-cooling shall be provided to ensure that all components
are operated within specification with air entry in the base and exit in the
top. The enclosure shall be mounted with 800mm of free space at the top for
ventilation.
Cable Entry
Cable entry shall be from the bottom or side of the cabinet.
Painted Surface
Painted surface shall be cleaned and finished with an electrostatically
applied epoxidic enamel of a minimum of 60 microns thickness of the
manufacturers standard color.

24

Access
All internal subassemblies shall be accessible from the front of the unit via
hinged doors. Rear access shall not be required for installation nor servicing.
The UPS shall be fork liftable from the front after the removal of bottom
trim panels.
ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
The UPS shall be capable of withstanding any combination of the following
environmental conditions. It must operate without mechanical or electrical
damage or degradation of operating characteristic.
Ambient temperature
0 degree to +40 degree C
Relative Humidity
Up to 90% (non condensing) for temperature of 20 deg C
Altitude
Maximum altitude of 1000 meters above sea-level, without derating
Audible Noise at 1 Meter Distance (dBA)
Between 60 to 65 dBA
ASSOCIATED BATTERY
Optional matching battery cubicles complete with a battery fuse shall be
available to accommodate maintenance free sealed lead-acid batteries.
OPERATION WITH DIESEL GENERATOR
The UPS shall have an auxiliary contact to inhibit transfer to reserve in the
case of generator instability.

25

Generally a generator output of at least twice the UPS rating is required


because of the total harmonic distortion (<15%) generated by the UPS. A
generator of the same power rating is possible if the UPS is fitted with input
current harmonic distortion filter with a 5th harmonic trap.
The generator and UPS suppliers shall liaise to ensure compatibility.