Anda di halaman 1dari 5

Biology 100

THE URINARY (EXCRETORY) SYSTEM

Submitted by:
Micah Farlyne B. Maniquez
April Rose Z. Corpuz
Disnie Sweet C. Salazar
Hairayda H. Usih
BSCD II-A

Submitted to:
Mr. Jilcon Jilhani Concepcion

Biology 100

Skeletal system

Submitted by:
Eleine Suarez
Robin Dela Merced
Sitti Radzma Sali
Jacquelyn Calubang
BSCD II-A

Submitted to:
Mr. Jilcon Jilhani Concepcion

THE URINARY (EXCRETORY) SYSTEM

The excretory system is a passive biological system that removes excess, unnecessary
materials from the body fluids of an organism, so as to help maintain internal
chemicalhomeostasis and prevent damage to the body. The dual function of excretory systems is
the elimination of the waste products of metabolism and to drain the body of used up and broken
down components in a liquid and gaseous state. In humans and
other amniotes (mammals, birds and reptiles) most of these substances leave the body
as urine and to some degree exhalation, mammals also expel them through sweating.
One of the part of urinary system is the body forms a variety of waste products that must
be eliminated. Wastes are picked up by the blood and lymph and transported foe elimination.
Carbon dioxide is eliminated by the lungs in the form of expelled breath. A few waste products
(ammonia, urea, and salts) are eliminated in very small amounts in the form of perspiration.
Major waste products from the body are eliminated by the kidneys.

*FUNCTIONS OF THE KIDNEY

The important functions of the urinary system are:


-the removal of salts and nitrogenous products;
-the conservation of water;
-the maintenance of the normal concentration of electrolytes; and
-the regulation of acid-base balance.

*COMPONENTS OF THE EXCRETORY SYSTEM

The excretory system consists of two kidneys, two ureters, one bladder, and one urethra.
KIDNEYS: These are reddish-brown, bean shaped organs located on the posterior wall of the
abdomen, one on each side of the backbone or vertebral column. An adrenal gland is situated on
top of each kidney. The left kidney is located higher in the abdomen because the right kidney is
displaced downward by the liver. The renal artery, renal vein, and ureters enter the kidney at the
renal hilus. The kidney is divided into a , medulla, and pelvis. The cortex and medulla of each
kidney contain approximately one million nephrons. A nephron is a specialized tubular structure
which carries out the complex process of urine formation. Urine flows from the collecting
tubules first to the calyces, then to then renal pelvis, and finally into the ureters. The calyces are
expanded ends of the renal pelvis that form the collecting cups.

URETERS: The urinary bladder is a muscular, bag-like organ that lies in the pelvis. Urine flows
continuously into the bladder from the ureters until a sufficient quantity of urine is collected for
disposal through the urethra.
URETHRA: This is the tube that carries urine from the bladder. The male urethra is about eight
inches long. It serves to pass both urine and semen. The female urethra is about one and a half
inches long, lies anterior to the vagina, and function only to convey urine.
*RELATED DISEASES
Urinary Tract Infection Urinary tract infection, abbreviated as UTI is a bacterial infection in
any part of a urinary tract. Usually, urine does not contain bacteria in it, but if it contains bacteria
in it and when it multiplies in any part of the tract, the urinary tract infection might take place.
Usually it is because of the bacteria Escherichia coli. It can be treated by oral antibiotics like
trimethoprim or cephalosporins.
Kidney Stones Kidney stones is a disorder in which any part of the urinary tract, basically the
ureter gets constricted by stones, which are solid concretions formed in the human kidneys from
dissolved urinary minerals. It may obstruct proper urine excretion. Diuretics may help in curing
kidney stones.
Gout In this disorder, the body builts up excess amount of uric acid as the kidneys fail to
process it properly. It may be a cause for kidney stones too. Glucocorticoids may be helpful in
treatment of gout.