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Diunggah oleh Valerie Lewis

important formulae for cat

- Syllabus for the Examination of Fci
- Geometry 2
- maths sa2
- Circles Ex.3(a)
- Math (2)
- SAMPLE_Mastercam_X9_Design_Training_Tutorial.pdf
- Geometry
- Algebra - CommonCoreStandards
- math
- SAMPLE_Mastercam_X9_Design_Training_Tutorial_Metric.pdf
- Activities and Projects
- SBM
- Geometrical Draw i 00 Schr Rich
- Syllabus FCI
- TheCrossOfTheMagi-Higgins1912
- Solid
- Harmonic Division
- G4_sketch
- GMAT Maths
- Class VI Maths Model QP

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1.

(1) (a + b)2 = a2 + b2 + 2ab

(2) (a b)2 = a2 + b2 2ab

(3) (a + b)2 = (a b)2 + 4ab

(4) a2 b2 = (a b) (a + b)

(5) a3 + b3 = (a + b) (a2 ab + b2)

(6) a3 b3 = (a b) (a2 + ab + b2)

1

2

2

2

2

(7) a b [(a b) (a b) ]

2

2.

1. Sum of f irst n natural

=

2.

= P 1

100

3.

4.

n years, r% = rate of anual growth

r

P' P 1

100

numbers

n n 1

2

5.

= n2

3. Sum of first n even natural numbers

= n(n + 1)

4. Sum of the squares of first n natural

numbers =

@ r% p.a., amount after n years

respectively:

(CI)2 (SI)2 = Pa2 for two years

(CI)3 (SI)3 = Pa2 (a + 3) for three years

where, a =

6.

n(n 1)(2n 1)

6

r

100

will become Y times in:

Y 1

Years

T

X 1

n(n 1)

natural numbers =

PERCENTAGES

1.

2.

7.

will become Y times in:

Years = T n

where n is given by Xn = Y

b% is an effective change of

1.

Profit % =

ab

a+b+ 100 %.

2.

SP = CP + P% of CP = CP 1

100

3.

4.

Discount % =

5.

If one is sold at X% profit and the other at loss of

If A is r% more/less than B,

Profit

100

CP

100 r

% less/more than A.

B is

100 r

INTEREST

1.

years, r% = rate of interest

Pr n

The Simple Interest (S.I.) =

100

Discount

100

Marked Price

X2

%

100

Page 1

2.

Arithmetic Mean =

x1 x2 x3 ...... xn

n

n

1.

It a : b : : c : d, then ad = bc

2.

3.

Geometric Mean =

a ax

a ax

and

b bx

b b x

4.

Harmonic Mean =

3.

1

1

1

1

......

xn

x1 x 2 x 3

a ax

a ax

and

b bx

b b x

5.

4.

a c

then:

If

b d

(a)

ab cd

Componendo Law

b

d

(b)

ab cd

Dividendo Law

b

d

(c)

(d)

5.

If

ab c d

Componendo &

ab cd

Dividendo Law

ac a

bd b

a c e

= K, then:

b d f

ace

K

(a)

b d f

(b)

K is the final concentration after n dilutions.

V is the original volume and x is the volume of the

solution replaced each time, then

Vx

K Ko

1 km/hr =

2.

Average Speed =

3.

is the harmonic mean of the two speeds

4.

x1

x2

w1 x 2 x

w 2 x x1

x

x2 x

w1

Page 2

:

:

x x1

w2

5.

Total Time Taken

2S1S2

S1 S2

the arithmetic mean of the two speeds.

Savg

averages. The ratio of the weights of the two

items mixed will be inversely proportional to the

difference of each of these two items from the

average attribute of the resultant mixture.

5

18

m/s and 1m/s =

km/hr

18

5

1.

1.

Savg

pa qc re

= K

pb qd rf

(p, q and r are not all zero)

x1 x2 x3 ...... x n

S1 S2

2

U Speed of the boat upstream

B Speed of the boat in still water

R Speed of the stream

D = B + R and

U = B R.

Further, by adding and subt racti ng these

equations we get,

B=

DU

DU

and R =

2

2

6.

downstream is same as the distance covered by

the boat upstream then

6.

No. of ways of writing N as a product of two factors

=

Upstream speed

Downstream speed

7.

7.

angle between the hour hand and minute hand is

If N is a perfect square,

No. of ways in which N can be expressed as a

prodcut of two different factors

=

30H

11

M

2

1

{(p + 1) (q + 1) (r + 1) ....}

2

1

{(p + 1) (q + 1) (r + 1) .... 1 } ways

2

=

1

{(p + 1) (q + 1) (r + 1) .... + 1 } ways

2

NUMBER SYSTEM

8.

1.

2.

3.

If two numbers a and b are given, and their LCM

and HCF are L and H respectively, then L H = a

b.

ap 1 1 bq1 1 cr 1 1

....

N=

a 1 b 1 c 1

9.

1 1 1

(N) N 1 1 1 ...

a b c

LCM of numerators

HCF of denominators

(b) HCF of fractions

HCF of numerators

LCM of denominators

divided by N is 1.

4.

each case when div ided by x, y and

z = (LCM of x, y, z) + r

The series of such numbers will be

(LCM of x, y, z) n + r

5.

can be expressed as C = am bn cp , where

a, b, c, are all prime factors and m, n, p are

positive integers, then:

Number of factors is equal to

(m + 1) (n + 1)(p + 1)

10.

number N (N)

11.

N

2

of two co-prime numbers = 2n1

where, n is the number of prime factors of a number

12.

Number of factors

N N

(p 1).(q1).(r 1)....

Page 3

4.

In ax2 + bx + c, if a > 0

ax + by = c

px + qy = r

where a, b, c, p, q and r are constants

a b c

= =

p q r

a b c

=

p q r

The same

Inconsistent

equation/

Equations/

Just one line/

Two parallel

Infinite Solutions lines/

No Solutions

a b

p q

Two

intersecting

lines/

Unique

Solution

4ac b2

4a

at, x

where K 0 , K 1 , K 2 , ... K n are constants

(called coefficients of binomial expansion)

3.

2a

2

5.

In ax2 + bx + c, if a < 0

Y

y

4.

BINOMIAL THEOREM

2.

1.

n!

Cr

r! n r !

n

QUADRATIC EQUATIONS

1.

b + b2 4ac

2a

b b2 4ac

2a

y=

4ac b2

4a

at, x

2a

2

6.

b

a

2.

Sum of roots: + =

3.

Product of roots: =

Page 4

General Form:

ax2 + bx + c = 0, where a 0

Such an equation has two roots, usually denoted

by and .

the equation can be re-constructed as

x2 (sum of roots) x + (product of roots) = 0

c

a

IMPORTANT FORMULAE FOR COMPETITIVE EXAMS

10.

The equation would have 3 roots (equal to the degree of

the equation). Some of them can be imaginary. If the roots

are denoted as , and , we have

1.

++ =

b

a

Let,

a = The first term,

d = Common difference,

Tn = The nth term

= The last term,

Sn = Sum of n terms,

c

a

2.

+ + =

3.

4.

equations as well. For an n degree equation, Sum

d

a

of roots =

5.

6.

co-efficient of x

co-efficient of x

n

Sn = [2a + (n 1)d]

2

or,

a+

Sn =

n

2

3.

co-efficient of x n

Let,

coefficient of xnr

r = The common ratio

Tn = The nth term and

Sn = The sum of n terms we have the following

Product of roots

=

T n = S n Sn 1

co-efficient of xn3

coefficient of x

9.

2.

=(1)r

8.

Tn = a + (n 1)d

co-efficient of xn2

7.

co-efficient of xn1

1.

=

Factor Theorem:

An expression is said to be a factor of another

expression only when the remainder is 0 when the

latter is divided by the former.

(x a) is a factor of f(x) if and only if f(a) = 0.

(1)n

constant term

.

co - efficient of xn

Remainder Theorem:

To identify whether a given expression is a factor

of another expression, we can take help of

Remainder Theorem.

1.

Tn = arn 1

2.

Sn = a

3.

Sn =

4.

expression f(x) is divided by (x a), the remainder

is f(a). (a is any constant in this example).

(1 r n )

, where r < 1

(1 r)

a(rn 1)

, where r > 1

(r 1)

a

1 r

Page 5

Tn

2.

1

a (n 1)d

=

3.

A/2

1.

2.

A/2

2ab

ab

relationship always holds true.

(AM, GM and HM have been defined earlier)

D

a

of sides containing the angle. So

BD AB

DC AC

AM GM HM

(GM)2 = (AM)(HM)

3.

GEOMETRY

b2 c 2 2m2

Triangle

1.

The area of a triangle can be determined in the

following ways:

(a) Area of a triangle =

Apollonius Theorem:

Let a, b, c be the sides of a triangle and m is the

length of the median to the side with length a. Then

1

b h , where b is base

2

and h is height

(b) Area of a triangle = s(s a)(s b)(s c) ,

where a, b and c are the sides of the triangle

m

a

abc

2

This formula of area is known as Herons

formula

Special case:

If b = c (the triangle is isosceles), then we have

2b2 2m2

1

(c) Area of triangle = ab sin , where a and b are

2

the sides of the triangle and is the included

angle i.e. angle between sides of length a

and b.

in-radius and s is the semi-perimeter

1 2

a

2

1 2

a

2

a2

m2 b2

4.

AC2 = AB2 + BC2 2 BC BD

A

of a triangle and if is the included angle

between the sides of length a and b, then

a2 b2 c 2

2ab

2

2

or c = a + b2 2 ab cos

cos

abc

(f) A

where R is circum-radius and A is

4R

area of the triangle

Page 6

5.

AC2 = AB2 + BC2 + 2 BC BD

Circles

1.

the circle at a point P,

B

P

A

P

C

B

Then, PA PB = PC PD

2.

6.

angled at A, where AD BC:

(i) AD2 = BD DC

(ii) AB2 = BD BC

(iii) AC2 = CD BC

P, and PT is a tangent drawn from P on to the circle,

then

PA PB = PT2

B

P

A

T

3.

circle i s twi ce of that subtended at the

circumference.

X

Polygon

In a polygon of n no. of sides,

Reflex AOB

O

1.

n(n 3)

Total number of diagonals =

2

2.

3.

A

P

360

n

360

n

Sum of all the exterior angles of a convex polygon

= 360

4.

to the angle opposite to its adjacent interior angle.

= 180

4.

5.

B

A

= (n 2) 180

D

IMPORTANT FORMULAE FOR COMPETITIVE EXAMS

Page 7

5.

circle is always a rectangle/square.

Only one common tangent is possible

6.

circle, the diagonal of the square / rectangle is

equal to the diameter of the circle.

Two direct common tangents are possible.

7.

without touching each other.

No common tangent is possible

For the two circles with centres O1 and O2 and

radius r1 & r2

P

r1

O1

C

O1

A

r2

O2

each other

Two direct and two transverse tangents are

possible.

8.

Angle between any chord passing through the

tangent point and tangent is equal to the angle

subtended by the chord to any point on the other

side of circumference (alternate segment)

O2

are Transverse common tangents.

x

P

Length of PQ or RS

= (distance between centres)2 (r2 r2 )2

Length of AB or CD

= (distance between centres)2 (r2 r2 )2

Distance between centres C1 C2 = r1 + r2 and

2 direct common tangents and one transverse

common tangents are possible.

Page 8

9.

Ptolmeys theorem:

For a cyclic quadrilateral, the sum of products of

two pairs of opposite sides equals the product of

the diagonals

C

B

AB CD + BC DA = AC BD

Mensuration

Two dimensional Figures

S.No.

Name

1.

Rectangle

Figure

Perimeter

Area

Nomenclature

2(a + b)

ab

a = Length

b = Breadth

4a

a2

a = Side

a

a

2.

Square

a

a

3.

Triangle

a + b + c = 2s

1.

1

bh

2

2.

b

4.

Right angled

triangle

b+h+d

1

bh

2

h is the altitude.

a, b, c are three

sides of 's is the

semiperimeter

d (hypotenuse)

= b2 + h2

5.

Equilateral

triangle

1.

3a

6.

Isosceles

right angled

triangle

2a + d

1

ah

2

2. 3 a2

4

1 2

a

2

a

a

7.

Parallelogram

a = side

h = Altitude

= 3 a.

2

a = Each of equal

sides.

a = Side

b=

h=

2(a + b)

ah

4a

1

d d2

2 1

Sum of its

four sides

1

(AC)(h1 + h2)

2

AC is one of its

diagonals and h1, h2

are the altitudes on

AC from D, B

respectively.

Sum of its

four sides

1

h(a + b)

2

a, b are parallel

sides and h is the

perpendicular

distance between

parallel sides.

a

a

d1

8.

Rhombus

d2 a

a=

a

D

C

h1

9.

Quadrilateral

h2

B

b

10.

Trapezium

h

a

Page 9

S.No.

Name

11.

Circle

12.

Semicircle

Figure

r

13.

14.

Ring

(shaded region)

17.

Page 10

1 r 2

2

r = Radius of

the circle

2(R + r)

(R2 r 2)

R = Outer radius

r = Inner radius

2r

360

2r

360

+ 2rsin

r 2

360

Area of

r=

segment ACB

(Minor segment) =

sin

= r2

360

2

A = w(l + b w)

w

w

r=

l=

Pathways

running across

the middle of

a rectangle

l = Length

b = Breadth

w = Width of

the path

Pathways

outside

w

l

18.

r + 2r

l=

O

r

Segment of

a circle

Pathways

inside

r 2

r = Radius of

the circle

= 22or 3.416

7

(approx.)

l+ 2r where

16.

Circumference

= 2r

B C

15.

Nomenclature

Sector of

a circle

Area

Perimeter

2[l + b + 4w]

A = 2w(l + b + 2w)

2[l + b 4w]

A = 2w(l + b 2w)

Solids

S.No.

Name

1.

Cuboid

2.

Cube

3.

Right prism

4.

Right circular

cylinder

5.

Right pyramid

6.

Right circular

cone

7.

Sphere

8.

Hemisphere

Figure

surface area

area

Volume

Nomenclature

2( l b+bh+ l h)

lbh

l = Length

b = Breadth

h = Height

6a 2

a3

a = Edge

(Area of

base)

(Height)

2rh

r=

h=

the base)

(Slant height)

1

3 (Area of

the base)

Height

rl

r(l + r)

1r 2h

3

h = Height

r = Radius

l = Slant height

2

2

= r +h

4r 2

4 r 3

3

r = Radius

3r 2

2 r 3

3

r = Radius

1 (Perimeter of

2

2r 2

9. Spherical shell

4

3

4(R 2 + r 2)

Trigonometry

1.

r 2 h

2r(r + h)

R = Outer radius

r = Inner radius

(i) sin

Height

PB

Hypotenuse AP

(ii) cos

Base

AB

Hypotenuse AP

(iii) tan

Height PB

Base

AB

between AP and AB we define

(iv) cot

1

Base

AB

tan Height PB

(v) sec

1

Hypotenuse AP

cos

Base

AB

Angle Measures:

Angle are measured in many units viz. degree,

minute, seconds, radians. We have

1 degree = 60 minutes, 1 minute = 60 seconds,

radians = 180

Trigonometrical Ratios:

(vi) cosec

1

Hypotenuse AP

sin

Height

PB

Page 11

2.

Important Formulae:

(i) tan

3.

4.

log

5.

loga k X

6.

log

7.

loga 1 = 0 [As a0 = 1]

8.

logx X = 1

9.

1

loga X = log a

x

10.

loga X

11.

a(loga X) X

12.

sin

cos

ak

1

loga X

k

(iv) 1 cot 2 cosec 2

3.

1

loga X

k

Angle

sin

cos

tan

30

1

2

3

2

60

3

2

1

2

90

45

Ist quadrant

IInd quadrant

Here, only sin and Here all ratios

cosec are positive. (sin, cos, tan, sec,

cosec, cot) are positive.

IIIrd quadrant

Here, only tan and

cot are positive.

IVth quadrant

Here, only cos and

sec are positive.

School

To

a1/ k

X k loga X

logb X

logb a

MODERN MATHS

Permutations & Combinations

n

Pr

n!

(n r)!

Cr

n!

(n r)! r !

Cr

4.

Cr n Cnr

5.

nC

0

6.

among r persons such that each person may get

any no. of things = n + r 1Cr 1

1.

2.

After

College

3.

Pr

r!

LOGARITHM

1.

2.

X

loga = loga X loga Y

Y

Page 12

7.

exactly alike of second kind and r exactly alike of

third kind and the rest are different, then the

number of permutations of n things taken all at a

time =

8.

If A, B are mutually exclusive then

P (A B) = 0

If A, B are independent then

n!

p!q!r!

made by taking some or all out of (p + q + r + ....)

items where p are of one type, q are of second

type and r are of another type and so on

6.

9.

10.

different things arranged on a circle = (n 1)!

11.

P(E or F) = P(E) + P(F) P(E and F together).

7.

be divided into two groups containing m and n

things respectively =

(m n)!

m! n!

1.

Distance between the points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) is

(x 2 x1)2 (y 2 y1 )2

(2m!)

2!(m! )2

2.

Probability

1.

2.

Number of all possible outcomes

3.

Odds in favour

=

4.

4.

Number of favourable cases

then if one happens, the other cannot happen and

vice versa. In other words, the events have no

simultaneous occurence.

points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) in the ratio m : n internally

and externally are

the points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2)

x1 x 2 y1 y 2

,

=

2

2

Odds against

=

5.

Number of unfavourable cases

1

[x1(y2 y3) + x2(y3 y1) + x3(y1 y2)]

2

mx 2 nx1 my 2 ny1

,

mn

mn

Note: It would be '+' in the case of internal division

and '' in the case of external division.

= 1 P (E)

3.

(x1, y1), (x2, y2) and (x3, y3)

=

Probability of an event

=

If the events E and F are independent,

then P(E and F) = P (E) P (F)

Coordinate Geometry

m = n, total ways of grouping =

If E and F are two mutually exclusive events, then

the probability that either event E or event F will

occur in a single trial is given by:

P(E or F) = P(E) + P(F)

5.

(x1, y1), (x2, y2) and (x3, y3)

x1 x 2 x 3 y1 y 2 y 3

,

=

3

3

Page 13

6.

(x2, y2) is

4.

form y = ax + b and

y = cx + d is same as the solution arrived at when

these two equations are solved.

5.

(x1, y1) to a given line ax + by + c = 0 is

y2 y1

x2 x1

7.

lines will be

(i) parallel if m1 = m2

(ii) perpendicular if m1m2 = 1

ax1 by1 c

(a2 b2 )

Standard forms:

1.

In particular, the length of perpendicular from origin

(0,0) to the line ax + by + c = 0 is

y = mx + c,

where m is the slope of the straight line, c is the Y

intercept or the Y coordinate of the point at which

the straight line cuts the Y-axis.

2.

y1) and having a slope m is

y y1 = m(x x1).

3.

points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) is

y y1

Page 14

p,

c

2

a b2

6.

ax + by + c1 = 0

ax + by + c2 = 0

is

c 2 c1

a2 b2

y2 y1

(x x1 )

x2 x1

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