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Asesmen Permasalahan Pendidikan

Classification and Diagnosis


Concepts

Klasifikasi biasa digunakan untuk klinisi,


merujuk kepada ragam layanan yang
tersedia dan yang cocok.
Diagnosis merujuk kepada identifikasi
permasalahan dan penanganan yang akan
dilakukan.
Contoh gangguan jiwa adalah klasifikasi yang
merujuk pada layanan yang akan diberikan,
sedangkan diagnosa ditujukan untuk
mencermati sistom, penyebab, yang
digunakan sebagai dasar untuk intervensi

Categorical and Dimensional


Methods

Categorical methods: dichotomous,


inferential in nature, involving the
identifications of qualitative differences
in behavior that are based on clinical
observation and careful history taking.
Acuan yang digunakan DSM IV TR,
APA, 2000) dan Individuals with
Disabilities Education Act (IDEA).

Categorical and Dimensional


Methods

Dimensional methods: are quantitative


and empirical in nature, adopting the
assumption that there are a number of
behavior traits that all individuals
possess in varying degrees that exist
along a continuum. Contoh
pengukurannya menggunakan behavior
rating scale

Psychiatric Diagnostic Classification

Metode kategorikal DSM-IV TR:


Klasifikasi Psiaktri sangat diskrit, ada
tiga kategori utama Psychopathology:
mental deficiency, functional disorders,
and organic brain symptoms

Individuals with Disabilities Education


Act

Memuat definisi beragam disorders,


yang terjadi pada anak-anak termasuk
disini learning disabilities, mental
retardasi, dan emotional disturbance
Macam acuan: DSM IV-TR, IDEA,AAMR
American Association on Mental
Retardation.

Dimensional Methods of Classification

Pendekatan ini berasumsi bahwa perilaku


tidak terjadi secara dikotomi, akan tetapi
berlaku secara kontinum.
Model dimensi mengklasifikasi individu
berdasarkan atribut kuantifikasi dan
gambaran terbaik atas perilaku (APA, 1994),
misal deskripsi atas jawaban dari keluhan
klien, tertinggal dari kompetensi yang
seharusnya sudah dikuasai.

A Composite Diagnostic Model

1. Konstruk, diagnosis yang ditegakkan


mempertimbangkan dasar teori, karena
teori mempengaruhi penetapan metode
asesmen yang akan digunakan.
2.metode assessmen dipilih
berdasarkan teori dan temuan ilmiah
terkini, gunakan metode asesmen
psikometri.

A Composite Diagnostic Model

Disorders akan lebih tepat disampaikan


secara kuantitatif, metode yang digunakan:
Behavior rating scale yang diisi oleh guru dan
orangtua. Self report inventories of constructs
of interest such depression, anxiety,
hyperactivity, inattention, conduct problems,
tes kecerdasan, prestasi akademik, tes
perilaku adaptive, yang berkaitan dengan
kompetensi dan skill perilaku tertentu.

A Composite Diagnostic Model

Measures of individual symptoms and qualitative


factors associated with diagnosis could include:
Structure diagnostic interview schedules
Unstructured or semi structured interviews and
mental status examination
Collection of symptom, medical, educational,
cultural/linguistic , and other history .
Classroom observations, structured observations
schedules, responses to projective stimuli, and
clinical observations.
Laboratory assessment such as serum alcohol
content and body weight.

A Composite Diagnostic Model

3. data are compared to the known


dimensional and symptom
characteristics of a disorder to
determine match or mismatch to the a
priori theory of the disorder or to a
template offered in a diagnostic system.

Interpretation of findings

Kamphaus and Frick (2002) mengemukakan 4


tahap metode interpertasi:
1. assess core constructs/symptoms and
severity of same.
2. assess onset and developmental course
3. rule out alternative causes
4. rule in comorbidities

1.Assessing core constructs/


symptoms and severity of same

Dimensional assessment dan categorical assessment


saling melengkapi .
DSM (kategorical) menetapkan seberapa banyak,
seberapa sering symptom muncul berdasarkan
kategori tertentu
Dimensional: mengetahui latent trait , karena
informasi ini akan menggambarkan long lived
problem, biasanya menggunakan informant rating
scales (Kamphaus dan Frick, 2002). ADHD, trait
latent meliputi: hiperaktivitas/impulsivitas, problem
atensi, conduct problems, depression, and anxiety.

2.Onset and developmental course

Pengumpulan data sejarah baik secara


kualitatif maupun kuantitatif.
Digunakan untuk mengklarifikasi hasil
tes formal yang hasilnya positive,
negative, malingering

3. Rule out alternatives causes

Clinical depression traumatic brain


injury
Some chemotherapies for child cancer
Potential domains: family psychological,
social, medical, educational, and
occupational history, early child
developmental history, child behavioral
and emotional history.

4. Rule in comorbidities

Comorbidity in medicine (jantung dan kanker)


keluhan depresi, somatisasi, dikombinasi dengan
mental retardasi
Person oriented methods of assessment using
dimensional assessment measures (Caron and
Rutter, 1991), to describe the childs adjustment
idiographically (carving nature at its joints). few
childrens behavioral or emotional problems fit neatly
into a single DSM box (DiStefano et al., 2003,
Huberty et al., 1997; Kamphaus and DiStefano, 2001;
Kamphaus et al., 1997, 1999).

Learning Disabilities

Constructs of interest: ruang lingkup


learning disabilities, kriteria diagnosis,
prevalensi dari berbagai learning
disabilities, perkembangan penelitian
mutakhir mengenai LD terkait dengan
bidang neuropsychological, dan disiplin
ilmu lain seperti bahasa, perkembangan
instrumen asesmen.

Learning Disabilities

Diagnostic Standards:
Panduan Individuals with Disabilities Education
Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEAI) page 93 - 100
Assessment methods: IDEAI
page 101 103
Interpretations of findings : mengintegrasikan data
permasalahan akademik, prestasi belajar di sekolah,
tes prestasi, sejauh mana akademik intervensi yang
telah diperoleh, dan berbagai prosedure asesment
antara lain melihat cognitive proses

Sumber referensi untuk menegakkan


diagnosa

Kearney. CA. 2001. School Refusal Behavior in Youth, APA.


Membahas sebab dan penangangan remaja pembolos
Robert R. Parkinson,. Jongsma. A.2006. The Addiction
Treatment Planner, New Jersey: John Willey and Sons. Berbagai
addiction, determinan penyebab dan penanganan.
Woody,RH. Voie. J., Susan.EPPS., 1992. School Psychology.
Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Evolusi school psychology, peran
keluarga, prosedure assessment dan intervensi
Lopez, S.J. and Snyder.C.R, 2003. Positive Psychological
Assessment. APA
Rey. J, 2002. More Than Just the Blues , Understanding Serious
Teenage Problems. Sydney: Simon and Schuster. Permasalahan
remaja, mood swings, bunuh diri, alcohol dll.
Smith, C.R. 1991. Learning Disabilities. The interaction of
learner, task and setting. Boston: Allyn and Bacon

Sumber bacaan

Randy W. Kamphaus and Jonathan M.


Campbell. 2006. Psychodiagnostic
Assessment of Children. Dimensional
and Categorical Approaches. New
Jersey: John Willey and Sons