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What is Fluidization?!

Fluidization Regimes!
Particle Properties!
References: !

Chapters 1,7, Introduction to Particle Technology, M Rhodes, Wiley, 2008!


Chapters 1,9.1-9.2, Principles of Gas-solid Flows, LS Fan and C Zhu, Cambridge, 1998!
Chapters 1-3, Fluidization Engineering, Kunii and Levenspiel, Butterworth, 1991!
Chapter 1, Handbook of Fluidization and Fluid-Particle Systems, Wen Ching Yang, CRC
Press, 2003!

!
!

Overview of Fluidization!

Fluid is passed through a bed of particles, thereby particles are


transformed into a fluid-like state."

Gas-Solid, Liquid-Solid and Gas-Liquid-Solid Fluidization "


Gas-solid is the most prevalent type of fluidization in industrial
applications."

Topics: "
Advantages & disadvantages"

Industrial applications"
Fluidization regimes"
Particle classification in Fluidization"
Velocities definitions"
Particle Properties"

Advantages"

Liquid-like flow of particles allows for continuous operations "

Excellent heat and mass transfer between fluid and particles"

Pros and Cons!

Near-isothermal conditions throughout reactor"

Bed of particles represent large thermal well, which responds slowly to


operational upsets, hence gives large margin of safety"

Easy circulation of particles between two fluidized beds enables vast


quantities of heat needed (or produced) to be added (or removed)"

Suitable for large-scale operations"

Disadvantages!

Particle attrition or breakage "

Rapid mixing of particles leads to nonuniform residence time of particles,


leading to nonuniform product and/or backmixing of gaseous reactant"

Erosion of pipes and vessels through particle abrasion"

High temperatures may lead to particle sintering and agglomeration!

Components in a Fluidized Bed 1/2!

Components include: plenum,


gas distributor, cyclone, heat
exchanger, expanded section,
baffles!

Components in a Fluidized Bed 2/2!

Plenum: Allows for distribution of gas before distributor"

"

Distributor: Ensures desired distribution of fluidizing gas and supports particles


in bed"

e.g., porous, cap types, perforated"


initial bubble size strongly varies with distributor design"

"

Cyclone: separates solid particles from outlet gas"

Internal or external to fluidizing column"


single or multistage"

"

Heat exchanger: removes generated heat or adds required heat"

Immersed in dense bed or freeboard, or on wall of fluidizing column"

"

Expanded section: reduces superficial gas velocity to reduce entrainment."

"

Baffles: restrict flow, enhance bubble breakup, promote gas-solid contact,


reduce particle entrainment"

more effective for coarse (Groups B, D) than finer particles!

Industrial Applications 1/3!

Biofluidization: Cultivation of
microorganisms"

Features of this bioreactor application"


Rotary agitator just above air distributor to
prevent defluidization in lower portion of bed"
Rotating separator in the freeboard to return
elutriated particles to the bed"
Electrode to detect water content of particles"
Fluidized cultivation reported to be superior in
terms of:"
Large effective growing surface of
microorganisms"
Efficient oxygen transfer leads to active
metabolism"
Heat and CO2 generated are efficiently
removed"
Temperature, moisture, pH levels easily and
automatically controlled!

Kikkoman Co. pioneered this


for soy sauce production"
Fluidized particles = wheat
bran + seed spores of
microorganisms"
Fluidizing gas = air!

Industrial Applications 2/3!

Waste-to-energy incineration plants in Singapore: Tuas, Senoko, Tuas South,


Keppel Seghers Tuas"
Incineration of solid waste is inevitable in crowded areas like Singapore to reduce
waste volume - in this case, by 90%"
High-capacity rotary crushers are used to break down bulky wastes so that they are
suitable for incineration"
Operating temperatures of 850-1000oC decomposes the organics in the bed and
freeboard"
An efficient flue gas cleaning system comprising electrostatic precipitators, lime
powder dosing equipment and catalytic bag filters remove dust and pollutants from
the flue gas before it is released into the atmosphere via 150m tall chimneys!

Industrial Applications 3/3!

Fluidized bed dryer used


extensively in wide variety of
industries"
e.g., pharmaceutical, fine
chemical, iron & steel industries!

Advantages: large capacity, low cost


construction, high thermal efficiency, easy
operability"
Single-stage (Fig 4a): when residence time
of solids do not matter; particles largely stay
in vessel for a short time (bypassing)"
Multi-stage (Fig 4b,c): narrows residence
time distribution, eliminates bypassing"
Counterflow contacting (Fig 4d)"
Batch-continuous treatment (Fig 4e)"
Two-stage drier for temperature-sensitive
materials (Fig 4f)"
Heat supplied by heat exchanger instead of
fluidizing gas (Fig 4g): suitable for very wet
feedstock!

Fluidization Regimes 1/9!

Gas-solid fluidization

Fluidization Regimes 2/9!

Gas-solid fluidization

10

Fluidization Regimes 3/9!

Gas-solid fluidization

11!

Fluidization Regimes 4/9!

Gas-solid fluidization

Bubbling!

Slugging!

12

Slugging!

Cyclone!

Fluidization Regimes 5/9!

Gas-solid fluidization

Largely depending on gas velocity, as gas velocity increases, extent of


fluidization increases"
Fluidization regime chosen based on application needs"
Some terms commonly used:"

Fixed bed: fluid percolates through void spaces between stationary particles"
Expanded bed: particles vibrate and move apart"
Incipiently fluidized bed or minimum fluidization: All particles just
supported by upward flowing fluid"
Bubbling (or aggregative or heterogeneous) fluidized bed: Bubbling and
channeling of gas"
Dense-phase fluidized bed: Fairly clear bed surface"
Slugging bed: when bubble size exceeds column size"

Axial slug for fine particles; Flat slug for coarse particles"

!
!

13

Fluidization Regimes 6/9!

Gas-solid fluidization

Turbulent fluidized bed: When terminal velocity of the solids is exceeded,


upper surface of bed disappears and entrainment occurs; turbulent motion of
solid clusters and voids of gas of varying sizes/shapes"

Dilute- or lean-phase fluidization: particles are carried out of the bed with
the gas"

Fluid bed, fast fluidized bed, circulating fluidized bed fall under this category"
Channeling bed: Small Geldart Group C or A particles!

Spouted bed: Larger Geldart Group D particles"

14

Fluidization Regimes 7/9!

Gas-solid fluidization

15

Fluidization Regimes 8/9!

Gas-solid fluidization

16

Fluidization Regimes 9/9!


What is o?!
!

Bed voidage, o = Volume fraction of particle


bed not occupied by solid particles!

Vparticle = Vtotal (1 o )
Vvoid = Vtotal o
mbed = pVtotal (1 o ) + f Vtotal o

U, Umf, Umb"
U = Superficial velocity (m/s)"
Umf = Minimum Fluidization Velocity (m/s)!
Umb = Minimum Bubbling Velocity (m/s)!

18

Minimum Fluidization Velocity, Umf 1/7"


At onset of fluidization (U = Umf )
drag force by upward moving gas = weight of particles
all the particles are essentially supported by the gas stream
Fluidization Curve: For determining Umf experimentally
Ergun equation: popularly used to calculate Umf

Minimum Fluidization Velocity, Umf 2/7"

At U Umf , P = H(1-o)(p-f)g$
In other words, P = W / A. (W=weight of bed; A=cross-sectional area of
column)"
Usually, in practice, P < W / A because small percentage of the bed
particles is supported by the wall owing to "
the less than perfect design of the gas distributor"
the finite dimension of the containing vessel"
the possibility of channeling. "
Ergun equation: used to calculate pressure drop for flow through a packed
bed
"
2
2
"
(1 mf ) Umf
1 mf f Umf
P

H mf

=150

3
mf

2 2
p

+1.75

mf is o at U = Umf !
20!

mf3

dp

Minimum Fluidization Velocity, Umf 3/7"


mf = Volume fraction not occupied by solid particles at U = Umf"

Minimum Fluidization Velocity, Umf 4/7"


Re-expressing Ergun equation in terms of Re and Ar"
1.75
"
150(1 mf )
2
3
mf

"

Re p,mf +

3
mf

Re p,mf = Ar

150(1 mf )
Substitute "K1 = 1.75
;
K
=
2
3
3
mf

mf
2

"

Recall:!
Re p,mf =

f d pU mf

f ( p f )gd p3
Ar =
2

K1 Re 2p,mf + K 2 Re p,mf = Ar

"
"
"

"
"

22!

Minimum Fluidization Velocity, Umf 5/7"


150(1 mf )
1.75 2
Re p,mf +
Re p,mf = Ar
3
3
2
mf
mf

"
Further simplifying for easy usage "
For very small particles "
2
d
p ( p f )g

""
U =
mf

For very large particles"


"

150

3
mf
2
for Re p,mf < 20
1 mf

d p ( p f )g 3
U =
mf for Re p,mf > 1000
1.75 f
2
mf

"
"

"
23!

Minimum Fluidization Velocity, Umf 6/7"


3
d p2 ( p f )g mf
2
For very small particles (Rep,mf < 20): "U mf =
150
1 mf

"

For very large particles (Rep,mf > 1000):" U 2 = d p ( p f )g 3


mf
mf
1.75 f

Effect of Pressure (P)"


Note: f(P)"
For small particles, none of the terms
changes significantly with P hence
Umf f(P)"
For large particles, Umf (1/f)1/2
P , Umf
"

"
24!

Minimum Fluidization Velocity, Umf 7/7"

3
d p2 ( p f )g mf
2
For very small particles (Rep,mf < 20): " U mf =
150
1 mf

"

For very large particles (Rep,mf > 1000):" U 2 = d p ( p f )g 3


mf
mf
1.75 f

Effect of Temperature (T)"


Note: as T , f and
For small particles, Umf (1/) T
, Umf "
For large particles, Umf (1/f)1/2
T , Umf

"
25!

Terminal Velocity 1/3!

26

Terminal Velocity 2/3!


Free settling for rigid sphere
Gravitation, Fg

Buoyancy, FB

Drag Force, FD

FB+FD

Fg = mg

FB =

mg

= V p g
2

u
FD = CD
A
2
!

27

Fg

Terminal Velocity 3/3!


The resulting force on the body must equal the force due to acceleration

du
m
= Fg FB FD
dt
At terminal velocity, du/dt=0 solve for the terminal velocity

ut =
For spherical particles,

m=
Therefore,

ut =

2g ( p f ) m
A p C D f

d 3p p

and A =

4 ( p f ) gd p
3CD f
!

28

d p2
4

Geldart Classification 1/6!

Developed empirically in 1973, mostly widely used classification to date"


Particles classified in terms of density difference between particle and gas (p-) and
average particle diameter (dp) into four groups - A,B,C, and D"

Different fluidization behavior exhibited by each group; Provides predictive capability


for fluidization properties of particles"

Applicable for fluidizing by air at ambient conditions"

Some caution needed in using under conditions of high temperature, high pressure,
different fluidizing gas.!

29

Geldart Classification 2/6!

30

Geldart Classification 3/6!


Group !
C!

Group !
A!

Group !
B!

Group !
D!

31

Geldart Classification 4/6!


Group C: Very fine, cohesive particles "
Inter-particle contact force (e.g., van der Walls, "
capillary, electrostatics) dominate hydrodynamic force"
Gas channeling common; no bubbles"
Difficult to fluidize; fluidization may be assisted by "
mechanical means (e.g., stirrer or vibration)"
"
"
Group A: Fine, somewhat cohesive particles"
Both inter-particle and hydrodynamics forces important"
Can be operated in both particulate (no bubbles) and "
bubbling regime since Umf < Umb"
A maximum stable bubble size exist"

32

Geldart Classification 5/6!

Group B: Coarse, non-cohesive particles"


No particulate fluidization regime since Umf = Umb"
No maximum bubble size, bubble size increases
with bed height"
"
"
"
Group D: Very coarse particles"
Usually operated as a spouting bed"
Low bed expansion compared to Groups A and B"
Particle mixing poor compared to Groups A and B!

33

Geldart Classification 6/6!

Demarcation between Groups A and C (Molerus, 1982):!

FH is the cohesive force between particles, with a value ranging from 8.8 x
10-8 (for hard material) and 3.7 x 10-7 (for soft material)"

Demarcation between Groups A and B (Geldart, 1973):"

For elevated pressures and temperatures (Grace, 1986):"


f ( p f )gd p3
Ar =
2

Demarcation between Groups B and D (Grace, 1986):"

for (p-f)/f > 219!

34

Particle Properties !

Flow characteristics in fluidized bed systems vary significantly with geometric


and material properties of particles"
Geometric properties: Affect particle flow behavior through interaction with gas
medium"

Material properties: Affect long- and short-range inter particle forces, particle
attrition, erosion behaviors in gas-solid flows"

e.g., drag force, distribution of boundary layer on particle surface, generation and
dissipation of wake vortices"

e.g., physical adsorption, elastic & plastic deformation, ductile & brittle fracturing, solid
electrification, magnetization, heat conduction & thermal radiation, optical transmission"

Equivalent diameter: defined in relation to a specific sizing method developed


based on a certain equivalency criterion"

Needed because particles in fluidized bed applications are non-spherical and polydisperse"
More than 1 equivalent diameter can be defined"
Selection of a desired equivalent diameter depends on specific application!

35

Equivalent Diameters of Non-spherical Particle 1/2


Sieve diameter = width of minimum square aperture through which the particle
will pass"

Sieving is a very popular particle sizing method"

Surface diameter, Volume diameter, Sauters diameter = reflect a


three-dimensional geometric characteristic of an individual particle"

Surface diameter = diameter of sphere having the same surface area as


particle"

Volume diameter = diameter of sphere having the same volume as particle"

Sauters diameter = diameter of sphere having the same external surface


to volume ratio as particle"

36

Equivalent Diameters of Non-spherical Particle 2/2

Martins diameter, Ferets diameter, Equivalent circle diameter (or


Projected area diameter) = based on the projected image on a single particle!

Dynamic diameter = diameter of a sphere having the same density and terminal
velocity as the particle in a fluid of the same density and viscosity"

"
In Stokes regime, CD=24/Ret, hence !

37

Particle Sizing Methods 1/4!

Sieve Analysis: Classify particles through a


series of screens with standardized mesh size by
sifting, swirling, shaking, or vibrating"
simplest, most commonly used method"
mesh number = number or parallel wires per
inch in the weave of the screen"
cons: "
does not differentiate particle shape "
dependent on sieve duration/particle loading
on sieve "
agglomeration due to static electricity "
enlargement of aperture due to erosion by
particles!

38

Imaging:

Particle Sizing Methods 2/4!

Direct measurement of particle dimensions from enlarged images"


Optical microscope: 1-150 m"
scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM):
0.001-5 m"
reveal surface morphology"
SEM: uses a fine beam of electrons of medium energy (5-50 keV) to scan across
the sample in a series of parallel tracks. These scanning electrons produce
secondary electron emission, back scattered electrons, light, and X-rays which
can be detected."
TEM: generates an image of a particle sample on a photographic plate by means
of an electron beam, through the transmissibility of the electron beam on the
sample"

"
"
"
"

SEM 5-100 m pollen grains, wikipedia.org!

39

TEM 30 nm polio virus, wikipedia.org!

Particle Sizing Methods 3/4!


Fraunhofer Diffraction: uses light scattering and diffraction"

non-intrusive, must faster than mechanical means"


Mie theory coupled with Fraunhoffer diffraction and side scatter allows measurement size
range of 0.1-1000 m"
by measuring and analyzing the intensity distributions of the light beam over a finite area of
the detector, the equivalent particle diameter can be obtained"

40

Particle Sizing Methods 4/4!

Coulter Principle: electrical sensing technique"

typically 1-50 m"


particles to be analyzed are first suspended and
homogenized in an electrolyte and then passed
through a cylindrical orifice placed between two
electrodes"
passages of particles through the orifice generates
voltage pulses that are amplified, recorded, and
analyzed to produce a particle size distribution.!

Cascade Impactor: "

samples and classifies particle sizes by their inertia"

measurement size range: 0.1 - 100 m "


Laser Doppler Phase Shift!
Sedimentation!
Gas Adsorption!

41

Particle Size Distributions (PSDs) 1/6!

For polydisperse systems, various averaged diameters can be defined depending


on specific needs in industrial applications"
An averaged diameter depends on both the type of PSD and choice of weighing
factor"
Differential vs Cumulative frequency distributions"

42

Particle Size Distributions (PSDs) 2/6!

Gaussian Distribution!

Also known as Normal Distribution!

Log-Normal Distribution!

More common for naturally occurring particle populations!


!

43

Particle Size Distributions (PSDs) 3/6!


Rosin-Rammler Distribution!

Representative of broken coal, moon dust, and many irregular particles!

44

Particle Size Distributions (PSDs) 4/6

d1 =

"#d

f N (d p )$% dx

Arithmetic Mean Diameter = averaged


diameter based on the number density function
of sample"

Surface Mean Diameter = diameter of a


hypothetical particle having the same averaged
surface area as that of the given sample"

Volume Mean Diameter = diameter of a


hypothetical particle having the same averaged
volume as that of the given sample"

f N (d p )dx

d S2 =

2
"
d
# p fN (d p )$% dx
0

f N (d p )dx

d V3 =

3
"
d
# p fN (d p )$% dx
0

f N (d p )dx

45

Particle Size Distributions (PSDs) 5/6

d SV =

"#d

3
p

Sauters Mean Diameter = diameter of a


hypothetical particle having the same specific
surface area per unit volume as that of the
given sample"

4
"
$
d

f
(d
)
dx
# p N p %

DeBrouckers Mean Diameter = averaged


diameter based on the mass density function
of the sample!

f N (d p )$% dx

2
"
d
# p fN (d p )$% dx
0

d43 =

"#d p fM (d p )$% dx
0

"# f
0

(d p )$% dx

"#d

3
p

f N (d p )$% dx

46

Particle Size Distributions (PSDs) 6/6


Patent: J.W. Chew, B. Zou, MEMC-SunEdison, Improving Operation of
Fluidized Bed Reactors by Optimizing Temperature Gradients via
Varying Particle Size Distributions, U.S. Patent Application PCT/
US2013/078062, Publication PCT/US2013/078062, Filing Date
27Dec2013, Publication Date 3Jul2014.!
!

Current: Average par)cle size measured and used for reactor control
Needed: Knowledge of Par.cle Size Distribu.on Width is Important for Reactor Control

47

Particle Shape!

Empirical

descriptions of particle shape are usually based on identifying two of the following
characteristic parameters: (i) volume of the particle, (ii) surface area of the particle, (iii)
projected area of the particle, and (iv) projected perimeter of the particle"

All

proposed shape factors to date are open to criticism, because a range of bodies with
different shapes may have the same shape factor."

Sphericity:

measure of deviation from a spherical particle"

Wadell,

1933: "

caveat:

difficult to obtain surface area of an irregular particle"

48

Density 1/4!
Bulk density

m pp
b =
Vpp

where Vpp is the packed volume of the particles.

Particle density

mp
p =
Vp

where Vp is the volume particles would displace if surface


were nonporous.

49

Density 2/4!
What is Porosity?
Enclosed pores and open pores
Pore size and volume (pore volume could be up to 7080%)
Internal surface area (e.g. Zeolite catalyst: 150-250 m2/g)

SEM of dissolved serpentine

SEM of precipitated MgCO3

Density 3/4!

Skeletal density (true density)


mp
s =
Vs

where Vs is the skeleton volume of the particles.

Bulk density of porous particles

Porous !
particle!

Assume the fluid does not enter the pores

b = p (1 o ) + o = s (1 p ) (1 o ) + o
Bed voidage

Pore fraction

51

Vpore
Volume of
P =
=
Vparticle Volume of
p = 0 for non-porous particle!

Density 4/4!
Particle Density: Summary!
Assume the particle is soaked in fluid, but the fluid doesnt get into
the pores
Mass of
Bulk density =
Volume of

Particle density =

Mass of
Volume of

Skeletal density =

Mass of
Volume of

Mechanical Property 1/2!

Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI)!


originally developed to measure relative ease of pulverizing coal"
does not directly relate to hardness "
higher HGI = higher grindability; usually in the range 15 to 40"
50 g of 600 - 1180 m particles milled for 60 revolutions. Then,
amount of material (W200) passing the 75mm screen is then
measured. HGI is calculated from the equation HGI = 13 + 6.93W200$

Abrasiveness Index!
in pulverized coal combustion, abrasiveness of particles severely
limits life of pulverizer grinding elements"
weight loss of metal coupons measured after specified contact with
particles"

53

Mechanical Property 2/2!

Erosiveness Index!
weight loss of the coupon is an indication of the erosiveness of the
particular coal and the potential damage to the processing and handling
equipment, and other boiler components"

Attrition Index!
Dictates design of fluidized bed operation, beause attrition affects
entrainment"
Two techniques: Solids impaction on a plate and Davidson jet cup!
!

54

Erosion E.g.: Schema.c of PSRIs CFB 1/2


Primary Cyclone

www.psrichicago.com!

To Bag House

Secondary Cyclone

Elbow exit

Riser:
0.30m ID x
18.3m tall

Loop Seal
Rectangular Fluidized Bed
8 Return
Slide Valve

Mixing Pot
Air

55

Erosion E.g.: Schema.c of PSRIs CFB 1/2


Par)cle bombardment roughening of inner walls of elbow-exit

Change in ow proles


Erosion Art

56