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# BFC21103Hydraulics

Chapter1.FlowinOpenChannel
TanLaiWai,WanAfnizan &Zarina Md Ali
laiwai@uthm.edu.my
Updated:September2014

LearningOutcomes
Attheendofthischapter,studentsshouldbeableto:
i. Defineandexplainontypesandstatesofflow
ii. Identifytypesofopenchannels
iii. Defineopenchannelgeometries

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Openchannelflowisflowofaliquidinaconduitwithafreesurface
subjectedtoatmosphericpressure.
y

Freesurface
T

Flow

x
B
Datum
Figure.Sketchofopenchannelgeometry

Examples:flowofwaterinrivers,canals,partiallyfullsewers and
drainsandflowofwateroverland.
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Tahan river
rapids

(SMART),KualaLumpur,Malaysia
Siberianmeandering
river

Practicalapplications:
a. flowdepthinrivers,canalsandotherconveyanceconduits,
b. changesinflowdepthduetochannelcontrolse.g.weirs,
spillways,andgates,
c. changesinriverstageduringfloods,
d. surfacerunofffromrainfalloverland,
e. optimalchanneldesign,andothers

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1.1FlowParametersandGeometricElements
a. Depthofflowy istheverticalmeasureofwaterdepth.
Normaldepthd ismeasurednormaltothechannelbottom.
d =y cos
Formostapplications,d y when 10%,e.g.cos 1 =0.9998.

FlowQ

Freesurface

y d

So =bottomslope

Sw =watersurfaceslope

x
Datum

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## b. Flow ordischargeQ isthevolumeoffluidpassingacrosssection

perpendiculartothedirectionofflowperunittime.
MeanvelocityV isthedischargedividedbythecrosssectionalarea

Q
V=
A

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c. WettedperimeterP isthelengthofchannelperimeterthatis
wettedorcoveredbyflowingwater.

T=topwidth
A
P

A=crosssectionalarea
coveredbyflowingwater

B=bottom
width

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perimeterP.
A
R=
P
e. HydraulicdepthD istheaveragedepthofirregularcrosssection.

flow area A
D=
=
topwidth T

T
A
P
B
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Table.Openchannelgeometries
Channelsection

Area
A

Topwidth
T

Wettedperimeter
P

By

B +2y

zy2

2zy

2y 1 + z 2

By+zy2

B +2zy

B + 2y 1 + z 2

D2
( sin )
8

sin

T
y
B

Rectangular
T
1

y
z

Triangular
T
1

y
z

Trapezoidal
T
D

Circle

Activity1.1
1m
2m
60

Find:

3m

(a) TopsurfacewidthT,flowareaA,wettedperimeterP,and
(b) IfQ =2.4m3/s,determinethestateofflow.
(c) IflongitudinallengthL =50m,findthecosttoconstructthe
channel.Givenexcavationcost=RM3/m3 andliningcost=
RM5/m2.
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## (a) TopsurfacewidthT,wettedareaA,wettedperimeterP and

1
z=
= 0.5774
o
tan60
T = B + 2zy

P = B + 2y 1 + z 2

T = 3 + 2(0.5774 )(2)

P = 3 + 2(2) 1 + 0.57742

T = 5.309m

P = 7.619 m

A = By + zy

A
R=
P

A = 3(2) + 0.5774(2)2

A = 8.309m2

R=

8.309
7.619

R = 1.091 m
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## (b) IfQ =2.4m3/s,determinethestateofflow.

Q 2.4
v= =
= 0.2888m/s
A 8.309

V
Fr =
gD
Re =

VR

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## (c) IfthelengthofthechannelisL =50m,findthecosttoconstructthe

channel.Givenexcavationcost=RM3/m3 andliningcost=RM5/m2.

Volumeofexcavation = Achannel L

= (3 3 + 0.5774 32 ) 50

= 709.81 m3
3
Costofexcavation = Unit cost = RM3 / m 709.81

= RM2129.42

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## Areaoflining Alining = Pchannel L

Alining = 3 + 2 3 1 + 0.57742 50
Alining = 496.41m3

= RM 2482.05

## Totalcost = RM 2129.42 + RM 2482.05 = RM 4611.47

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Activity1.2
1m

A1
A2

2m

A3

A4

2m
1m

2m

4m

Find:
(a) FlowareaA
(b) WettedperimeterP
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3m

1.2TypesofOpenChannel

## Prismatic andnonprismatic channels

Prismaticchannel isthechannelwhichcrosssectionalshape,
(artificial)channelsareprismaticchannelsoverlong
culvertandtunnel.
Allnaturalchannels generallyhavevaryingcrosssectionsand
thereforearenonprismatic.Examplesofnaturalchannelsare
tinyhillsiderivulets,throughbrooks,streams,riversandtidal
estuaries.

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## Rigid andmobileboundary channels

Rigidchannels arechannelswithboundariesthatisnot
deformable.Channelgeometryandroughnessareconstant
overtime.Typicalexamplesarelinedcanals,sewersandnon
erodibleunlinedcanals.
Mobileboundarychannels arechannelswithboundariesthat
undergodeformationduetothecontinuousprocessof
erosionanddepositionduetotheflow.Examplesareunlined

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Canals
isusuallyalongandmildsloped
channelbuiltintheground,which
maybeunlinedorlinedwith
stonedmasonry,concrete,cement,
woodorbituminousmaterial.

Griboyedov Canal,St.Petersburg,Russia
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Flumes
isachannelofwood,metal,concrete,ormasonry,usually
supportedonorabovethesurfaceofthegroundtocarrywater

ThisflumedivertswaterfromWhiteRiver,
Washingtontogenerateelectricity

BullRunHydroelectricProjectdiversionflume

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Openchannelflumeinlaboratory

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Chute
isachannelhavingsteepslopes.

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Drop
issimilartoachute,butthechangeinelevationiswithina
shortdistance.

ThespillwayofLeasburgDiversionDamisaverticalhard
basindropstructuredesignedtodissipateenergy

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Stormwater sewer
designedtodrainexcessrain
frompavedstreets,parkinglots,
sidewalksandroofs.

Stormsewer

Stormdrainreceivingurbanrunoff
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1.3TypesandClassificationofOpenChannelFlows
Openchannelflow

Uniformflow

Nonuniformflow

Rapidlyvariedflow

Varioustypesofopenchannelflow
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Openchannelflowconditionscanbecharacterisedwithrespectto
flows).
Space howdotheflowconditionschangealongthereachofan
openchannelsystem.
a.Uniformflow depthofflowisthesameatevery
sectionoftheflowdy/dx =0
b.Nonuniformflow depthofflowvariesalongtheflow
dy/dx 0

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a.Uniformflow
y

y Constan
twaterd
x

e pt h

dy
=0
Depthofflowisthesameateverysectionalongthechannel,
dx

b.Nonuniformflow
y1

y2

Depthchanges

alongthechan
n

dy
0
Depthofflowvariesatdifferentsectionsalongthechannel,
dx
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el

Time howdotheflowconditionschangeovertimeataspecific
sectioninanopenchannelsystem.
duringthetimeintervalunder
considerationdy/dt =0
dy/dt 0

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y1

y2

Time=t1

y1 =y2

Time=t2

dy
=0
Depthofflowisthesameateverytimeinterval,
dt

y1

t3
t1
t2

Depthofflowchangesfromtimetotime,
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y1 y2 y3
dy
0
dt

Theflowisrapidlyvaried ifthedepthchangesabruptlyovera
comparativelyshortdistance.Examplesofrapidlyvariedflow
(RVF)arehydraulicjump,hydraulicdrop,flowoverweirandflow
underasluicegate.
(GVF)areflowoveramildslopeandthebackingupofflow
(backwater).

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## RVF GVF RVF

Sluice

GVF

Hydraulic
jump

GVF

RVF

RVF

Flowover
weir
Hydraulic
drop

Contraction
belowthesluice

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1.4StateofFlow
Thestateorbehaviourofopenchannelflowisgovernedbasically
bytheviscosity andgravityeffects relativetotheinertialforces of
theflow.
Effectofviscosity dependingontheeffectofviscosityrelativeto
inertialforces,theflowmaybeinlaminar,
turbulent,ortransitional state.

Reynoldsnumber representstheeffectof
viscosityrelativetoinertia,
VR
Re =

conduitand isthekinematicviscosity(forwaterat
20C, =1.004 106 m2/s,dynamicviscosity =
1.002 103 Ns/m2 anddensity =998.2kg/m3).
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Re<500

theflowislaminar

500<Re<12500 theflowistransitional
Re>12500

theflowisturbulent

Re =

VR

Theflowislaminar iftheviscousforcesaredominantrelative
toinertia.Viscositywilldeterminetheflowbehaviour.In
laminarflow,waterparticlesmoveindefinitesmoothpaths.
Theflowisturbulent iftheinertialforcesaredominantthan
theviscousforce.Inturbulentflow,waterparticlesmovein
irregularpathswhicharenotsmooth.
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Effectofgravity dependingontheeffectofgravityforcesrelative
toinertialforces,theflowmaybesubcritical,
criticalandsupercritical.

Froudenumber representstheratioofinertial
forcestogravityforces,
V
Fr =
gD
whereV isthevelocity,D isthehydraulicdepth
ofaconduitandg isthegravityacceleration(g =
9.81m/s2).

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Fr<1 ,theflowisinsubcriticalstate

V < gD

Fr=1 ,theflowisincriticalstate

V = gD

Fr>1 ,theflowisinsupercriticalstate

V > gD

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1.5RegimesofFlow
Acombinedeffectofviscosityandgravitymayproduceanyoneof
thefollowingfourregimesofflowinanopenchannel:
a. subcritical laminar

,whenFr<1andRe<500

b. supercritical laminar

,whenFr>1andRe<500

## c. supercritical turbulent ,whenFr>1andRe>12500

d. subcritical turbulent

,whenFr<1andRe>12500

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Assignment#1
Q1.

[FinalExamSemI,Session2010/2011]
Justifythedifferencebetween:
(a) uniformflowandnonuniformflow
(b) stateofflowusingReynoldsnumberReandFroudenumberFr.

Q2.

[FinalExamSemI,Session2008/2009]
(a) Define
(i) Wettedperimeter
(iii) Nonuniformflow
(iv) Froudenumber
(b) Explainthedifferencesbetweencanalandsewer.

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Q3.

[FinalExamSemI,Session2006/2007]
Define
(a) Reynoldsnumber
(b) Froudenumber
(d) Prismaticchannel
(e) Uniformflow

Q4.

channelof4.0mwide.Determinethestateofflowbasedon
(a) Froudenumber,and
(b) Reynoldsnumber.

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