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Drive with an Open-end Winding Induction Motor

Configuration

P. Srinivasan,B. Venugopal Reddy,Student

Members,

IEEE, V. T. Somasekhar.

D

Abstract--Adjustable

speed

drives

are

known

to

generate

bearing

currents.

It

was

demonstrated

that

two

two-level

induction motor is capable of achieving the functionally of a three

level inverter. The common mode voltage generated by a three

level inverter can be eliminated by switching only the voltage

space vector combinations which do not produce the common

mode voltage.

The high dV/dt due to the power device switching in PWM

inverters is mainly responsible for common mode voltage. It

creates the so called shaft voltages.

between the stator winding and the stator frame and the rotor.

currents and leakage currents. The present scheme uses single

DC-link

with

about

58%

of

the

DC-voltage

compared

to

the harmonic content in the output voltage can be reduced

enables

operation

at

lesser

frequency

with

lesser

switching losses.

Stemmler and Guggenbach [2] instigated that three-level

functionality

can

be

open-end

winding

induction motor to

index.

BEARINGS

INTRODUCTION

which

fed

II.

inverter by Nabae

inverter

I.

level

realized

This circuit configuration offers principal advantages such as

Conventional

inverters

generate

alternating

common

electrostatic (capacitive) coupling between the rotor and the

stator windings and frame, enabling voltage to build up on

the motor shaft [3]-[5]. The bearings are not in electrical

contact with the inner and outer races because the grease used

has

partial

insulating

effect.

Therefore, the

charge

dielectric capability of the bearing grease.

The resulting

can

damage

the

bearing

surfaces

due

to

the

Electric

race

steel

and

bearing

ball

(pitting

and

fluting).

The

currents has been recognized since 1920s.

Since the introduction of the IGBT technology, there has

Department of Electrical Engineering, National Institute of Technology,

Warangai, Andhra Pradesh, India 506004

(e-mail: spradabane2000@yah00 .co.in& bvenugopaJ.reddi@gmail.cm).

V. T. Somasekhar is with Department of Electrical Engineering, National

Institute of Technology, Warangal, Andhra Pradesh, India 506004 (e-mail:

vtsomasekhar@rediffinaiLcom).

failures; and shortening mechanical life of bearings. In spite

of the extended study of the problem over the past few years

[6]-[9], there

phenomenon.

is

no

satisfactory

explanation

for

this

3,

In Fig.

III. D UAL INVERTER FED OPEN-END WINDING INDUCTION

The schematic of a dual two-level inverter fed three-phase

open-end winding induction motor fed from a single power

supply is shown in Fig. 1. In this scheme, each of the dual

two-level inverters can produce eight space vector locations

independent of the other as shown in Fig.

2, resulting in a

space locations as shown in Fig.

denote the states assumed by

same for INV2. The switching states of the two inverters are

tabulated in Table 1.

][

'V

equal to Vdc. From Fig.

it may be seen that there are 19

sectors.

Six

hexagons

namely

OBHGSF, OCJIHA,

identified with their centers at A, B, C, D, E and F

respectively,within the outer hexagon GIKMPR.

TABLE I

SWITCHING STATES OF THE INDIVIDUAL INVERTERS

State of

Inverter-2

1 (+ --)

Switches

tumed on

S6, SI, S2

1'(+--)

Switches

tumed on

S6" Sp, S2'

2(++-)

Slo S2, S3

2' (++ -)

3( -+ -)

S2, S3, S4

3'(-+-)

4(-++)

S3, S4, S5

4' ( -++)

5(--+)

S4, S5, S6

5' (--+)

6(+-+ )

S5, S6, SI

6' ( +-+ )

S5" S6" Sp

7(+++)

Slo S3, S5

7'(+++)

8( - - -)

S2, S4, S6

8' ( - - -)

State of

Inverter-l

,,

,,

,,

,,

,

I

t

,,

,,

,,

,,

,

6(+-+) :

}+--Vdcl2-+:

:

I

:+--Vd

A

'+'

be obtained by

(1)

VAA,=VAO-VA,O

VBB, =VBO -VB'O

VCC' =vCO -Vc,o

TABLE II

turned 'ON'. The symbols

INVI whereas the symbols VA'O, VB'O

and VC'O denote the same for INV2 as in Fig. 1.

phase pole voltages of

M (41')

---:':

':.---4 G(14')

Pole-voltage of

INVl(VAo )

Pole-voltage of

INV2(VA'o )

VocI4

-VocI4

Vd./4

VocI4

-Vdcl2

Vd./4

VocI4

Vd./4

-Vd.!4

0

Vdc12

VAA'=VAO-VA'O

o and +Vdci2. The combined effect of the voltages in the

three windings can be represented by a voltage space vector

VSf as defined by

(

r=VAA'+ B,e

j27l'/3)

(j47l'/3)

V

+ CC' e

(4)

different switching combinations are shown in fig

3.

This

scheme

two-level inverters.

If

vectors generated by

dual-inverter.

(5)

This

switching

algorithm

is

based

on

the

proportional

to

the

three

instantaneous

phase

reference

voltages

common DC-link voltage.

VruJ2. Thus, the sum of the DC-link

voltages is equal to Vdc, which is the DC-link voltage of

a DC-link voltage of

This

equal to (TslVdc) [11]. The symbols Tmax, Tmid and Tmin,

respectively, denote the maximum, median and minimum

values among the three imaginary switching times. Recently, a

space vector-based

dual-inverter

fed

was

switching.

IV.

COMMON MODE VOLTAGE

D-------A(U'

is denoted as

The voltages Va, Vb and Vc denote the instantaneous phase

reference voltages required for realizing Vsr. They are obtained

by projecting the tip of Vsr onto a, b and c-phase axes

respectively,

and

are

given

by

the

classical

phase

2/3

-113 11../3

-113 -11../3

scheme

either

(6)

end

of

an

open-end

winding

PWM scheme is

[11]. From Kim and SuI, the symbols Tl and T2

denote the time duration for which the active vectors along the

leading and trailing edges of the sector in which the tip of

TABLEm

COMBINATIONS

-V<ic/4

-V<ic/6

-V<ic/12

Vsr

8-4'

8-6'

denotes the time duration for which the null vector is switched

durations, T h T2 and To. The symbols Tga' Tgb and Tgc,

5-5'

1-4',2-5',

3-5'

3-6',5-2',

3-3'

8-7', 5-4',

8-5'

8-3'

5-1 '

3-4', 5-6',

8-1 '

3-1 '

3-2', 16',

5-8'

1-5'

1-2', 4-5',

3-8'

1-3'

4-3',4-1',

1-8'

1-1'

6-5',6-3',

4-8'

2-3', 2-1',

6-8'

7-8',6-1'

v""'.

C

IatIuctIoa

m8tor

v"",.

The basic switching algorithm described in Kim and SuI

induction motor is extended to the dual-inverter system for

2-8'

5-3'

V<ic/6

V<ic/4

1-7'

8-8'

V<ic/12

5-7'

8-2'

along with the active vectors. The sampling interval Ts for this

is

motor

v..

induction

inverters.

Kim and SuI

i

As mentioned earlier, two two-level inverters connected to

[vVba**] [ 0] [;:]

Vc*

=

3-7'

4-4'

4-6'

6-4'

2-4'

4-2'

6-2'

2-6'

2-2'

7-5'

7-3'

6-6'

7-1 '

4-7'

7-4'

7-6'

6-7'

7-2'

2-7'

7-7'

defined with reference to the motor frame, which is earthed, is

given by:

G)

(7)

corresponding to inverter state combinations 14',25',36',41',

52', 63', where the common mode voltage becomes zero as

shown below and

the

possibility

of

problems are also avoided. The common mode voltage is given

by [14]

Table- III presents

the

common

mode

voltages

open-end winding induction motor drive shown in fig. 1.

fig. 5.

However, the static and dynamic balancing of

voltages of individual devices in the string could be

cumbersome and could call for devices, which are exactly

matched for a successful operation in the series connection.

The advantage of the dual inverter driven open-end

winding induction motor drive with the proposed PWM

strategy is that it avoids the series connection of individual

switching devices to achieve the operability off a high DC

link voltage. At the same time,it also achieves the avoidance

of common-mode voltage and its undesirable effects which

were described earlier. By resorting to the SAZE PWM

technique described in [22],it is possible to operate the dual

inverter drive with a single DC power supply as shown in

Fig.I. However, the resulting drive system is still equivalent

to a two level inverter drive.

V. SIMULATION RESULTS

from (7), it is evident that common mode voltage becomes

The proposed PWM scheme for the dual inverter fed open

same for the other combinations such as 25', 36', 41',

studies

voltages.

scheme. Fig. 7 shows the pole voltages for the two inverters.

value of peak fundamental phase voltage generated by the

conventional two-level inverter (which has common mode

voltages and its associated problems) with Sinusoidal Pulse

Width

Modulation.

This

maximum

value

of

using

MATLAB/Simulink.

Fig.

shows

Fig.

zero using the proposed PWM switching strategy.

peak

fundamental amplitude that can be generated with the space

vector

based

pulse

compensated with

an

width

modulation.

This

can

be

(15% boost over) the proposed scheme with common mode

elimination, can generate the same maximum fundamental

amplitude of the phase voltage equivalent to that generated

by a conventional two-level inverter which uses a dc-link

voltage of

Vde as in Fig. 4.

L---O.O05--O.Ol--O.Ol5--O.O2--O.M=5----O.

Vdd4

Yd.

Vdd4

It is a known fact that the voltage rating of a given power

semiconductor device limits the DC-link voltage in a two

level inverter. If a higher DC-link voltage is employed, one

is constrained to connect the devices in series to increase the

the

1:tr(IDUJfU]u1J{ntu]

l:tllifumrtWInrrmJ

o

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02

0.025

0.03

0.035

0.04

0.045

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02

0.025

0.03

0.035

0.04

0.045

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02

0.025

Time

0.03

0.035

0.04

0.045

100

0

I I

I i II I I

Jill

II

II

I

TIme

1

o. 8

o. 6

o.

o. 2

0

0. 2

0.

0. 6

.(). 8

1

10

VII.

A

space

vector

CONCLUSION

based

PWM

to

eliminate

end winding induction motor drive is presented in this paper.

With the proposed scheme, the shaft voltages do not occur in

the machine as no common mode voltage exists in the phase

windings and the dual inverter can be operated from a single

power supply. The proposed drive has a simple power circuit

consisting of two standard two-level inverters. The proposed

scheme uses a single dc-link with half the voltage of the

common mode elimination scheme based on the conventional

three-level inverter. Even though three-level configuration

setup is necessary, the proposed scheme is as that of a two

level inverter, owning into the advantages such as half dc-link

voltage is sufficient, half the value of switch ratings, and the

more predominant common mode voltage is being eliminated.

VII.

REFERENCES

PWM Inverter," IEEE Trans.Ind.Applicat.,Vol.lA- 17, pp 518-523,

sept. loct. 1981.

[2] H.Stemmler, P.Guggenbach, "Configurations of high power voltage

source inverter drives," EPE.conf-1993, pp 7-12.

[3] S. Chen,"Bearing current, EMI and soft switching in induction motor

drives-A systematic analysis, design and evaluation," Ph.D.

Dissertation, Univ. Wisconsin, Madison, 1995.

[4] M. Erdman, R. 1. Kerkman, D. W. Schlegel, and G. L. Skibinski,

Effect of PWM inverters on ac motor bearing currents and shaft

voltages," IEEE Trans. Ind. Applicat., vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 250-259 ,

1996.

[5] A. von Jouanne, P. Enjeti, and W. Gray, "Application Issues for PWM

adjustable speed ac motor drives," Industrial Applications Society

[6] P. Link, "Minimizing electric bearing currents in ASD systems,"

IEEE Industry Appl. Magazine July/August, 1999 pp. 55-67.

[7] A von Jouanne, H. Zhang, A K Wallace, "An Evaluation

Techniques for Bearing Currents, EMI and Over voltages in ASD

Applications," IEEE Trans. on Ind. Appl., vol. 34, No. 2,

September/October 199 7 pp.11 \3-1121.

[8] S. Chen, T. A Lipo, "Bearing currents and Shaft Voltages of an

Induction Motor under Hard and Soft Switching Inverter

Excitation," IEEE Trans. on Ind. Appl., vol. 34, No. 2,

September/October 1998 pp.1 042- 1048.

[9] D.F. Busse, 1.M. Erdman, R.1. Kerkman, D.W. Schlegel, G.L.

Skibinski,"The Effects of PWM Voltage Source Inverters on the

Mechanical Performance of Rolling Bearings," IEEE Trans. On Ind.

Appl. Vo1.33, No.2, 1997, pp. 766-774.

[10] Somasekhar, V.T., Gopakumar, K., Pittet, A, and Ranganathan V.T.,

"PWM inverter switching strategy for a dual two-level inverter fed

open-end winding induction motor drive with a switched neutral," lEE

Proc., Electr. Power Appl., 2002, 149 , (2), pp. 152-160.

[I I ] Kim, 1.S., and Sui, S.K, "A novel voltage modulation technique of

the space vector PWM," Conf. Proc. IPEC, 1995, pp. 742-747.

[12] Somasekhar, V.T., Srinivas, S., and Gopakumar, K, "A space vector

based PWM switching scheme for the reduction of common-mode

voltages for a dual inverter fed open-end winding induction motor

drive," Conf. Proc. IEEE-PESC, Recife, Brazil, 2005, pp. 816-8212.

[13] M. R. Baiju, K K. Mohapatra, R. S. Kanchan, K Gopakumar, "A

Dual Two-Level Inverter Scheme with Common Mode Voltage

Elimination for an Induction Motor Drive," IEEE Transactions On

Power Electronics, Vol. 19 , NO. 3, May 2004.

[14] Annette von Jouanne, Haoran Zhang, "A

Dual-Bridge Inverter

Approach to Eliminating Common Mode Voltages and Bearing and

Leakage Currents," IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 14,

no. 1, January 1999.

[15] Dae-Wook Kang, Byoung-Kuk Lee, Jae-Hyun Jeon,Tae-Jin Kim and

Dong-Seok Hyun,"A Symmetric Carrier Technique of CRPWM for

Voltage Balance Method of Flying-Capacitor Multilevel Inverter,"

IEEE Trans.on Ind.Electronics, Vo1.52, No.3, pp 879 --888, June 2005.

[16] J. Rodriguez, 1. S. Lai, and F. Z. Peng, "Multilevel inverters: A

survey of topologies, controls, and applications," IEEE Trans. Ind.

Electron., vol. 49 , no. 4, pp. 724-738, Aug. 2002.

[17] 1. H. Seo, C. H. Choi, and D. S. Hyun, "A new simplified space

vector PWM method for three-level inverters," IEEE Trans. Power

Electron., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 545-550, Jul. 2001.

[18] E.G.Shivakumar, KGopakumar, S.K Sinha, Andre Pittet, V.T.

Ranganathan, "Space Vector Control of Dual Inverter Fed Open-end

Winding Induction Motor Drive," EPE Journal, Vo1.l 2, No.1, pp.9 18 (2002).

[19 ] V.T. Somasekhar, K. Gopakumar, M.R. Baiju, Krishna K. Mohapatra,

L. Umanand, "A multilevel inverter system for an induction motor

with open-end windings," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics,

Vo1.52, No.3, pp. 824-836,(2005).

[20] M. R. Baiju , K. Gopakumar, KK Mohapatra, V. T. Somasekhar L.

Umanand, "A high resolution multilevel voltage space phasor

generation for an open-end winding induction motor drives," EPE

Journal, VoU3, No.4, pp. 29 -37, (2003).

[21] V. T. Somasekhar, K. Gopakumar, M. R. Baiju, Krishna K.

Mohapatra and L. Umanand, "A Multilevel Inverter System for an

Induction Motor With Open-End Windings," IEEE Trans.on

Ind.Electronics, Vol. 52, No. 3,pp 824-836, June 2005.

[22]V. T. Somasekhar, S. Srinivas, B. P. Reddy, C. N. Reddy, and

K.Sivakumar, "PWM switching strategy for the dynamic-balancing of

zero-sequence current for a dual-inverter fed open-end winding

induction motor drive," Proc. lET Electr. Power Appl., vol. I , no. 4, pp.

59 1-600, Jul. 2007

degree from Pondicheny University in 2005 and

the post graduate degree from Anna University in

2008, his area of specialization being Power

Electronics and Drives. Presently he is a Doctoral

Candidate at National Institute of Technology,

Warangal. His research interests are Multilevel

Inverters and AC Drives.

degree in Electrical Engineering from JNTU

College of Engineering ,Hyderabad and the post

graduate degree from NIT, Warangal in 2001 and

2005 respectively. He is currently working towards

his Ph.D degree from National Institute of

Technology, Warangal, India. His research interests

are Multi-level inverters, Multi-level PWM

Switching Strategies, Multi-level inversion realized

through Open-end winding Induction motor drives,

Dr. V. T. Somasekhar received his graduate degree

from Regional Engineering College Warangal

(presently the National Institute of Technology) in

1988 and the post graduate degree from the Indian

Institute of Technology, Bombay in 199 0, his area

of specialization being Power Electronics. He

worked as an R&D engineer at Mis Perpetual Power

Technologies, Bangalore and as a senior engineer at

Mis Kirloskar Electric Co. Ltd., Mysore. He joined

the faculty of electrical engineering at the National

Institute of Technology in 1993, where he is currently serving. He received

his doctoral degree from the Indian Institute of Science in 2003. His current

interests are multilevel inversion with open-end induction motors, AC drives

and PWM strategies.

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