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PROCEEDINGS, 4th ITB Geothermal Workshop 2015

Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia, March 16-20, 2015

GEOCHEMICAL AND GEOTHERMOMETRY STUDIES ON GEOTHERMAL SYSTEMS IN


MANIFESTATIONS SHOWERS SEVEN AND SHOWER THREE, BATURRADEN,
PURWOKERTO, CENTRAL JAVA
*Muhammad Abdurrozak Siamashari
*Priyo Adi Nugroho
*Dhevi Andhini Antikasari
*Irfania Fitria Arsah
*Asad Argiansyah
*)Universitas Jenderal Soedirman
H.R. Boenyamin, Purwokerto, Central Java
rozakgeoscientist@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
Geothermal under the Act No. 21 tahun 2014 is a source of heat energy contained in the hot water, steam
and rock along with other associated minerals and gases that are genetically inseparable in a geothermal system.
Most of geothermal production fields in Indonesia are situated in Java Island. Some of geothermal prospects are
associated with a specific geological setting on Java. Those geological setting are on a subduction zone which is
located on the South of Java Island. The subduction of oceanic crust (Indo-Australia) beneath continent crust
(Eurasia) produces magma that ascends to the surface and forms a volcanic arc along Java Island. Volcanoes in Java
are dominantly composed by andesitic rock that is related with a stratovolcano - high terrain geothermal system.
One of geothermal systems associated with volcanic island of Java is the geothermal system in Baturraden located at
the foot of Mount Slamet. Geothermal systems in Baturraden has the potential 175 MW with an area of 24 660 ha.
In this geothermal systems, there are manifestations of geothermal energy in the form of hot springs and Shower
Seven and Shower Three. Making this paper aims to compare both the hot springs are based on geochemical data
and geotermometer fluid. Sampling for geochemical analysis is in the form of samples of water, soil, and rocks that
surround the area manifestations. While collecting data for analysis geothermometry derived from water temperature
and air temperature around the hot springs. We want to know hot fluid classification using Ternary diagram. Data
from the diagram is used to determine the level of maturity of the geothermal system and to determine reservoir
temperature and to recognize equilibrated waters suitable for geothermometry.
INTRODUCTION
Increase in Fuel (BBM) recently give a
significant impact on price changes in Indonesian
society living purposes. Based on this, renewable
energy should be improved exploration and
development. A fairly abundant renewable energy's
existence in Indonesia is geothermal. The existence
of geothermal manifestations in Indonesia covering
40% of the existence of geothermal energy in the
world. But in reality in Indonesia geothermal energy
utilization reached only 1.4% of all energy sources in
Indonesia. Seeing this, the exploration activities of
geothermal fields new ones need to be improved and
the development of which concern in earth heat field
that has been found. In the field of geothermal
exploration activities there are several methods that
can be used. One is the method of geochemical
sampling with the object is water, gas, and soil or
rock surrounding the geothermal manifestations.
According to other sources, Indonesia has
a total potential of geothermal resources and reserves
amounted to 27 189 MW (ie a potential of 14 244
MW, 9912 MW unexpected reserves, probably 728

MW and 2,305 MW proven) or approximately 40%


of potential world (Wahyuningsih, 2005). However
the new 807 MW of the total potential is utilized to
meet the electricity needs of Indonesia. Central Java
is an area that has lots of geothermal prospects
indicated by the presence of geothermal
manifestations on the surface, such as hot springs,
fumaroles, solfatara, steaming ground, and mud
pools. Geothermal potential of West Java and Banten
comparatively high, namely 1626 MW. Although in
Indonesia, only about 3% potential developed and
produce electrical energy as the primary energy
replacement of oil and gas. Geothermal field
developed to date is the Geothermal Field: Dieng,
Kamojang, Darajat, Wayang Windu and AwibengkokMount Salak. Another geothermal field that will be
developed include Geothermal Field: Patuha, Karaha
Bodas and Ungaran
One cause is not maximum utilization of
geothermal energy in Central Java is due to ignorance
about the geothermal system and pattern
hidrogeokimia geothermal fluid beneath the surface.

PROCEEDINGS, 4th ITB Geothermal Workshop 2015


Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia, March 16-20, 2015

Actually it can be learned by geothermal


manifestations on the surface, which is characteristic
of hot springs and hydrothermal alteration patterns in
the surface (Hochstein and Browne, 2000)
The research area can be reached by road
with two or four wheeled vehicle.The road to reach
this place is good although some bad road condition
in some location. The distance of study sites from
Purwokerto is about 25 Kilometers and can be
reached in about 1 and half hours. Survey research
sites was visited on January 2nd 2015.
The research location is located in
Pancuran 7 and pancuran 3 hot spring
tourism site,Baturraden,Central Java. . By
coordinates N 9191612 / S 303 291 and N 9191628 /
S 304203. The distance between the Pancuran 7 and
the Pancuran 3 approximately 300 m.

Figure 1. Research Location SRTM Map


This study is did to explain the
occurance of geothermal manifestations
such as hot springs as part of the
geothermal system that developed in the
study area. This study use the approach of
geochemistry of the geothermal water on
research
areas.
Geochemistry
of
geothermal water methods analyze the
comparison of major elements that be in
hot water to know the hot water type and,
if
possible,
it
can
estimates
the
temperatures of geothermal reservoir with
geotermometer method of elements that
dissolved in the hot water. And then data

result from laboratory analysis can also be


validated with ion balance method.
The analysis also did on the water
surface,in the writer case, the water is
occur on the pool which the water come
from the hot water spring around that
pool.. The study also looks at the
geological conditions that exist in the
study area to determine the dominant
factors that influence the occurance of the
hot springs manifestations.

REGIONAL GEOLOGY
Based
on
Geological
Map
Sheet
Purwokerto
and
Tegal,
and
Sheet
Majenang, Java, scale 1:100,000 (Djuri,
dkk., 1996 dan Kastowo, 1975), geological
map of the study area can be looked at
the map below.
Figure 2. Regional Geology Map of study
area (summarized from Djuri, M, dkk.,
1996).
Regional Stratigraphy
This research location is consist of some
rock formations from oldest to youngest
respectively, and are summarized as
follows:
Undifferentiated Volcanics Of Mt.
Slamet (Qvs)
This rock formation composed by
volcanic product of Slamet volcano

PROCEEDINGS, 4th ITB Geothermal Workshop 2015


Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia, March 16-20, 2015

such as volcanic breccia lava and tuf


on the slope of Slamet volcano and its
forming flat or hill area
Lava Of Mt. Slamet (Qvls)
This rock formation composed by
volcanic product of Slamet volcano in
the form of andesitic lava which has
porous characteristics.
Regional Structure
Geological structure at the site consisted
of: strike slip fault, normal fault, thrust
fault, and Syncline. Geological structures
mentioned above are generally hit rock
formations of Tertiary age, such as
rambatan
formation
(Tmr),
halang
formation (Tmph and Tmh), and tapak
formation (Tpt). Strike slip fault hit
sedimentary rock units of laharic deposits
and lava of Mount Slamet (Qva). Fracture
was indicated by alignment patterns of the
contours on the map. Fractures located on
the oldest rock units, namely rambatan
formation, until the youngest rock units,
namely Laharic Deposits of Gunung
Slamet (Qls).

RESULTS AND DISSCUSSION


Field study
From the field observations, we obtained a
two point location of hot springs and hot
pool that are close together. Observations
were also conducted on rocks that maybe
uncovered and cold water surface nearby
hot springs manifestations.

METHODS
In this research about geothermal
manifestasions we have a few methods.
The method can be seen in the next
explanation below.

Figure 3. Pancuran 7
(Hot springs)

Fault and Fracture Density (FFD)


analysis
To know about pathways for geothermal
fluids release in many manifestasions, we
can analyze about fracture and fault from
satellite data. Then we can make a
classification and assumption.
Heat loss analysis
To calculate the heat loss of Hot Pool and
Hot spring and classification each
manifestasion.
Water type analysis
Fluid in the manifestasions in this case is
water. Water analysis use major element
consisted in the manifestasion. Data will
plotted in ternary diagram, like Na-Mg-K,
Cl-Li-B, Cl-SO4-HCO3.

Figure 4. Pancuran 3
(Hot pool)
The results of field observations can be
seen in Table 1, Table 2, and Table 3 below.
Table 1. Location Data of Hot Pool (PNC
3) and Hot springs (PNC 7)

PROCEEDINGS, 4th ITB Geothermal Workshop 2015


Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia, March 16-20, 2015

Table 2. Field Description of Hot Pool (PNC


3) and Hot Springs (PNC 7)

Table 3. Data measurement of Hot Pool


(PNC3) and Hot Springs (PNC7)

Laboratory Analysis
Major
element
Laboratory
analyses
conducted on two water samples from hot
pool and hot springs, the PNC 3 and PNC 7..
This is done to get the concentration of the
main components that will be used for
further analysis and interpretation. The
results of the laboratory analysis can be
seen in Table 4 below.

Table 4. Laboratory data analysis of two hot


water
from two different hot springs (PNC 7 and
PNC 3)

Geological map and plane section

Figure 5. Regional Geology Map of study


area (summarized from Djuri, M, dkk.,
1996).

Figure 6. Plane section of Regional


Geology Map of study area (summarized
from Djuri, M, dkk., 1996 ).

PROCEEDINGS, 4th ITB Geothermal Workshop 2015


Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia, March 16-20, 2015

That pictures show a section from PNC 7


and PNC 3. Authors have assumption
which type of geothermal field is flat
terrain.

Figure 8. Anomaly structure map from FFD


data (Fajar et al, 2013)

Fault and Fracture Density Analysis


(FFD)
We analyze pathways for geothermal fluid
release from satellite image which
lineation data.

Figure 7. Fault and Fracture Map from


image lineation (Fajar et al, 2013)

Based on the research calculation of shear intensity


distribution using FFD method, on the Slamet Mt.
Region can be classified into 2 region of shear
intensity, that is high intensity (shear intensity 20-32),
which has yellow to red colour and low intensity
(shear intensity <19) which has green to blue colour.
Region with high intensity located around Guci
region, Brebes, Central Java. Region which has green
colour is non-anomali region . Region with high
value is being asociated with lava and pyroclastic
rock. The topografi shows the occurance of some
faults and fracture wich controling the deformation in
this area and Slamet Mt. crater controling the
deformation. Faults and fractures also slightly
controling the region around.
Based on the anomaly of shear intensity, region
which has red colour is the region which has anomaly
of shear intensity which show the implication on that
anomaly of shear intensity region has hot spring
water, the aplication which has already being use in
that anomaly region, one of them located in Guci and
being used as Geothermal Power Plant.
Water Types
The analysis for determination of water at the study
site is based on data laboratory analysis.
Classification of types of hot water geothermal
manifestation based on a comparison of the
composition of the ion Cl, SO4 and HCO3 , as shown
in table 5.
Table 5. Data Analysis Cl-SO4-HCO3

PROCEEDINGS, 4th ITB Geothermal Workshop 2015


Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia, March 16-20, 2015

Concentration ratio is used to create a triangular


diagram Cl, SO4 and HCO3 to know what kind of hot
water as shown in figure 9 below

Figure 10 : triangular diagram Na, K and Mg to


know what kind of geotermometer and water type

Figure 9 : triangular diagram Cl, SO4 and HCO3 to


know what kind of hot water
Based on the result of plotting the three major anion
Cl, SO4 and HCO3 as seen in figure 9 above can be
determined that the hot water pancuran 7 and
pancuran 3 at the sites classified as chloridebicarbonate water. Hot water is not reservoir water ,
but it is a hot water formed near the surface due to
the mixing of the reservoir water with groundwater or
surface water
The laboratory analysis data was also used to
calculate the ratio of the content of the components of
Na/1000-K/100- Mg, as shown in table 6 below
Table 6. Data Analysis Na-K-Mg

Based on the results of laboratory analysis of the data


plotting on a graph Na/1000-K/100- Mg, can be
seen that the hot water pancuran 7 and pancuran 3 is
an immature water. This is also in accordance with
the interpretation based on chart Cl, SO 4 and HCO3
that the hot water has been diluted or interacting with
groundwater or surface water, making it difficult to
determine the temperature of reservoir hot water
Cl, SO4 and HCO3 chart is used to determine the type
of water and the processes that occur in the near
surface. To know the process and characteristic that
exist beneath the surface we have used the elements
less reactive and not affected by the process that
occur on the surface. Some of these elements include
the Li, B, and Cl is known as a conservative element.
Based on laboratory analysis, we calculate the ratio
of the concentration of each Cl, Li, and B to the total
concentration of all three components. To avoid
differences in values between the three components
that are too large, then the normalization or scale
factor is also applied, so that the comparison to be LiCl/100-B/4, as shown in table 7 below
Table 7. Data Analysis Cl-Li-B

Based on the results of the calculations in table 6,


then made plotting proportion of each component of
the graph of Na/1000-K/100- Mg as seen in figure
10 below

The results of the above calculations are then placed


on the graph Li-Cl/100-B/4 according to the

PROCEEDINGS, 4th ITB Geothermal Workshop 2015


Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia, March 16-20, 2015

proportion of each component as shown in figure 11


below

Figure 11 below shows that relatively high Cl content


than Li and B indicated that a large contribution of
magmatic activity in pancuran 7 and pancuran 3 hot
water

We can get heat loss data from manifestasions in this


research area. PNC 7 is 14.742 Kw and PNC 3 is
41.16 Kw.
Geothermal system flow model

Heat Loss Analysis


Heat loss analysis can be used for overview about
geothermal potention and profit or effective for
develop. In this research area, we have two kind of
manifestasions, shown in text below.
1. First is PNC 7, this is a kind of hot spring
manifestasion. Formula shown below :
Figure 12 Simple geothermal system flow model
(Abdurrozak et al, 2015)

kg
kJ
0.13 1000
4.2
(5124 ) =14.742
Kw above shows us that the geothermal
Modeling
s
m3
kgK

2.

manifestations in the form Baturraden Shower


Shower 7 and 3 is the outflow zone. This is evident
Second manifestasion is PNC 3, this is a
from the analysis of the type of water, which is dilute
kind of hot pool manifestasion. Formula
Cl + HCO3. Characterize the type of water is far from
shown below :
heat sources and backed with a neutral pH value
which tends to further strengthen the assumption that
this is the outflow zone. Immature results show the
data retrieved water has been in contact with
kg
kJ
meteoric water, so the accuracy of the data is

0. 49 1000
4.2
( 4525 )=41.
16 Kw
reduced.
s
m3
kgK

PROCEEDINGS, 4th ITB Geothermal Workshop 2015


Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia, March 16-20, 2015

CONCLUSION
From all the data and analysis we can get a few
point :
1. Water type in PNC 7 and PNC 3 is dilute Cl
+ HCO3, this is can be strong data for get
assumption PNC 7 and PNC 3 is one
reservoir.
2. The all data shows immature water, we cant
get temperature for reservoir.
3. Origin of water and association shows
Absorption of low B/Cl Steam, indicated that
a large contribution of magmatic activity in
this geothermal system.
4. From data FFD, we can conclude that, many
pathways in geothermal system of Mt.
Slamet from fault and fracture around the
mountain.
5. Heat loss show energy from PNC 7 is
14.742 Kw and from PNC 3 is 41.16 Kw
6. From this manifestasion data is not enough
to conclude full of potention geothermal
system Mt. Slamet. We must have to more
explore a new maifestasion data. All data
can make a accurate data to develop this
geothermal system.
ATTACHMENT
1. Regional Geology Map of study area

REFERENCES
Djuri, M., Amin, T.C. dan Gafoer, S. (1996), Peta
Geologi Lembar Purwokerto dan Tegal, Skala
1: 100.000, Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan
Geologi, Bandung
Fajar and Rizal.2013. Identifikasi Prospek Panas
Bumi (Geothermal) Berdasarkan Fault and
Fracture DensityMap (FFD) dengan
Menggunakan Program SIG Surfer 9 Studi
kasus Gunung Slamet, Jawa Tengah. Jurnal
Geos UGM 2013
Iswahyudi, Sachrul. A. Widagdo, Subana, N. R.
Herdianita (2013), Outflow Zone Indication of
Geothermal System In Paguyangan Hotspring,
Brebes, Central Java, PROCEEDINGS, 2nd ITB
Geothermal Workshop 2013
Nicholson, K. (1993), Geothermal Fluids, Chemistry
and Exploration Techniques, Springer Verlag,
Berlin, 15.

PROCEEDINGS, 4th ITB Geothermal Workshop 2015


Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia, March 16-20, 2015

2. Fracture Map of Mt. Slamet

PROCEEDINGS, 4th ITB Geothermal Workshop 2015


Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia, March 16-20, 2015

3. Anomaly Structure Map of Mt.Slamet

PROCEEDINGS, 4th ITB Geothermal Workshop 2015


Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia, March 16-20, 2015

3. Model of Geothermal System in study area