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# Lateral-torsional buckling:

## bending about its major axis, failure may

occur by a form of buckling which
involves lateral deflection and twisting.

E I y

E I z

M cr

E I z G I t
L

E:
E:modulus
modulusof
ofelasticity
elasticity
IzI: :moment
momentof
ofinertia
minoraxis
axis
z

G:
G:shear
shearmodulus
modulusof
ofelasticity
elasticity
ItI: :torsion
torsionconstant
constant
t

E I z G I t
L

M cr

IwI : :Warping
Warpingconstant
constant
w

E I z G I t + E I w
2
L

M cr
Conditions
Conditionsto
todetermine
determineMMcrcr

## Perfectly elastic, initially straight, loaded by

equal and opposite end moments about its
major axis.
End Supports
Twisting and lateral deflection prevented.
Free to rotate both in the plane of the web
and on plan.
Unrestrained along its length

## Critical Buckling Moment for uniform

bending moment diagram is:

EI z
M cr =
2
L
2

I w L2 GI t
+ 2

I z EI z

Includes:
Lateral flexural stiffness EIz
Torsional and Warping stiffnesses GIt
and EIw
Their relative importance depends on the
type of cross-section used.

## The elastic critical moment for a beam

under uniform bending moment is:

EI w
M cr =
EI zGI t 1 + 2
L GI t
L
2

## The elastic critical moment (mid-span

moment) for a beam with a central

EI w
4.24
M cr =
EI zGI t 1 + 2
L GI t
L
2

## which is increased from the basic

(uniform moment) case by a factor
C1=4.24/=1.365

## EC3 expresses the elastic critical moment

M cr

EI z GI t
= C1
L

2 EI w
1+ 2
L GI t

C1 appears as
1/ C10.5 in expressions for LT.

Bending
Mmax
L
moment

1,00

1,879

2,752

M
-M

F
F
F F
= = = =

C1

FL/4 1,365
FL/8 1,132
FL/4 1,046

End
Endsupport
supportconditions
conditions

## Basic case assumes end conditions

which prevent lateral movement and
twist but permit rotation on plan.

## Can include the effect of different

support conditions by redefining the
unrestrained length as an effective
length
Lateral bending restraint:
k
Warping restraint:
kw

1.0
1.0

0.5
0.5

## EC3 recommends k values of

0.5 for fully fixed ends,
0.7 for one free and one fixed end
1.0 for two free ends.
1.0
1.0

0.5
0.5

destabilizing

## destabilizing increases with depth of

section and/or as span reduces

## Beams with intermediate lateral supports

the segments of the beam between
restraints may be treated in isolation

## Lengths of beams between restraints

should use an effective length factor
k of 1,0 not 0,7

## Design of the beam based on

the most critical segment

## beam continuous over a number of spans

--Treat as individual spans
--taking into account the shape of the
bending moment diagram within each span
--as a result of continuity using the C1
factor

2
CC11==1,88
1,881,40
1,40++0,52
0,522

=0,
C1=1,88
=1,
C1=2,927

## Non-dimensional plot permits results

from different test series to be
compared M
Mpl
1,0

Mcr
Mpl

Stocky Intermediate
0

1,0

Slender

LT = Mpl
Mcr

## stocky beams LT 0.4. Lateral torsional

buckling is not considered
slender beam LT 1.2. Resistance close
to Mcr.
affected by inelasticity and geometrical
imperfections

## EC3 uses a reduction factor LT on

plastic resistance moment to cover
the whole slenderness range
The design buckling resistance
moment Mb.Rd of a laterally
unrestrained beam is calculated as:

M b .Rd = LT wW pl . y f y / M 1
Class
Class11and
and22

Class
Class 33

ol

le

1,0

R
d
se
ct
io
ns

Reduction factor

LT

1,0
Slenderness

W pl.y

Class
Class 44

Welded beams
0

W el.y

2,0 LT

W eff.y
W pl.y

LT =
LT

LT + LT LT
2

2 0,5

2
= 0,51+ LT ( LT 0.2) + LT

## LT = 0,21 for rolled sections

LT = 0,49 for welded sections
The non-dimensional slenderness is calculated:
EITHER by

LT = M pl . Rd / M cr
=

w W pl . y f y / M cr

OR using

LT

LT 0.5
=
w
1

E
1 =
fy

0.5

LT = M pl. Rd / M cr
= w Wpl. y f y / M cr

E Wpl.Y
fy
=
2
w
E
M cr
2

LT

2 E Wpl.Y
M cr
E
fy
2

LT 0.5
=
w
1

E
1 =
fy
= 93.9

0.5

## A main girder is simply supported. At mid

span a side girder is connected by a
nominally pinned connection. Lateral
restraints are assumed at the supports. The
in the following figures.

## Main girder: IPE 500

Span: L = 7 m
Imposed load: q = 5.0 kN/m; P = 140 kN

1.35g + 1.5 ( q + P) or 1.35 (g + q +P)
Internal moment and forces

## MSd1 = (1.35g)L2/8 + (1.5q)L2/8 + (1.5P)L/4

= 1.35x3.0x72/8 + 1.5x5.0x72/8 + 1.5x140x7/4
= 438.2 kNm
MSd2 = (1.35g)L2/8 + (1.35q)L2/8 + (1.35P)L/4
= 1.35x3.0x72/8 + 1.35x5.0x72/8 + 1.35x140x7/4
= 396.9 kNm
MSd = max (MSd1, MSd2) = 438.2 kNm

## VSd1 = (1.35g)L/2 + (1.5q)L/2 + (1.5P)/2

= 1.35x3.0x7/2 + 1.5x5.0x7/2 + 1.5x140/2
= 145.4 kN
VSd2 = (1.35g)L/2 + (1.35q)L/2 + (1.35P)/2
= 1.35x3.0x7/2 + 1.35x5.0x7/2 + 1.35x140/2
= 132.3 kN
VSd = max (VSd1, VSd2) = 145.4 kN

Resistance at ULS
Classification of the cross-section
S275 fy = 275 N/mm2

= 235/275=0.92

## Flange: c/t = 100/16 = 6.3 < 10 = 9.2 Class 1

Web: d/t = 426/10.2 = 41.8 < 72 = 66.24 Class 1

## Shear resistance verification:

VRd = Av( fy/3)/M0
= (5.10x102x275/ 3/1.1)x10-3
= 736.1 kN > 145.4 kN OK!
At mid span:
0.5VRd = 0.5x736.1 = 368.1 kN > 105 kN
-- no interaction bending-shear is required

## d/t = 41.8 < 69 = 63.5

-- no shear buckling verification is required
Moment resistance verification:
Moment resistance for Class 1 or 2 cross-section
Mc.Rd = Wpl fy / M0
Wpl = 2194 x 103 mm3
Mc.Rd = 2194 x 103 x 275 / 1.1 = 548.5 kNm

## Critical bending moment for doubly symmetric

and transverse load applied on shear center

## kw = 1.0, k = 1.0, L = 3.5 m,

C1 either from Table F.1.1 C1 = 1.88

## or from C1 = 1.88-1.40 + 0.52 2

= 0 C1 = 1.88
2 210000 2140 104
M cr = 1.88

2
12
3.5 10
1249000 106 + 0.039 3.5 2 106 89.7 104
2140 104
= 1905.8 kNm

## Lateral torsional buckling verification

LT =
=

M pl . Rd / M cr

w W pl . y f y / M cr

## = 0.56 > 0.4

Lateral torsional buckling verification is required

M b .Rd = LT wW pl . y f y / M 1
Class
Class11and
and22

## LT = 0,21 for rolled sections

LT

2
= 0.5 1+ LT ( LT 0.2) + LT

2
= 0.5[1 + 0.21(0.56 - 0.2) + 0.56 ]
= 0.6946

LT =

LT + LT LT
= 0.9045
2

2 0, 5

M b . Rd = LT wW pl . y f y / M 1
= 0.9045 2194 10 275 / 1.1
= 496.1 kNm
3

## MRd = min (Mc.Rd, Mb.Rd) = min (548.5, 496.1)

= 496.1 kNm > 438.2 kNm

OK!

Serviceability verification
g + (q+P)