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Lateral-torsional buckling:

bending about its major axis, failure may


occur by a form of buckling which
involves lateral deflection and twisting.

E I y

E I z

M cr

E I z G I t
L

E:
E:modulus
modulusof
ofelasticity
elasticity
IzI: :moment
momentof
ofinertia
inertiaabout
aboutminor
minoraxis
axis
z

G:
G:shear
shearmodulus
modulusof
ofelasticity
elasticity
ItI: :torsion
torsionconstant
constant
t


E I z G I t
L

M cr

IwI : :Warping
Warpingconstant
constant
w

E I z G I t + E I w
2
L

M cr
Conditions
Conditionsto
todetermine
determineMMcrcr

Perfectly elastic, initially straight, loaded by


equal and opposite end moments about its
major axis.
End Supports
Twisting and lateral deflection prevented.
Free to rotate both in the plane of the web
and on plan.
Unrestrained along its length

Critical Buckling Moment for uniform


bending moment diagram is:

EI z
M cr =
2
L
2

I w L2 GI t
+ 2

I z EI z

Includes:
Lateral flexural stiffness EIz
Torsional and Warping stiffnesses GIt
and EIw
Their relative importance depends on the
type of cross-section used.

The elastic critical moment for a beam


under uniform bending moment is:

EI w
M cr =
EI zGI t 1 + 2
L GI t
L
2

The elastic critical moment (mid-span


moment) for a beam with a central
point load is

EI w
4.24
M cr =
EI zGI t 1 + 2
L GI t
L
2

which is increased from the basic


(uniform moment) case by a factor
C1=4.24/=1.365

EC3 expresses the elastic critical moment


Mcr for a particular loading case as:

M cr

EI z GI t
= C1
L

2 EI w
1+ 2
L GI t

C1 appears as
1/ C10.5 in expressions for LT.
Loads

Bending
Mmax
L
moment

1,00

1,879

2,752

M
-M

F
F
F F
= = = =

C1

FL/4 1,365
FL/8 1,132
FL/4 1,046

End
Endsupport
supportconditions
conditions

Basic case assumes end conditions


which prevent lateral movement and
twist but permit rotation on plan.

Can include the effect of different


support conditions by redefining the
unrestrained length as an effective
length
Lateral bending restraint:
k
Warping restraint:
kw

kw = 1.0 unless special provision for


warping fixing is made.
1.0
1.0

0.5
0.5

EC3 recommends k values of


0.5 for fully fixed ends,
0.7 for one free and one fixed end
1.0 for two free ends.
1.0
1.0

0.5
0.5

Loads applied to top flange are


destabilizing

destabilizing increases with depth of


section and/or as span reduces

Beams with intermediate lateral supports


the segments of the beam between
restraints may be treated in isolation

Lengths of beams between restraints


should use an effective length factor
k of 1,0 not 0,7

Design of the beam based on


the most critical segment

beam continuous over a number of spans


--Treat as individual spans
--taking into account the shape of the
bending moment diagram within each span
--as a result of continuity using the C1
factor

2
CC11==1,88
1,881,40
1,40++0,52
0,522

=0,
C1=1,88
=1,
C1=2,927

Non-dimensional plot permits results


from different test series to be
compared M
Mpl
1,0

Mcr
Mpl

Stocky Intermediate
0

1,0

Slender

LT = Mpl
Mcr

stocky beams LT 0.4. Lateral torsional


buckling is not considered
slender beam LT 1.2. Resistance close
to Mcr.
Intermediate slenderness: adversely
affected by inelasticity and geometrical
imperfections

EC3 uses a reduction factor LT on


plastic resistance moment to cover
the whole slenderness range
The design buckling resistance
moment Mb.Rd of a laterally
unrestrained beam is calculated as:

M b .Rd = LT wW pl . y f y / M 1
Class
Class11and
and22

Class
Class 33

ol

le

1,0

R
d
se
ct
io
ns

Reduction factor

LT

1,0
Slenderness

W pl.y

Class
Class 44

Welded beams
0

W el.y

2,0 LT

W eff.y
W pl.y

LT =
LT

LT + LT LT
2

2 0,5

2
= 0,51+ LT ( LT 0.2) + LT

LT = 0,21 for rolled sections


LT = 0,49 for welded sections
The non-dimensional slenderness is calculated:
EITHER by

LT = M pl . Rd / M cr
=

w W pl . y f y / M cr

OR using

LT

LT 0.5
=
w
1

E
1 =
fy

0.5

LT = M pl. Rd / M cr
= w Wpl. y f y / M cr

E Wpl.Y
fy
=
2
w
E
M cr
2

LT

2 E Wpl.Y
M cr
E
fy
2

LT 0.5
=
w
1

E
1 =
fy
= 93.9

0.5

A main girder is simply supported. At mid


span a side girder is connected by a
nominally pinned connection. Lateral
restraints are assumed at the supports. The
structural details and the loading are given
in the following figures.

Main girder: IPE 500


Steel grade S275
Span: L = 7 m
Dead load: g = 3.0 kN/m
Imposed load: q = 5.0 kN/m; P = 140 kN

Load combination:
1.35g + 1.5 ( q + P) or 1.35 (g + q +P)
Internal moment and forces

MSd1 = (1.35g)L2/8 + (1.5q)L2/8 + (1.5P)L/4


= 1.35x3.0x72/8 + 1.5x5.0x72/8 + 1.5x140x7/4
= 438.2 kNm
MSd2 = (1.35g)L2/8 + (1.35q)L2/8 + (1.35P)L/4
= 1.35x3.0x72/8 + 1.35x5.0x72/8 + 1.35x140x7/4
= 396.9 kNm
MSd = max (MSd1, MSd2) = 438.2 kNm

VSd1 = (1.35g)L/2 + (1.5q)L/2 + (1.5P)/2


= 1.35x3.0x7/2 + 1.5x5.0x7/2 + 1.5x140/2
= 145.4 kN
VSd2 = (1.35g)L/2 + (1.35q)L/2 + (1.35P)/2
= 1.35x3.0x7/2 + 1.35x5.0x7/2 + 1.35x140/2
= 132.3 kN
VSd = max (VSd1, VSd2) = 145.4 kN

Resistance at ULS
Classification of the cross-section
S275 fy = 275 N/mm2

= 235/275=0.92

Flange: c/t = 100/16 = 6.3 < 10 = 9.2 Class 1


Web: d/t = 426/10.2 = 41.8 < 72 = 66.24 Class 1

Shear resistance verification:


VRd = Av( fy/3)/M0
= (5.10x102x275/ 3/1.1)x10-3
= 736.1 kN > 145.4 kN OK!
At mid span:
0.5VRd = 0.5x736.1 = 368.1 kN > 105 kN
-- no interaction bending-shear is required

d/t = 41.8 < 69 = 63.5


-- no shear buckling verification is required
Moment resistance verification:
Moment resistance for Class 1 or 2 cross-section
Mc.Rd = Wpl fy / M0
Wpl = 2194 x 103 mm3
Mc.Rd = 2194 x 103 x 275 / 1.1 = 548.5 kNm

Critical bending moment for doubly symmetric


and transverse load applied on shear center

kw = 1.0, k = 1.0, L = 3.5 m,


C1 either from Table F.1.1 C1 = 1.88

or from C1 = 1.88-1.40 + 0.52 2


= 0 C1 = 1.88
2 210000 2140 104
M cr = 1.88

2
12
3.5 10
1249000 106 + 0.039 3.5 2 106 89.7 104
2140 104
= 1905.8 kNm

Lateral torsional buckling verification

LT =
=

M pl . Rd / M cr

w W pl . y f y / M cr

= 0.56 > 0.4


Lateral torsional buckling verification is required

M b .Rd = LT wW pl . y f y / M 1
Class
Class11and
and22

LT = 0,21 for rolled sections

LT

2
= 0.5 1+ LT ( LT 0.2) + LT

2
= 0.5[1 + 0.21(0.56 - 0.2) + 0.56 ]
= 0.6946

LT =

LT + LT LT
= 0.9045
2

2 0, 5

M b . Rd = LT wW pl . y f y / M 1
= 0.9045 2194 10 275 / 1.1
= 496.1 kNm
3

MRd = min (Mc.Rd, Mb.Rd) = min (548.5, 496.1)


= 496.1 kNm > 438.2 kNm

OK!

Serviceability verification
Load combination for serviceability
g + (q+P)
Deflection due to dead load
1 = (5/384) (gL4)/(EIy)
= (5/384)(3 x 74x1012)(210000x48200x104)
= 0.93 mm
Deflection due to imposed load
2 = (5/384) (qL4)/(EIy)+(1/48)(PL3)/(EIy)
= (5/384)(5 x 74x1012)(210000x48200x104)
+(1/48)(140x73x1012) (210000x48200x104)
= 11.4 mm = l / 614 < l / 300
Maximum deflection
max = 11.4 + 0.93 = 12.33 mm
= l / 570 < l / 250

OK!