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Pengendalian Proses Kimia

Bab 1

Bambang Heru Susanto

Pendahuluan

Departemen Teknik Kimia


FTUI

Pertanyaan

Proses dalam kehidupan


--Susah untuk di kontrol

Operasi pemrosesan didalam industri kimia dan


bio
---Kita dapat kontrol

Setelah lulus
Apa yang menjadi rencana anda selanjutnya?
Dimana anda akan melihat diri anda sendiri
dalam 10 tahun kedepan?

Desain Proses v.s. Kontrol Proses

Tujuan Perkuliahan

Desain proses: estimasi ongkos kapital dan


operasi; memperkenalkan desain dan
strateginya.
Mempertimbangkan dinamika proses dan
isu pengendalian sejak awal desain proses.

Disain
Pembelajaran
Mata Ajar
Sebelumnya

SIMULASI
(LAB. MAYA)

VIDEO

Memperoleh dan menganalisa data dari proses dinamik.

Membuat/mengembangkan model mekanistik dan empiris (data-based)


untuk proses tertentu. Termasuk aplikasi dari persamaan kekekalan masaenergi untuk kondisi un-steady state.

Desain sistem kontrol menggunakan teknik feedback, feedforward, dll.

Evaluasi stabilitas dan karakteristik lainnya yang berhubungan dengan


pengendalian proses.

Pengendalian proses bio (ini baru nih !)

Pengertian Dasar dan Keahlian yang


Berhubungan dengan Industri

Filosofi Pengendalian Proses


SAP

Pemodelan Dinamik
(Mekanistik)

Analisis Perilaku
Model Dinamik
Pengendalian Proses

Mata Ajar
Sedang Berjalan
Metode
WILMO
Lecture
Notes

Pemodelan Empirik
Pengendalian Proses
MODUL
INTERAKTIF
Penyetelen
Kontroler

Analisis
Stabilitas

Pengertian Dasar

Laplace transforms dan transfer functions


Block Diagram
Perilaku sistem dinamik
Analisis Frequency response

Berkaitan dengan Industri

Peralatan kontrol (Control hardware) dan troubleshooting


Implementasi Pengendali dan tuning
Sistem Kontrol
Teknik PID
Pengendalian MIMO

Next

Makalah (Kelompok 3 orang)

Penilaian :
Penilaian :

UTS
UAS
Kuis
PR
Makalah
Absensi
Total

25 %
25%
20 %
10 %
20 %
5%
105 %

Topik (bisa beragam sesuai keinginan)


Ajukan pada pertemuan tanggal 6 September 2010

Sistem kontrol didalam metabolisme selular (misal.


feedback control)
Permasalahan pengendalian pada industri bio tertentu
Perbandingan anatara beberapa metode penyesuaian
(tuning) pengendali
Modeling/Simulasi/Software
Reaktor didalam lab/novel (kontrol pH, Temp, oxigen,
dll): terutama untuk micro-bioreactor
Remediasi dan kontrol polusi
Biologi sintetis untuk industri bahan bakar

Baca artikel-artikel di jurnal (misal Journal of Process Control) ataupun


sumber lainnya yang berkaitan dengan kasus pengendalian pada industri
kimia (5 tahun terakhir).
Jadikan dalam makalah 8 -10 halaman ( 1.5 spasi)
Dikumpulkan dan Dipresentasikan (10 menit per kelompok) pada Jumat 15
Oktober 2010
Outline: Judul, Pendahuluan, Tujuan, Studi literatur (review), Diskusi,
Perhitungan, Kesimpulan, Daftar pustaka.

Karir di bidang Kontrol Proses


Memerlukan engineer yang mampu menerapkan semua
pelatihan rekayasa kimia dan bio  process engineer
Dapat menjadi seorang engineer Top Gun
Memberikan peluang engineer untuk berkarya dalam suatu
projek yang menghasilkan penghematan yang signifikan
pada suatu perusahaan
Menyediakan mobilitas profesional. Masih sangat kurang
engineer berpengalaman yang memahami kontrol proses
Gaji yang baik dan menjajikan (terutama di luar
negeri/negara maju)

Tugas Control Engineer


Tuning pengendali untuk
mempertahankan/meningkatakan unjuk
kerja dan kehandalan
Menselksi model kontrol yang sesuai
Memecahkan permasalahan pengendalian
proses dan mendokumnetasikan
perubahannya.

Perbedaan CPI dan Proses Bio


Proses bio kebanyakan tidak kontinyu
Sistem bio mempertahankan kondisi steril selama proses
berlangsung
Daerah stagnan harus dikurangi dalam sistem bio untuk
mencapai kemampuan membersihakan, steril dan
mempertahankan lingkungan yang seragam untuk
mikroorganisme
Proses bio yang berkaitan dengan produk yang dikonsumsi
manusia harus mendapatkan izin dari BPOM
Kebanyakan siste bio memiliki unit prouski yang lebih
kecil dari proses pad CPI
Pemisahan bio berbeda dengan pemisahan pada CPI

Industri Proses Kimia (CPI)

Bahan bakar hidrokarbon


Produk-produk kimia
Produk pulp dan kertas
Agrokimia
Man-made fibers

Industri Proses-Bio
Menggunakan micro-organisms untuk menghasilkan
produk yang bermanfaat
Industri farmasi
Etanol dari industri gandum/jagung/ketela

Pentingnya Kontrol Proses untuk CPI


dan Proses-Bio
KP secara langsung mempengaruhi
keselamatan dan kehandalan dari sebuah
proses
KP menentukan kualitas produk yang
dihasilkan oleh suatu proses.
KP dapat mempengaruhi efesiensi sebuah
proses.
Bottom Line: KP memiliki dampak utama
terhadap keuntungan sebuah perusahaan.

Tujuh (7) Obyektif Pengendalian

Keamanan dan Kehandalan


Sistem kontrol harus menyediakan proses
operasi yang aman
Alarm, safety constraint control, start-up dan
shutdown.

Sistem kontrol harus dapat meng-absorb


berbagai gangguan dan menjaga proses
tetap dala rentang operasi yang baik. :
Gangguan badai, perubahan komposisi umpan,
kekurangan secara berkala utilitas (suplai
steam), variasi operasi siang-malam dalam
kondisi ambient

1. Kesalamatan (safety)
2. Proteksi lingkungan
3. Proteksi peralatan
4. Operasi yang lancar
5. Kualitas produk
6. Profit
7. Memonitor dan mendiagnosis

Tujuh Obyektif Pengendalian


CONTOH PROSES: FLASH SEPARATION
Mari kita diskusikan
proses ini

Beri contoh
1. Kesalamatan (safety)

T6

Vapor
product

P1

2. Proteksi lingkungan

T6

P1

3. Proteksi peralatan

Vapor
product

4. Operasi yang lancar


5. Kualitas produk

Feed
Methane
Ethane (LK)
Propane
Butane
Pentane

T1

T5

6. Profit

T 298 K
7. Memonitor dan mendiagnosis
F1

F4

T1

T2

F1

T4

P 1000 kPa

T2

T3

Feed

Process
fluid

F3
A1

Process fluid

T3

L1

L1

F2

F2

T5

Steam

L. Key

19

F3

Steam

A1
L. Key

Liquid
product

Liquid
product
20

Tujuh Obyektif Pengendalian


Tekanan tinggi
di dalam drum
adalah bahaya

1. Kesalamatan (safety)
2. Proteksi lingkungan

Beri contoh

1. Kesalamatan (safety)

T6

PC

3. Proteksi peralatan

Vapor
product

4. Operasi yang lancar

2. Proteksi lingkungan

T6

P1

3. Proteksi peralatan

Vapor
product

4. Operasi yang lancar

T1

5. Kualitas produk

T5

T2

5. Kualitas produk

Feed

6. Profit

Tujuh Obyektif Pengendalian

F1

7. Memonitor dan mendiagnosis

T4

F2

T3

7. Memonitor dan mendiagnosis

L1

F3

Process
fluid

T1

T2

F1

T4

F2
A1

Steam

L. Key

T5

Feed

6. Profit

Liquid
product

L1

F3

Process
fluid

21

T3

A1

Steam

L. Key

Liquid
product

22

Tujuh Obyektif Pengendalian

Tujuh Obyektif Pengendalian


To flare
1. Kesalamatan (safety)

Tidak pernah
melepas hidrokarbon
ke atmosfir

2. Proteksi lingkungan

T6

P1

3. Proteksi peralatan

Vapor
product

4. Operasi yang lancar

7. Memonitor dan mendiagnosis

2. Proteksi lingkungan

T6

P1

3. Proteksi peralatan

Vapor
product

4. Operasi yang lancar

T1

5. Kualitas produk
6. Profit

Beri contoh

1. Kesalamatan (safety)

T5

T2

5. Kualitas produk

Feed

6. Profit

F1

T4

F2

Process
fluid

T3

7. Memonitor dan mendiagnosis

L1

F3

Steam

T2

F1

T4

Liquid
product

T5

Feed

F2
A1
L. Key

23

T1

Process
fluid

T3

L1

F3

Steam

A1
L. Key

Liquid
product

24

Tujuh Obyektif Pengendalian

Tujuh Obyektif Pengendalian


1. Kesalamatan (safety)

Tidak ada aliran


yang dapat
merusak pompa

2. Proteksi lingkungan

T6

P1

3. Proteksi peralatan

Vapor
product

4. Operasi yang lancar

2. Proteksi lingkungan

T6

T5

T2

5. Kualitas produk

Feed
T4

F2

T3

7. Memonitor dan mendiagnosis

LC

F3

Process
fluid

T1

T2

F1

T4

F2
A1

Steam

L. Key

Liquid
product

Selalu menjaga
kelancaran laju
produksi

2. Proteksi lingkungan

T3

L1

A1

Steam

L. Key

Liquid
product

26

Tujuh Obyektif Pengendalian


1. Kesalamatan (safety)

T5

F3

Process
fluid

25

Tujuh Obyektif Pengendalian


Beri contoh

1. Kesalamatan (safety)

T6

Vapor
product

P1

3. Proteksi peralatan

2. Proteksi lingkungan

T6

3. Proteksi peralatan

P1

Vapor
product

4. Operasi yang lancar

4. Operasi yang lancar


T1

5. Kualitas produk

7. Memonitor dan mendiagnosis

Vapor
product

Feed

6. Profit
F1

7. Memonitor dan mendiagnosis

6. Profit

P1

3. Proteksi peralatan
4. Operasi yang lancar

T1

5. Kualitas produk
6. Profit

Beri contohnya

1. Kesalamatan (safety)

T5

T2

5. Kualitas produk
6. Profit

Feed
FC

T4

F2

Process
fluid

T3

7. Memonitor dan mendiagnosis

L1

F3

Steam

T2

F1

T4

Liquid
product

T5

Feed

F2
A1
L. Key

27

T1

Process
fluid

T3

L1

F3

Steam

A1
L. Key

Liquid
product

28

Tujuh Obyektif Pengendalian

Tujuh Obyektif Pengendalian


Mencapai L.Key
dengan menyesuaikan
pemanasan

1. Kesalamatan (safety)
2. Proteksi lingkungan

T6

Vapor
product

P1

3. Proteksi peralatan

2. Proteksi lingkungan

T6

T1

5. Kualitas produk

T5

T2

5. Kualitas produk

Feed
F1

T4

F2

T3

7. Memonitor dan mendiagnosis

L1

F3

Process
fluid

T1

T2

F1

T4

F2
AC

Steam

L. Key

Liquid
product

Gunakan
pemanasan
semurah mungkin

2. Proteksi lingkungan

T3

L1

A1

Steam

L. Key

Liquid
product

30

Tujuh Obyektif Pengendalian

Tujuh Obyektif Pengendalian


1. Kesalamatan (safety)

T5

F3

Process
fluid

29

Beri contoh

1. Kesalamatan (safety)

T6

Vapor
product

P1

3. Proteksi peralatan
4. Operasi yang lancar

2. Proteksi lingkungan

T6

P1

3. Proteksi peralatan

Vapor
product

4. Operasi yang lancar


T1

5. Kualitas produk

7. Memonitor dan mendiagnosis

Vapor
product

Feed

6. Profit

7. Memonitor dan mendiagnosis

6. Profit

P1

3. Proteksi peralatan
4. Operasi yang lancar

4. Operasi yang lancar

6. Profit

Beri contoh

1. Kesalamatan (safety)

T5

T2

5. Kualitas produk

Feed

6. Profit
F1

T4

F2

Process
fluid

T3

7. Memonitor dan mendiagnosis

L1

F3

Steam

T2

F1

T4

Liquid
product

T5

Feed

F2
AC
L. Key

31

T1

Process
fluid

T3

L1

F3

Steam

A1
L. Key

Liquid
product

32

Tujuh Obyektif Pengendalian


Hitung dan plot
parameter kunci,
misal, UA.
T6

1. Kesalamatan (safety)
2. Proteksi lingkungan

Tujuh Obyektif Pengendalian


Ketujuh-tujuhnya harus dicapai. Gagal untuk
melakukan yang demikian akan
berakibat operasi yang tidak menguntungkan
atau lebih buruk lagi, tidak selamat.

1. Kesalamatan (safety)

P1

3. Proteksi peralatan

Vapor
product

4. Operasi yang lancar

2. Proteksi lingkungan
3. Proteksi peralatan
4. Operasi yang lancar

T1

5. Kualitas produk

T5

T2

5. Kualitas produk

Feed

6. Profit
7. Memonitor dan mendiagnosis

F1

T4

F2

T3

P1

Steam

T1

T2

F1

T4

T5

Feed
A1
L. Key

33

T3

Liquid
product
F2

UA
waktu

Process
fluid

L1

F3

Steam
34

A1
L. Key

Liquid
product

Komponen Sistem

Sistem Kontrol
Contoh: stirred tank heater
Set-point
To, Fo, Xo
Controller

Tc

Vapor
product

7. Memonitor dan mendiagnosis

L1

F3

Process
fluid

Thermocouple

T6

6. Profit

X, F, T

Operator dials in a setpoint (desired


temperature)
Thermocouple measures
temperature in tank
Measured temperature is
compared to set-point
Controller manipulates
steam valve based on
difference between setpoint and measurement

Set-point
To, Fo, Xo
Controller

Tc

X, F, T

Thermocouple

System components

Control Systems
Example: stirred tank heater
Thermocouple
To, Fo, Xo
Controller

Tc

X, F, T

General representation of a control problem

Operator develops
model of system
Thermocouple
measures temperature
in inlet stream
Measured temperature
is input to process
model
Controller manipulates
steam valve based on
model prediction

Thermocouple
To, Fo, Xo
Controller

Tc

X, F, T

Driving a Car: An Everyday Example of Process


Control
Control Objective (Setpoint):
Maintain car in proper lane

Controlled variable:

Disturbance
variables

Location on the road

Manipulated variable:
Orientation of the front wheels

Actuator:
Drivers steering wheel

Process
Manipulated
variables

Sensor:
Drivers eyes

Controlled
variables

Controller:
Driver

Disturbance:
Curve in road

10

Schematic of Feedback Loop


Car example

Schematic of Feedback Loop


General diagram
Error

Manipulated
variable
Controlled
variable

Curve in road
Where the
driver
+
wants to go

Steering
wheel

Drivers
brain

Driving
a car

Current
location on
road

Setpoint

e
+

Disturbance

c
Controller

u
Actuator

Process
Controlled
Variable

Drivers
eyes

Signal from
eyes to
brain

Sensor

ISA standard (Instrument Society of America)

Heat Exchanger Control:


ChE Control Example
Product
Stream

TC

TT

The first letter defines the measured or initiating variables:


Analysis (A), Flow (F), Temperature (T), Level (L), Pressure (P), Quantity (Q),
Weight/Force (W).

Steam

Succeeding letters define readout, passive, or output functions:


Alarm (A), Control (C), Indicator (I), Record (R), Transmit (T), Actuator/Driver
(Z)
Pneumatic signal (solid line) and electronic signal (dash line)

Example:
Sensor-Transmitter (AT); Feedback control
(AC); Current-to-pressure transducer (I/P)

Feed
Condensate

11

Heat Exchanger Control


Controlled variable
Outlet temperature of
product stream

Manipulated variable
Steam flow

Actuator
Control valve on steam
line

Sensor
Thermocouple on product
stream

Disturbance

Selection of controlled, manipulated, and


measured variables
Controlled variables
Control non-self-regulating variables
(unbounded response)
Within equipment and operating constraints
Direct measurable/interact with other controlled
variables
Favorable dynamic characteristics (no long
time delays)

Changes in the inlet feed


temperature

Keuntungan dari Peningkatan


Sistem Kontrol
Old Controller

Large effect on controlled variable


Rapid and direct effect
Avoid recycling of disturbances

Measured variables

Impurity
Concentration

Manipulated variables

Limit

Time

New Controller
Impurity
Concentration

Selection of controlled, manipulated, and


measured variables

Limit

Time

Reliable and accurate


Sensitive (avoid dead zone and time delays,
e.g., dead zone in batch)

12

Kotrol Yang Lebih Baik Berarti Memperbaiki


Produk dengan Mengurangi Variabilitas

Keuntungan dari Peningkatan


Sistem Kontrol
New Controller
Impurity
Concentration

Limit

Time

Limit

Time

Improved Performance
Impurity
Concentration

Untuk beberapa kasus, mengurangi


variabilitas produk adalah merupakan
tuntutan dan memiliki nilai tambah tinggi
(contoh bahan baku untuk polimer)
Prosedur sertifikasi produk (yaitu ISO
9000) digunakan untuk menjamin kualitas
produk dan menempatkan banyak
penekanan pada kontrol proses.

Impurity
Concentration

Old Controller

Limit

Time

Maximizing the Profit of a Plant


Many times involves controlling against
constraints.
The closer that you are able to operate to
these constraints, the more profit you can
make. For example, maximizing the
product production rate usually involving
controlling the process against one or more
process constraints.

Constraint Control Example


Consider a reactor temperature control
example for which at excessively high
temperatures the reactor will experience a
temperature runaway and explode.
But the higher the temperature the greater
the product yield.
Therefore, better reactor temperature
control allows safe operation at a higher
reactor temperature and thus more profit.

13

Importance of Process Control for the


Bio-Process Industries
Improved product quality.
Faster and less expensive process validation.
Increased production rates.

Logic Flow Diagram for a


Feedback Control Loop

Driving a Car: An Everyday


Example of Process Control
Control Objective (Setpoint): Maintain car in
proper lane.
Controlled variable- Location on the road
Manipulated variable- Orientation of the front
wheels
Actuator- Drivers arms/steering wheel
Sensor- Drivers eyes
Controller- Driver
Disturbance- Curve in road

Temperature Control for a Heat


Exchanger: ChE Control Example

14

Heat Exchanger Control

DO Control in a Bio-Reactor

Controlled variable- Outlet temperature of


product stream
Manipulated variable- Steam flow
Actuator- Control valve on steam line
Sensor- Thermocouple on product stream
Disturbance- Changes in the inlet feed
temperature

DO Control
Controlled variable- the measured dissolved
O2 concentration
Manipulated variable- air flow rate to the
bio-reactor
Actuator- variable speed air compressor
Sensor- ion-specific electrode in contact
with the broth in the bio-reactor
Disturbance- Changes in the metabolism of
the microorganisms in the bio-reactor

Logic Flow Diagram for a


Feedback Control Loop

15

Comparison of Driving a Car and


Control of a Heat Exchanger
Actuator: Drivers arm and steering wheel
vs. Control valve
Controller: the driver vs. an electronic
controller
Sensor: the drivers eyes vs. thermocouple
Controlled variable: cars position on the
road vs. temperature of outlet stream

The key feature of all feedback control


loops is that the measured value of the
controlled variable is compared with
the setpoint and this difference is used
to determine the control action taken.

Types of Feedback Controllers


In-Class Exercise
Consider a person skiing down a mountain.
Identify the controller, the actuator, the
process, the sensor and the controlled
variable. Also, indicate the setpoint and
potential disturbances. Remember that the
process is affected by the actuator to change
the value of the controlled variable.

On-Off Control- e.g., room thermostat


Manual Control- Used by operators and based on
more or less open loop responses
PID control- Most commonly used controller.
Control action based on error from setpoint
(Chaps 6-8).
Advanced PID- Enhancements of PID: ratio,
cascade, feedforward (Chaps 9-11).
Model-based Control- Uses model of the process
directly for control (Chap 13).

16

Duties of a Control Engineer

Characteristics of Effective
Process Control Engineers

Tuning controllers for performance and


reliability (Chap 7)
Selecting the proper PID mode and/or
advanced PID options (Chap 6, 10-12)
Control loop troubleshooting (Chap 2 & 8)
Multi-unit controller design (Chap 14)
Documentation of process control changes

Use their knowledge of the process to guide


their process control applications. They are
process control engineers.
Have a fundamentally sound picture of
process dynamics and feedback control.
Work effectively with the operators.

Operator Acceptance

Process Control and


Optimization

A good relationship with the operators is a


NECESSARY condition for the success of a
control engineer.
Build a relationship with the operators
based on mutual respect.
Operators are a valuable source of plant
experience.
A successful control project should make
the operators job easier, not harder.

Control and optimization are terms that are


many times erroneously interchanged.
Control has to do with adjusting flow rates
to maintain the controlled variables of the
process at specified setpoints.
Optimization chooses the values for key
setpoints such that the process operates at
the best economic conditions.

17

Optimization Example

Optimization and Control of a CSTR

ABC
Mole balance on A :
Q C A0 Q C A k1 exp[ E1 / RT ] C A Vr
Solving for C A
C A0
k1 exp[ E1 / RT ]Vr
1+
Q
Likewise, C B and CC are calculated from mole

CA =

balances.

Economic Objective Function


= Q C A V A + Q C B VB + Q CC VC Q C A0 V AF

VB > VC, VA, or VAF


At low T, little formation of B
At high T, too much of B reacts to form C
Therefore, the exits an optimum reactor
temperature, T*

Optimization Algorithm
1. Select initial guess for reactor
temperature
2. Evaluate CA, CB, and CC
3. Evaluate
4. Choose new reactor temperature and
return to 2 until T* identified.

18

Graphical Solution of Optimum


Reactor Temperature, T*
Economic Objective
Function,

2
1.5
1
T*

0.5
0
250
-0.5

275

300

325

350

Reactor Temperature (K)

Generalized Optimization
Procedure
Aumerical
Optimization
Algorithm

Initial Estimate
of Optimization
Variables
Optimization
Variables

Process
Model

Model
Results

Process Optimization
Typical optimization objective function, :
= Product values-Feed costs-Utility costs
The steady-state solution of process models
is usually used to determine process
operating conditions which yields flow rates
of products, feed, and utilities.
Unit costs of feed and sale price of products
are combined with flows to yield
Optimization variables are adjusted until
is maximized (optimization solution).

Optimization and Control of a CSTR

Optimum
Operating
Conditions

Economic
Function
Value
Economic
Function
Evaluation

Economic
Parameters

19

In-Class Exercise
Identify an example for which you use
optimization in your everyday life. List the
degrees of freedom (the things that you are
free to choose) and clearly define the
process and how you determine the
objective function.

Fundamental Understanding and


Industrially Relevant Skills
Fundamental Understanding Laplace tranforms and transfer functions (Ch 4-5)
Idealized dynamic behavior (Ch 6)
Frequency response analysis (Ch 11)

Industrially Relevant Skills

Control hardware and troubleshooting (Ch 2&10)


Controller Implementation and tuning (Ch 7-9)
Advanced PID techniques (Ch 12-14)
MIMO control (Ch 15-18)

Overview of Course Material


Control loop hardware (Chap 2)
Dynamic modeling (Chap 3)
Transfer functions and idealized dynamic
behavior (Chap 4-6)
PID controls (Chap 7-10)
Advanced PID controls (Chap 12-14)
Control of MIMO processes (Chap 15-18)

Process Control Terminology


Important to be able to communicate with
operators, peers, and boss.
New terminology appears in bold in the text
New terminology is summarized at the end
of each chapter.
Review the terminology regularly in order
to keep up with it.

20

Overall Course Objectives

Overview

Develop the skills necessary to function as


an industrial process control engineer.

All feedback control loops have a


controller, an actuator, a process, and a
sensor where the controller chooses control
action based upon the error from setpoint.
Control has to do with adjusting flow rates
to maintain controlled variables at their
setpoints while for optimization the
setpoints for certain controllers are adjusted
to optimize the economic performance of
the plant.

Skills

Tuning loops
Control loop design
Control loop troubleshooting
Command of the terminology

Fundamental understanding
Process dynamics
Feedback control

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