1 Suka0 Tidak suka

830 tayangan11 halamanThis ASTM Standard is about the practice of SG, CV and compressibility calculations.

Oct 11, 2015

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT atau baca online dari Scribd

This ASTM Standard is about the practice of SG, CV and compressibility calculations.

© All Rights Reserved

830 tayangan

This ASTM Standard is about the practice of SG, CV and compressibility calculations.

© All Rights Reserved

- FLOCALC Calc Details
- ISO 6976
- AGA 8.pdf
- BS en ISO 6976-2016 Natural Gas - Calculation of Calorific Values, Density, Relative Density and Wobbe Index From Composition
- Calculation Software
- Astm d1142
- Normas ASTM D-3588
- GPA-2261
- GPA 2166 86 Sampling Gas
- ASTM D 5454 11 Humedad Con Analizador
- ASTM D6560 Asfaltenos
- ASTM-D4468
- AGA-8 - Compressibility Factors of Natural Gas
- Petroleum Standards ASTM (2016).pdf
- GPA 2286 Method
- Astm d1945
- UOP 212-05 - Hydrogen Sulfide, Mercaptan Sulfur, and Carbonyl Sulfide in Hydrocarbon Gases by Po.pdf
- ISO 6974
- ASTM D1945 - Standard Test Method for Analysis of Natural Gas by Gas Chromatography
- GPA 2145-09

Anda di halaman 1dari 11

By the Authority Vested By Part 5 of the United States Code 552(a) and

Part 1 of the Code of Regulations 51 the attached document has been duly

INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE and shall be considered legally

binding upon all citizens and residents of the United States of America.

HEED THIS NOTICE: Criminal penalties may apply for noncompliance.

e

Document Name: ASTM D3588: Standard Practice for Calculating Heat

CFR Section(s):

Standards Body:

(Specific Gravity) of Gaseous Fuels

40 CFR 75, Appendix F

American Society for Testing and Materials

Official Incorporator:

THE EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR

WASHINGTON, D.C.

~~l~

Designation: D 3588 - 98

Density of Gaseous Fuels 1

This standard is issued under the fixed designation D 3588; the nwnber immediately following the designation indicates the year of

original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A nwnber in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A

superscript epsilon (E) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

Mass Spectrometry6

2.2 GPA Standards:

GPA 2145 Physical Constants for the Paraffin Hydrocarbons

and Other Components in Natural Gas 7

GPA Standard 2166 Methods of Obtaining Natural Gas

Samples for Analysis by Gas Chromatography7

GPA 2172 Calculation of Gross Heating Value, Relative

Density, and Compressibility Factor for Natural Gas

Mixtures from Compositional Analysis7 ,g

GPA Standard 2261 Method of Analysis for Natural Gas and

Similar Gaseous Mixtures by Gas Chromatography7

GPA Technical Publication TP-17 Table of Physical Properties of Hydrocarbons for Extended Analysis of Natural

Gases7

GPSA Data Book, Fig. 23-2, Physical Constants7

2.3 TRC Document:

TRC Thermodynamic Tables-Hydrocarbons9

2.4 ANSI Standard:

ANSI Z 132.1-1969: Base Conditions of Pressure and

Temperature for the Volumetric Measurement of Natural

GaslO,ll

1. Scope

value, relative density, and compressibility factor at base

conditions (14.696 psia and 60F (15.6C) for natural gas

mixtures from compositional analysis. 2 It applies to all common types of utility gaseous fuels, for example, dry natural gas,

reformed gas, oil gas (both high and low Btu), propane-air,

carbureted water gas, coke oven gas, and retort coal gas, for

which suitable methods of analysis as described in Section 6

are available. Calculation procedures for other base conditions

are given.

1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded

as the standard. The SI units given in parentheses are for

information only.

1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the

safety concerns, if any, associated with its lise. It is the

responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

2. Referenced Documents

2.1 ASTM Standards:

D 1717 Methods for Analysis of Commercial ButaneButene Mixtures and Isobutylene by Gas Chromatography 3

D 1945 Test Method for Analysis of Natural Gas by Gas

Chromatography 4

D 1946 Practice for Analysis of Reformed Gas by Gas

Chromatography 4

D 2163 Test Method for Analysis of Liquefied Petroleum

(LP) Gases and Propane Concentrates by Gas Chromatography 5

3. Terminology

3.1 Definitions:

3.1.1 British thermal unit-the defined International Tables

British thermal unit (Btu).

3.1.1.1 Discussion-The defining relationships are:

1 Btuolb- I = 2.326 J og-I (exact)

1 lb = 453.592 37 g (exact)

By these relationships, 1 Btu = 1 055.055 85262 J (exact). For

most purposes, the value (rounded) 1 Btu = 1055.056 J is

adequate.

3.1.2 compressibility factor (z)-the ratio of the actual

Fuels and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee D03.03 on Determination of

Heating Value and Relative Density of Gaseous Fuels.

Current edition approved May 10, 1998. Published April 1999. Originally

published as D 3588 - 98.

2 A more rigorous calculation of Z(T,P) at both base conditions and higher

pressures can be made using the calculation procedures in "Compressibility :md

Super Compressibility for Natural Gas and Other Hydrocarbon Gases," American

Gas Association Transmission Measurement Committee Report 8, AGA Cat. No.

XQ1285, 1985, AGA, 1515 Wilson Blvd., Arlington, VA 22209.

3 Discontinued, see 1983 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 05.01.

4 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 05.05.

S Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 05.01.

Available from Gas Processors Association, 6526 E. 60th, Tulsa, OK 74145.

B A program in either BASIC or FORTRAN suitable for running on computers,

available from the Gas Processors Association, has been found satisfactory for this

purpose.

9 Available from Thermodynamics Research Center, The Texas A&M University,

College Station, TX 77843-3111.

10 Available from the American National Standards Institute, II W. 42nd St.,

13th Floor, New York, NY 10036.

11 Supporting data are available from ASTM Headquarters. Request RR:D031007.

6

76

~~r~ 03588

volume of a given mass of gas at a specified temperature and

pressure to its volume calculated from the ideal gas law under

the same conditions.

3.1.3 gross heating value-the amount of energy transferred

as heat from the complete, ideal combustion of the gas with air,

at standard temperature, in which all the water formed by the

reaction condenses to liquid. The values for the pure gases

appear in GPA Standard 2145, which is revised annually. If the

gross heating value has a volumetric rather than a mass or

molar basis, a base pressure must also be specified.

3.1.4 net heating value-,-the amount of energy transferred

as heat from the total, ideal combustion of the gas at standard

temperature in which all the water formed by the reaction

remains in the vapor state. Condensation of any "spectator"

water does not contribute to the net heating value. If the net

heating value has a volumetric rather than a mass or molar

basis, base pressure must also be specified.

3.1.5 relative density-the ratio of the density of the gaseous fuel, under observed conditions of temperature and

pressure, to the density of dry air (of normal carbon dioxide

content) at the same temperature and pressure.

3.1.6 standard cubic foot of gas-the amount of gas that

occupies 1 fe (0.028 m3 ) at a temperature of 60F (15.6C)

under a given base pressure and either saturated with water

vapor (wet) or free of water vapor (dry) as specified (see ANSI

Z 132.1.). In this practice, calculations have been made at

14.696 psia and 60F (15.6C), because the yearly update of

GPA 2145 by the Thermodynamics Research Center, on which

these calculations are based, are given for this base pressure.

Conversions to other base conditions should be made at the end

of the calculation to reduce roundoff errors.

3.1.7 standard temperature (USA}-600P (15.6C).

3.2 Symbols:

3.2.1 Nomenclature:

3.2.1.1 B-second virial coefficient for gas mixture

3.2.1.2 ~ -summation factor for calculating real gas

correction (alternate method)

3.2.1.3 (cor)-corrected for water content

3.2.1.4 (dry)-value on water-free ba.sis

3.2.1.5 d-density for gas relative to the density of air.

3.2.1,6 id-ideal relative density or relative molar mass,

that is, molar mass of gas relative to molar mass of air

.

3.2.1.7 Gid-molar mass ratio

3.2.1.8 H~~ -gross heating value per .unit mass

3.2.1.9 H~d -gross heating value per unit volume

3.2.1.10 H~d ~gross heating value per unit IT).ole .

3.2.1.P h~ -net heating value per unit mass

3.2.1.12 h~d -net heating value per unit volume

3.2.1.13 h~d -net heating value per unit mole

3.2.1.14 a, b, c-in Eq 1,integers required to balance the .

equation: C, carbon; H, hydrogen; S, sulfur; 0, oxygen

3.2.1.15 (id}~ideal gas state

3.2.1.16 (l}-iiquid phase

3.2.1.17 M-molar mass

3.2.1.18 m-mass flow rate

3.2.1.19 n-number of components

3.2.1.20 P-pressure in absolute units (psia)

77

upon"combustion

"

3.2.1.22 R-gas constant, 10.7316 pSia.fe/(lb mol oR) in this

practice (based upon R = 8.31448 J/(mol-K))

3.2.1.23 (sat)-denotes saturation value

3.2.1.24 T-absolute temperature, OR = 0p+ 459.67 or K =

C + 273.15

3.2.1.25 (T, P}-value dependent upon temperature and

pressure

3.2.1.26 V-gas volumetric flow rate

3.2.1.27 x-mole fraction

.

3.2.1.28 Z-gas compressibility factor repeatability of property

3.2.1.29 S-repeatability of property

3.2.1.30 p-density in mass per unit volume

3.2.1.31 LJ=l -:-property summed for Components 1

through n, where n represents the total number of components

in the mixture

3.2.2 Superscripts:

3.2.2.1 id-ideal gas value,

3.2.2.2.l-liquid

3.2.2.3 a-value at saturation (vapor pressure)

3.2.2.4 '-reproducibility

3.2.3 Subscripts:

3.2.3.1 a-value for air

3.2.3.2 a-relative number of atoms of carbon in Eq 1

3.2.3.3 b-relative number of atoms of hydrogen in Eq 1

3.2.3.4 c-relative nurriber of atoms of sulfur in Eq 1

"

3.2.3.5 j-property for component j .

3.2.3.6 ii-nan-ideal gas property for component i

3.2.3.7 ij-non-ideal gas property for mixture of i and j

3.2.3.8 jj-non-ideal gas property for component j

3.2.3.9 w-valuefor water

3.2.3.10 I-property for Component 1

3.2.3.11 2-property for Component 2

4. Summary of Practice

4.1 The ideal gas heating value 'and ideal gas relative

density at base conditions (14.696 psia and 60 0 P (5.6C)) are

calculated from the molar composition and the respective ideal

gas values for th~ components; these ~alues are then adjusted

by means of a calculated compressibility factor.

S. Significance and Use

5.1 The heating value is a measure, of the suitability of a

pure gas or a gas mixture for use as a fuel; it indicates the

amount of energy that can be obtained as heat by burning ~ unit

of gas. For use as heating agents, the relative merits of gases

from different sources and having different compositions can

be compared readily on the basis of their heating vall).es,

Therefore, the heating value is used as a parameter for

determining the price of gas in custody transfer. It is also an

essential factor in calculating the efficiencies of energy cone'

version devices such as gas-fired turbines. The heating v,alues

of a gas depend not only upon the terriperature and pressure, ,

but also upon the degree of saturation with water vapor.

However, some calorimetric methods for measuring heating

values are based upon the gas being saturated with water at the

specified conditions.

~~r~D3588

7. Calculation-Ideal Gas Values; Ideal Heating Value

the density of the gas as compared with that of air under the

same conditions;

and air in the ideal gas state is:

6. Methods of Analysis'

6.1 Determine the molar composition of the gas in accordance with any ASTM or GPA method that yields the complete

composition, exclu,siv.e of water, but including all other components present in amounts of 0.1 % or more, in terms of

components or groups of components listed in Table L At l~ast

98 % of the sample must be reported as individual components

(that is, not more than a total of 2 % reported as groups of

components such as butanes, pentanes, hexanes, butenes, and

so forth). Any group used must be one of those listed in Table

1 for which average val~es appear. The,following tyst methods

are applicable to this' pr.act~ce when appropriate for the sample

undertest: Test Methods D 1717, D '1945; D 2163,and D 2650.

CaHbsc (id)

(id or I)

+ cS02(id)

(I)

phase. The ideal net heating value results when all the water

remains in the ideal gas state. The ideal gross heating value

results when all the water fonned by the reaction condenses to

liquid: For water, the reduction frorriH2 0(id) to H2 0(l)is H~

- H~ , the ideal enthalpy of vaporization, which is somewhat

larger than the enthalpy of vaporization H~ - F1~' .

7.1.1 Because the gross hea:tirt~ '~alue re~ults from an ideal

combustion r~aqion, ideal ,gas relationships apply. T'he jdeal

gross heating vah~e per unit mass for a mIxture, H;~ is:

Ideal Gross Heating ValueD

Compound

Formula

Molar Mass,

Iblbmor 'B

Molar Mass,

Ratio, GldC

Hdn ,

Hid

Btulbm- 1

m'

Hd'

v ,

Btu.

H%,

Hydrogen

Helium

Water

Carbon monoxide

Ntlrogen

Oxygen

Hydrogen sulfide

Argon

Carbon dioxide

H2

He

H2O

CO

N2

O2

H2S

Ar

CO 2

2.0159

4.0026

18.0153

28.010

28.0134

31.9988

34.08

39,.948

44.010

0.06960

0.13820

0.62202

0.96711

0.96723

1.1048

1.1767

1.3793

1.5196

kJ mor '

286.20

0

44.409

282.9

0

0

562.4

0

0

Air

28.9625

1.0000

Methane

Ethane

Propane

n-Pentane

n-Hexane

n-Heptane

n-Odtane

n-Nonane

n-Decane

CH.

C2He

C3 Ha

C.H1Q

C.H1Q

CS H'2

CS H'2

CaH ,

97 H '6

CSH,S

C9 H20 '

C1O H22

16.043

30.070

44.097

58.123

58.123

72.150 .

72.150

86.177

100.204

114:231

128.258

142.285

0.55392

1.0382

1.5226

2.0068

2.0068

2.4912

2.4912

2.9755

3.4598

3.9441

4.4284

4.9127

891.63

1562.06

2220.99

2870.45

2879.63

3531.5

3535.8

4198.1

4857.2

5515.9

6175.9

6834.9

23891

22333

21653

21232

21300

21043

21085

20943

20839

20759

20701

20651

1010.0

1769.7

2516.1

3251.9

3262.3

4000.9

4008.9

4755.9

5502.5

6248.9

6996.5

7742.9

802.71

1428.83

2043.3

2648.4

2657.6

3265.0

3269.3

3887.2

4501.9

5116.2

5731.8

6346.4

Neopentane

2-Methylpentane

3-Methylpentane

2,2-Dimethylbutane

2,3-Dimethylbutane

Cyclopropane

Cyclobutane

Cycl9pentane

Cyclohexane

Ethyne (acetylene)

Ethene (ethylene)

Propene (propylene)

Benzene

CSH'2

CeH ,

CeH ,

CeH ,

CeH ,

C3 He

C.Hs

CS H'0

CaH'2

C2H2

C2H.

C3 Ha

CaHa

72.015

86.177

86.177

86.177

86.177

42.081

56.108

70.134

84:161

26.038

28.054

42.081

78.114

2.4912'

2.9755

2.9755

2:9755:

2.9755

1.4529

1.9373

2-4215

2.9059

0.8990

0.9686

1.4529

2.6971

3517.27

4190.43

4193.03

4180.63

4188.41

2092.78

2747.08

3322.04

3955.84

1301.32

1412.06

2059.35

3202.74

20958

20905

20918

20856

20895

21381

21049

20364

20208

21487

21640

21039

18177

3985

4747

4750

4736

4745

2371

2747

3764

4482

1474

1600

2333

3742

3879.6

3882:2

3869.8

3877.5

1959:6:

2569.4

3100.0

3689.4

1256.9

1323.2

1926.1

3169.5

C.H '0

CS H.12

. CeH,

C.Hs

,CS H1O

58.123

72.150

86.177

56.108

70.134

2.0068

2.49~ 2

2.9755

1.9372

2.4215

2875

3534

4190

2716

3375

21266

21056

20904

20811

20691

3257

4003

4747

3077

3824

2653

3267

3879

2538

3153

~Butane

n-Butane

~Pentane

Butanes (ave)

Pentanes (ave)

Hexanes (ave)

Butenes(ave)

Pentenes (ayet:

61022

0

1059.8

4342

0

0

7094.2

0

0

0

ft"3

324.2

0

50.312

320.5

0

0

637.1

0

0

0

kJ mor '

241.79

0

0

282.9

0

0

517.99

0

0

0

~250.8

Hdm'

Btulbm'

51566

0

0

4342

0

0

6534

0

0

0

21511

20429

19922

19590

19658

19456

19481

19393

19315

19256

19213

19176

h~

Btu

it"

Summation

Factor, bl ,

psia- '

273.93

0

0

320.5

0

0

586.8

0

0

0

0

0.0623

0.0053

0.0044

0.0073

0.0253

0.0071

0:0197

0.0050

909.4

1618.7

2314.9

300P.4

3010.8

3699.0

3703.9

4403.9

5100.3

5796.2

6493.6

7189.9

0.0116

0.0239

0.0344

0.0458

0.0478

0.0581

0.0631

0.0802

0.0944

0.1137

0.1331

0.1538

19371

"19355

19367

19306

19344

20020

19688

19003

18847

20753

20278

19678

17444

3683

4395

4398

4384

4393

2220

2911

3512

4180

1424

1499

2182

3591

0.021

0.020

0.033

0.069

19623

19469

19353

19450

19328

3006

3702

4395

2876

3572

0.046

0.062

0.080

0.046

0.060

0.080

0.080

0.080

0.080

'.,

AThis table is consistent with j3PA 2145-89, but ij is necessary to use, the val.ues from the most recent edition of GPA 2145 for custody transfer calculations.

B1984 Atomic W:eights: C= 14,011, H = 1.00794, 0 =: 15.~994, N = 14.0067, S = 32.06.

cMolai mass ratio is the ratio o'flhe m'olar mass of the gas to that of air.

DSased upon ideal reaction;] the entry for water represents the iotal enthalpy of vaporization.

EComposilion from: F. E. Jones, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand., Vol. 83,419, 1978.

78

~~r~ D 3588

II

H'm'd

II'

'LJ

" x,M.T-l 'd ,I 'LJ

" x,M,

= j=1

'

1'=1 't'~J,

(2)

j'A.,r.r..l!I,J

mass of Component j from Table 1, and n is the total number

of components.

7.1.2 H;~J is the pure component, ideal gross heating value

per unit mass for Component j (at 60F (15.6C) in Table 1).

Values of H~~ are independent of pressure, but, they vary with

temperafure. '

7.2 Ideal Gas Density

7.2.1 The ideal gas density, pid, is:,

, pid = (PIR1)

j=!

xM, = MPIRT

'(3)

,")

is the second cross virial coeffici~nt for Components i andj.

The second virial coefficients are flIDctibns of temperature. Eq

9 can be used with Eq 10 for calculation of the compressibility

factor for the various pressure bases, but it is not accurate at

pressures greater than two atmospheres. Special treatmeI)"t is

not required for H2 and He at mole fractions up to 0.01.

Calculations can be made with Bjj = 0 for hydrogen and

helium.

7.5.2 Eq 9 and Eq 10 for calculation of Z(T,P) for a gas

mixture are rigorous but require considerably calculations and

information that is not always available. An alternative, ap, proximate expressio~ for Z(T,P) that is, more convenient for

hand calculations is:

Bij

where;

(11)

II

M= j=!

~xM,

, ..)

(4)

Componentj. ValuesofVJ3jj ai"60F (l5.6C>C) appear in Table

2. The method based upon Eq lLhas been adopted for this

practice.

7.6 Real Gas Density:

7.6.1 The real gas densityp' at a specific temperature and

"

pressure is: ,

upon R = 8.31448 J/(molK), T is the base temperature in

absolute units (OR = of + 459.67). Values of the ideal gas

density at 60F (15.6C) and 14.696 psia are in GPA Standard

2145.

7.3 Ideal Relative Density:

7.3.1 The ideal relative density i d is:

'.

(12)

pid and Z are evaluated' ~t'the same te~Penit1ire and

where:

pressure.

7.7 Real Relative Density:

7.7.1 The realre!ativedensity, di~:,

II

id

_j

= j~ xA = 2: x#/Ma = MIMa

(5)

is the molar mass ratio.

7.4 Gross Heating' Value per,unit Volume:'

7.4.1 Multiplication of the' gross heating value pet unit mass

by the ideal gas density provides the gross heatillg value per

unit volUme; H~d:

,j

v,

Xfiid,

" ".

(6)

v.;.

vol ume for COIJ.1ponent j at' specified tempei:atu~e' and pressure

(60F (l5.6C) ,and 14.696.psia in.Table 1, ideal gas values).

,.7.4.2 Conversion of valuesin Table .1 to diff((rent pressUr~

bases results from multiplying by the' pressure ratio,:,

'

, H~ (P) = H~d (P ~ ~4.696) X PII4.696

,.

J',

i'.

. ,

""n

1'=1

~'

.'

":.'''-:. ,';

'

(13)'

. :' r~ : ';.

by division of the ideal heating value by the compressibility

factor. Real gas heating. vill ues differ from the iaeal gas values

by less than one partin 10 4 at 14.696psia, which is of the' order

of the accuracy of the'heating vaJ.ues;~; .:.,

.

7.9 Gross Heating Value oj Water Wet Gas:

7.9.1 If the gas cQntains water as a cqmponent but the

compositional analysis is ,on a dry basis, it is necessary to

adjust the mole fractions to refleci: the presence of water. The

corrected mole fractions are:: "

4cor) = x/I -xw)

(14)

(7)

saturated :value. ;rpe ,~aturated valu,e for xlV i~,assumi!1g

Raoult's Law:

'(8)

(15)

conditions near ambient;, the tmncated virial equation of state

satisfactorily represents the \7ohimetric behavior of'mitural gas:'

, ,,'

Z (~,P)T 1, + SPIRT' ' .

" '

, (9.)

e?0F (15;6C)):'

,

.

7.9.2 Technically, water has a gross heating value,the ide,al

enthalpy of condensation. If only the water that is fanned

during the combustion condenses; then the heat released upon

combustion of a wetgaswith'dry air becomes:

;, 7.5; 1 The compressibility factor is:

\7.5

Z (T,p)=.'pid Ip = (MPIR1)lp

,

The second virial cm;fficient for a mixture is:'

;

(16)

11

wherePb:is the baSe pressure. Eq16 is'adequate for custody

transfer applications as 'a matter ofdefini.tion'. However, this'

II: -,.

= ;;::;11'=1

~~;,xJ3"

I

(1.0)

I)

79

~~f~ D 3588

TABLE 2 Example Calculations of Gas Properties at 60F and 14.696 psia (Gas Analysis on Dry Basis)A

id

NOTE I-Division of Hv by Z does not'give a real gas heating value but rather an ideal gas heating value per real cubic feet. Any digits carried beyond

1 part in 1000 are not significant but only allieviate roundoff error. Although CO2 hflS a carbon/atom, its ex = 0 because it is not part of the ~uel fOJ.;nula

C",Hf3 S' Y ' .

'.

Compound

Methane

~thane

Propane

i-Sutane

n-Butane

i-Pentane

n-Pentane

Hexane

Helium

Nitrogen

Carbon dioxide

Summation

AXw

x,

01,

13,

'Y,'

Hvf1

0.8302

0.0745

0.0439

0.0083

0.0108

0.0031

0.0025

0.0030

0.0003

0.0032

0.0202

1

2

3

4

4

5

5

6

0

0

0

4

6

8.

10

10

12

12

14

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1010.0

1769.7

2516.1

3251.9

3262.3

4000,9

4008.9

4755.9

0

0

0

'G~

b,

0.55392

1.03820

1.52260

2.00680

2.00680

2.49120

2.49120

2.97550

0.13820

0.96723

1.51960

1.0000

= (0.25636)/14.696

0.0116

0.0239

0.0344

0.. 0458

0.0478

0.0581

0.0631

0.0802

0.0044

0.0197

xf'i.,

x,l3,

Xtii

x,HJ/ .

G7

x,b, .

0.8302

0.1490

0.1317

0.0332

0.0432

0.0155

0.0125

0.0180

0

0

0

3.3208

0.4470

0.3512

0.0830

0.1080

0.0372

0.03

0.0420

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

838.5

131.8

110.5

27.0

35.2

12.4

10.0

14,3

0

0

0

0.4599

0.0773

0.0668

0.0167

0.0217

0.0077

0.0062

0.Op89

0.0000

0.0031

0.0307

0.00963

0.001 78

iO.001 51

0.00038

0.00052

0.00018

0.00016

0.00024

0.00000

0.00001

0.00040

1.2333

4.4192

1179.7

0.6991

0.01481

x,

= 0.0174

Z (dry gas) = 1 - [0.014 81f(14.696) = 0.9968

Z (dry air) = 1 - [0.0050]2(14.696) = 0.9996

G (dry gas, dry air) = 0.6991 (0.9996)/0.9968 = 0.7011

G (dry gas, sat air) = 0.6991(0.9995)/0.9968 = 0.7010

HVd (dry gas, dry air) = 1179.7 Btult""

HVd (sat gas, dry air) = 1179.7(0.9826) = 1159.1 Btulr3

1- Xw = 0.9826

G'd (sat gas) = 0.6991(0.9826) + 0.0174(0.622 02) = 0.6978

Z (sat gas) = 1 - [0.9826(0.01481) + 0.0174(0.0623)]2(14.696) = 0.9964

Z (sat air) = 1 - [0.9826(0.0050) + 0.0174(O.0623)f(14.696) = 0.9995

G (sat gas, dry air) = 0.6978(0.9996)/0.9964 = 0.7001

G (sat gas, sat air) = 0.6978(0.9995)/0.9964 = 0.7000

{HVdlZ}(dry gas, dry air) = 1179.7/0.9968 = 1183.5 Btun-3

{HVdIZ} (sat gas, dry air) = 1159.1/(0.9964) = 1163.3 Btun-3

8. Precision

the heating value. Appendix Xl contains a rigorous examination of,the effect of water.

7.10 Calculation of the Ideal Energy Released as Heat:

7.10.1 When multiplied by the gas flow rate, the ideal gross

heating value provides the ideal energy released as heat upon

combustion, Qid ,an ideal gas property:

experimental enthalpy of combustion measurements which, in

general, are accurate to I part in 1000. The extra digits that

appear in the accompanying tables alleviate prob~ems associated with roundoff errors and internal consistency, but they are

not significant.

8.2 The values of properties in this practice are those that

appear in GPA Standard. 21'72-5>7, Fig. 23-2 of the GPSA

Engineering Data Book, GPA TP-17, and the TRC Thermodynamic Tables-Hydrocarbons. GPA Standard 2145 is updated

annually and the varues in that standard should be used in all

calculations.

(17)

where mis the mass flow rate. For an ideal gas, the mass flow

rate is related to the volumetric flow rate, yid , by:

(18)

and

(19)

values of the components, errors in the calculated compressibility factor,

and errors in the composition. The uncertainty' (twice the standard

deviation) of the ideal gas heating values for components should be

0.03 %. Such errors affect the bias and the agreement between calculated

and mel\sured heating values, but they do not affect the precision. Erro;rin

the calculated cpmpressibility factor varies with the composition of the

gas, but fpr natural gas, this error should be less than 0.03 % and

negligible ~ompal'ed to enors adslng fro~ uncertainty in composition. In

this practice, the errors in the heating valUes of the components and the

calcul~ted compressipility factor, ,2'1 are neglected. The precision of the

method is related to the repeatability and reproducibility of the analysis.

An example appears in Table 3.

.

,

7.10.2 The ideal gas flow rate is related to the real gas flow

rate by:

y;d = VIZ

(20)

where V is the real gas volumetric flow rate and Z(T,P) is the

real gas compressibility factor at the same T and P. Hence,

combining Eq 19 and Eq 20 gives:

Qid '"

H~ VIZ (T,P)

(21)

NOTE I-The ideal etiergy released per unit time' as heat upon combustion, Qid ,can be calculated using the mass flow rate (Eq 17), the ideal

gas flow rate (Eq I9),'or'the reill gas flow rate' (Eq 21), but is always an

ideal gas property. Division of H~d by the gas compressibility factor Z(T;P)

does not produce a real gas heating value but only allows calculation, of

Qid \.Ising the real gas flow rate rather than the,ideal gas flow rate.

NOTE 3-It is essential to include all components in the gas sample that

appear with mole fractions greater than or equal to 0.001 in the analysis.

Some routine analyses do not detelmine compounds such as I-Ie and H 2 S,

but these compounds are important to the calculations.

80

ij~r~ 03588

TABLE ~ Example Calculations of Gas Propertiesat60F and 14.696 psia(Gas Analysis on Wet Basis)A

I-Division of Hv id by Z does not give a real gas heating value but rather an ideal gas heating value per real cubic feet. Any digits carried beyond

1 part in' lOQO are not significant but only allieviateroundoff error. AlthOl1gh CO2 has a carbon atom, its ct = 0 because it is not part of'the fuel 'formula

CCl.Hf!,S'Y'

NOTE

x,

Compound

0.8157

0.0732

Methane

Ethane

Propane

i-Butane

n-Butane

i-Pentane

n-Pentane

Hexane

Helium

Nitrogen

Carbon dioxide

Water

0..0198

0..0174

Summation

1.0.0.0.0

.0.0431

.0.0.082

0 ..01.06

0 ..0.03.0

0.0.025

0.0.029

0.0.0.03

0.0031

[3,

"II

Hv'f'

GIfI

,

b,

Xfi,

x,[3,

XN,

4

6

8

0

0

0

.0

.0

.0

.0

.0

.0

.0

.0

0.55392

1.03820

1.52260

2.00680

2.00680

2.49120

2.49120

0.0116

0.0239

0.0344

1.0

1010.0

1769.7

2516.1

3251.9

3262.3

4000.9

4008.9

4755.9

0

0

3.2629

0.4392

0.3451

0.0816

0.0478

0.0581

0.0631

0.8157

0.1464

0.1294

0.0326

0.0424

0.0152

0.0123

2.9755.0

0.1382.0

0.08.02

.0

0.0044

.0

0.96723

1.51'960

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

50.3

0.622.02

ell

1

2'

3

4

4

5

5

6

0

0

0

0

10

12

12

14

0

0

0

0

.0.0458

0..0197

0..0623

1.2118

x,G;d

Xibi

823.9

129.5

0.4518 '

0.0760

1.08.5

.0 ..0657

.0 ..0164

.0 ..0213

.0 ..0076

.0 ..0061

.0 ..0088

O'

.0.9

0 ..0.030

.0 ..0302

.0 ..0108

4.3421

1.16.0.0

.0.6977

0.0366

0.0295

0.0413

0

0

0

0

0

0

26.5

34.6

12.2

9.8

14.0

0

0

0

0.1.061

0..0177

x, H0

0.00946

0.0.01 75

.0.0.0148

.0 ..0.0.0 37

.0 ..0.0.0 51

O.O()(j 18

.0 ..0.0015

.0 ..0.0024

.0

0.0.0039

0 ..0.01 09

0.D1564

= .0.6977,

Z (dry air) = 1 - [0 ..005.0]2(14.696) = 0.9996

G (sat gas, dry air) = 0.6977(.0.9996)/0.9964 = 0.6999

Hvd.(sat gas, dry air) = 1160.0 - 0.9 =c 1159.1 Btuft--3

Z (sat air)

1 ~ [0.9826(0 ..050) + 0.0174(0.0623)]2(14.696) = 0.9995

'

. G (sat gas, sat air) = 0.6977(0.9995)10.9964 = 0.6999

{HvdlZ}(sat ga~, dry air) = 1159.1/(0.9~64) = 1163.3 Btuft--3 .

\""

. 8.3 Repeatability:

.

.8.3.1 If all the components are analyzed and the results are

normalized, then the repeatability of the heating value l SH is:

8H

. --'-d =

, ; H'

1 /I

id

id-.

2

~2 ~ [(H -H )8~.J

(H' )

j=!

(22)

J.

l'

calculating the methalle mole fraction as the difference between 1.0 and the sum of the ',mOle fractio l1s. of the other

components, then

8H

Hid =

'1

/I

id'

(Hidh~[Hj 8;j]

2'"

lated from succ,essivepairs of ~alysis performecU)r t11e spine

operator using the same Sample of gasanclthe same instrUment

~hould exceed 2SH in only: 5.% of the tests whf?J.:l ~llis ,taken

as one standwd deviation.. , , .

. . ' ,'.

"."

..::

(23)

,.:

, ;

! , '.

~'.

'.

:' ,

',:.,

,I

from Eq 22 andEq 23 usingSx'J' the, .reprodu~ibility;0f thei

method of analysis for Compound j. The ditferencebetween

heating values"calculated.from analysis obtained in different,

laboratories is expected to exceedSH' for only 5 %.of the

analyses.

.'. ,'.J

,(.

;"

c.

','

A,PPENDIXES

'. (Nonmandatory Information) ,

equation that st~tes that the cost of gas is the rate of energy

released upon combustion multiplied by the price of gas per

energy unit multiplied by the time or accOlllting. period. The

rate of energy released upon combustion'is the product of the

heating value of the gas and the flow rate of the gas. The flow

rate of the gas requires knowledge of the compressibility factor

and the relative density of the gas. All three custody transfer

properties (heating value, compressibility factor, and relative

density) can be calculated from the composition given pure

component property tables. The equations for calculating the

properties of dry natural gas are well known, but this appendix

also presents an account of the effects of water contained in the

.'

Xl.2 The heating value of a natural gas is the absolute

value of its enthalpy of combustion in an ideal combustion

reaction. The heating value is, therefore,' an ideal gas property

that can be calculated unambiguously from tables of pure

component values and it has no pressure dependence.

X1.3 An ideal combustion reaction with fuel and air in the

ideal gas state and the possibility of water in the fuel and air is:

+ 0.043 83(ct + [3/4 + 'Y)(l + e)Ar (i(l)

(Xl.1)

+ [0.001 62(ct + [3/4 + 'Y)(l + e) + xJ(l- xN - xc)]C0zCid)

CaH~S-iid)

~~f~ D 3588

!A~LE

I

Composition,

, Compound

Xj

0.8302

0.0745

0.0439

0.0083

0.0108

0.0031

0.0025

0.0030

0.0003

0.0032

0.0202

Methane

Ethane

Propane

Isobutane

Butane

Isopentane

Pentane

Hexane

Helium

Nitrogen

Carbon dioxide

Total

T.OoOO

Repeatability

H:"- H,,~

Btu,ft-3

169.7

-590.0

-1336.4

-2072.2

-2082.6

-2821.2

-2829.2

-3576.2

1179.7

1179.7

1179.7

ax!

ax'] ,

0.0010

0.0002

0.0002

0.0001

0.0002

0.0001

0.0001

0.0001

0.0001

0.0001

0.0002

0.029

0.014

0.071

0.043

0.173

0.080

0.080

0.128

0.014

0.014

0.056

0.0020

0.0004

0.0004

0.0002

0.0004

0.0002

0.0002

0.0002 .

0.0002

0.0002

0.0004

+ n~)HzO (id)

= [a

+ 0.001

62(a

Rep(oducibilily

[( H:(BtufI-3)2

- H~ )ax~2

D.702

[( H~ - H~)ax'l

(Btu'W3 )2'

0.115

0.056'

0.286

0.171

0.694

0.318

0.320

0.512

0.056

0.056

0.223

2.807

= water.

vaporization for water.

xc)]COz{id)

rather than using a hypothetical. state,. but the calculations are

tedious, the numerical values are negligibly different, and the

mathematical simplicity of the defining equation is lost. It is

customary in the gas industry to use gross heating value for

most calculations, So for the remainder of this appendix, the

term "heating value;' refers to the gross value.

+ xJ(I-xN -xd]Niid)

+ 0.043 83(a + 1314 + 1')(1 + e)Ar(id) + (a + 1314 + I')e02(id)

where: <Y, 13, and 'Y are stoichiometric coefficients, E is the

fraction excess air, the composition of ,iir is assumed to be that

of Table XI.I ,n~ and the moles of water contained in the gas,

n~ ate the moles of water contained in the air,

are the moles

of water contained in the product gastnixture, n~ are the moles

of gas that actually condense, Xc is the mole fraction of CO 2 in

the gas, arid xN is the mole fraction of N2 in the gas. If air has

been injected into the gas, it is assumed that the effect is

accounted fat in the excess fraction E. Fuel gas mixtures would

have non-integer values of <Y, 13 and 'Y.

n:

heating value from one base pressure to another. Note thal

when using Eq 7, Hv id should be Calculat~d using the values

from Taple 1 before converting the pressure; the individual

values in Table I should not be converted. Conversion to

another temperature is more complicated. Heating value data

exist at 25C based upon ~e reaction:

for the water formed by the reaction denoted by Eq I (as

opposed to "spectator" water that enters the reaction carried by

the gas or air). If we assume that the water formed in the

reaction remains in the ideal gas state, the heating value is

termed "net." If we assume that the water formed in the

reaction condenses totally to the liquid state, the heating value

is termed "gross." The gross heating value is greater than the

net heating value by the ideal enthalpy of vaporization for

water:

CaH~Spd)

+ "IS0z(id)

(XU)

. stoichiometric proportions. It is necessary to correct the sensible heat effects to arrive at a different temperature:

Hn id (1)

= Hnid (25) +

fil"7' dd - L dd]dT

P

(XI.4)

where:

L c; = C;'caH,s, + (a + 13/4 + "I)C;'o,

~

r

(X 1.2)

where:

H

enthalpy,

I = liquid state, and

(X 1.5)

(XI.6)

denotes reactants and r' denotes products.

82

';'\':

~~f~ 03588

. X2. ACCOUNTING FOR: WATER

.

saturated) but the compositional analysis is on a dry basis, it is

necessary to adjust the mole fractions to account for the fact

that water has displaced SOme gas, -thus lowering the heating

value. The mole fraction of water in the gas results from the

definition of relative humidity:

(X2.1)

relative humidity of the gas, p~ is the vapor pressure of water, -and nw denotes moles of water. For saturated gas kg is tmity.

Rearranging Eq X2.1 gives the moles of water:

nw

= xj( 1 -

x,')

(X2.2)

11 nJ 1+

= x{

(X2.4)

summation. If the compositional analysis determines x.v and

water is included in the N components of the summation:

=

(X2.6)

(X2.7)

+3.72873(1 + e)

n~v =

+- 0.04383(1

X ,livid

l

+(3/4 +,,)[0.00162(1(X2.8)

+ e)

+ ~) + e] + n~} = P;';P

+ e)

(X2.S)

(3/2 +

nf. +

n~ - n~.

(X2.9)

X2.7 are reformulations of Eq X2.1 to reflect inlet conditions.

Eq X2.S reflects Eq X2.1 for the saturated product gas (it must

be saturated before any water can condense). Eq X2.9 is a

water balance: [3/2 are the moles of water formed by the

reaction, n~ + n~ are the moles of water that enter with the gas

and air,

are the moles of water that saturate the product gas,

and n~ are the moles of water that condense. Therefore, the

complete correction for the effect of water on heating value is:

n:

~ x~vet liv~d_

;;:::1

n~

nf. = (hBP':}P)/[(l-xN -xd(1-,hKP;';P)

n;. =

X)(1-X,.) ] = (1- xw)xi

(X2.3)

livid

I

w

xi(cor) = x{

,"

(X2.10)

although water has a heating value, it is only a condensation

effect. Water carried by wet gas (spectator water) does not

actually condense, and only water formed in the reaction

contributes to heating value.

+ (xn -xc)

(1-xn-xJ + (0: + (3/4 + ,,)(3.77418 + 4.77418 e)]

X (P;';P)/(l- P~)}H:~]

air, the observed heating value can be greater or smaller than

that calculated using Eq X2.4 or Eq X2.5. A humidity of air

exists for each gas above which HV id is greater than that

calculated by Eq X2.4 or Eq X2.S. That critical value depends

upon the gas composition, the humidity of the gas, and the

amount of excess air. For pure, dry methane with no excess air,

ka = 0.793 45.

for defined custody transfer conditions, but when trying to

model actual situations, the question becomes much more

complicated. It is obvious that all of the reaction water actually

cannot condense because in a situation in which both gas and

air are dry some of the reaction water saturates the product

gases and the remainder condenses. It is possible to account for

these effects in a general manner. To do so, it is necessary to

the heating value to a real gas property (it is not necessary to

do so for relative density because the molar mass ratio, G id, is

the desired property). This is simply a matter of evaluating the

integral:

Hn_Hn id

aH)

(av)

( av T = V- T aT p

dB = 2 RF7r

dB

B- TdT

(X3.2)

of b must be defined, but in the custody transfer region it is

easy to do so. The products and reactants again correspond to

Eq X1.3.

(X3.1)

calculations to convert the heating value into a real gas

where:

83

~~f~ D 3588

base conditions, to have all the water formed in the reaction be

either all gas or all liquid; some of the water formed is in each

state. Thus, if the definition is of a hypothetical state, using a

hypothetical real gas rather than an ideal gas state adds nothing

but complexity.

have seen, the cost equation is unchanged; the calculations

while obvious are tedious. Hv is slightly different from HV id

because the base pressure is low; the likelihood of having all

the information required to use Eq X3.1 is remote. The heating

value is defined in a hypothetical state. It is not possible, at

The American Society for Testing and Materials takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection

with any item mentioned in this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such

patent rights, and the risk of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility.

This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years and

if not revised, either reapproved or withdfawn. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards

and should be addressed to ASTM Headquarters. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the responsible

technical committee, which you may attend. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you should make your

views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428.

84

- FLOCALC Calc DetailsDiunggah olehLuanLT
- ISO 6976Diunggah olehmmissuari
- AGA 8.pdfDiunggah oleheduardoferr
- BS en ISO 6976-2016 Natural Gas - Calculation of Calorific Values, Density, Relative Density and Wobbe Index From CompositionDiunggah olehParkAdams
- Calculation SoftwareDiunggah olehtranquocvinhtech
- Astm d1142Diunggah olehCeciliagorra
- Normas ASTM D-3588Diunggah olehAlfredo Ledezma
- GPA-2261Diunggah olehCeciliagorra
- GPA 2166 86 Sampling GasDiunggah olehhandoyo_eko20017573
- ASTM D 5454 11 Humedad Con AnalizadorDiunggah olehCarlos Lopez Blumenkron
- ASTM D6560 AsfaltenosDiunggah olehCarlos Garcia Cerquera
- ASTM-D4468Diunggah olehAnonymous xERghLP8V
- AGA-8 - Compressibility Factors of Natural GasDiunggah olehWalter GE
- Petroleum Standards ASTM (2016).pdfDiunggah olehInspección Oil Test
- GPA 2286 MethodDiunggah olehIan Hovell
- Astm d1945Diunggah olehJavier Darío Gómez
- UOP 212-05 - Hydrogen Sulfide, Mercaptan Sulfur, and Carbonyl Sulfide in Hydrocarbon Gases by Po.pdfDiunggah olehMorteza Sepehran
- ISO 6974Diunggah olehAntonio
- ASTM D1945 - Standard Test Method for Analysis of Natural Gas by Gas ChromatographyDiunggah olehsevero97
- GPA 2145-09Diunggah olehRamon Siliprandi
- astm.d1945.1996.pdfDiunggah olehlinalima
- GPA 2145Diunggah olehSergio David Ruiz
- ASTM D1142_95 (R2012) - Water Vapor Content of Gaseous Fuels by Measurement of Dew-Point TemperatureDiunggah olehgisegise
- ASTM D 4084-07(2012)Diunggah olehDavid Garcia del Angel
- GPA 2140 - Liquefied Petroleum Gas Specifications and Test MethodsDiunggah olehclementer
- ASTM D4810-06Diunggah olehMichael Medina
- GPA-2286Diunggah olehCeciliagorra
- ASTM D 1945 - 96, Standard Test Method for Analysing of Natu.pdfDiunggah olehwaheed2286

- error logDiunggah olehapi-331173410
- ozone1Diunggah olehCuitlahuac Guerra
- (Chapter-2) Ugar Cane FinalDiunggah olehtewele
- Spm Cover PageDiunggah olehWen Xin ≧◡≦
- EC-225LP-HLO-1-EASA-PMV-SRD.pdfDiunggah olehAxel
- Blaine Kitchenware IncDiunggah olehnandyth
- Tesco Maintenance Guide.pdfDiunggah olehdraghiceanu
- CholestinDiunggah olehNu Club
- XenServer - Understanding Snapshots (v1.1)Diunggah olehewdna
- Skipper Catalogue Version 124Diunggah olehBerke
- Pidgins and CreolesDiunggah olehSayla Alam
- ias12Diunggah olehlindsay boncodin
- NMH Saturday_1_May_1915.pdfDiunggah olehFairfax Media
- RemDiunggah olehVenkat Chakri
- Jean Baudrillard - AmericaDiunggah olehjennifer_sandlin7977
- Teacher Participation in Curriculum DevelopmentDiunggah olehVarah ORlandos
- Chemistry A-level 9701_nos_as_5Diunggah olehNana_Banana_94
- PraPractice Questions Given in the Worksheet on AdditionDiunggah olehPuspesh Singh
- 10 tips for getting more Instagram followers.pdfDiunggah olehSunarto Daspan
- fist vol1-6 1Diunggah olehStefan Balasoiu
- MSDS of Ammonium NitrateDiunggah olehShahid Mehmood Naqi
- Stage Efficiency in Copper Solvent Extraction PlantsDiunggah olehPatricio Acuña
- 149 Handover Inspection ChecklistDiunggah olehsudeepjm
- Gran Turismo 6 All DlcDiunggah olehLugat993
- Chris Payne - Effort-Free Life System WorkbookDiunggah olehocmic
- ERP project_final.docxDiunggah olehHiral Patel
- Rapid SQL Developer User GuideDiunggah olehPaulo Henrique Alves De Oliveira
- Troy Stetina - Heavy Metal Lead Guitar Volume 2Diunggah olehNelson Romero
- Nursing PhilosophyDiunggah olehConnor Pauley
- List Of CompaniesDiunggah olehanon-662865

## Lebih dari sekadar dokumen.

Temukan segala yang ditawarkan Scribd, termasuk buku dan buku audio dari penerbit-penerbit terkemuka.

Batalkan kapan saja.