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MEMBANGUN KEUNGGULAN BIDANG PANGAN DAN HASIL PERTANIAN

DALAM MENGHADAPI ASEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY 2015


Dr. Ir. Sony Suwasono, M.App.Sc.-Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian
Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Jember
12 Desember 2011

ROAD MAP ASEAN COMMUNITY (KTT Asean 14 Thailand)


ASEAN Economic Community Blueprint
A. Single Market and Production Base
A.7. Food, Agriculture and Forestry

38. Enhance intra- and extra-ASEAN trade and long-term competitiveness of


ASEANs food, agriculture and forestry products/commodities.
39. Promote cooperation, joint approaches and technology transfer among
ASEAN Member Countries and international, regional organisations and
private sector.
40. Promote ASEAN agricultural cooperatives as a means to empower and
enhance market access of agricultural products, to build a network
mechanism linking agricultural cooperatives, and to fulfil the purpose of
agricultural cooperatives for the benefit of farmers in the region.
-

ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community Blueprint


ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community Blueprint
B.3. Enhancing food security and safety
21. Strategic Objective: Ensure adequate access to food at all times for all ASEAN
peoples and ensure food safety in ASEAN Member States.
-

*The following descriptions are taken from the Regional Policy Division,
Asian and Oceanian Affairs Bureau, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan (January,
2006).

1) Today's ASEAN (Member nations: 10 countries (Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia,


Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam

Area

4.48 million
square
kilometers

Approx. 12 times
the size of Japan
(380,000 square
kilometers)

Approx. 3.3% of the total size of


the world (133.94 million square
kilometers)

Population

544.36 million

Approx. 4.3 times


that of Japan
(127.76 million)

Approx. 8.6% of the world


population (6,345.13 million)

Nominal GDP

US$798.7
billion

Approx. 17.3% of
Japanese GDP
(US$4,623.4
billion)

Approx. 2.0% of the world GDP


(US$40,887.8 billion

GDP per capita

US$1,467

Approx. 4.1% of
Japanese GDP
per capita
(US$36,187)

Approx. 22.8% of the world's


average GDP per capita
(US$6,444)

Trade (Import
and Export)

US$1,079.4
billion

Approx. 105.9% of
Japanese trade
value (US$1,019.5
billion)

Approx. 5.8% of the world's trade


value (US$18,664.0 billion)

(2) Comparison with other regional economic units (Data of 2004)


Members

Population

Nominal GDP

GDP per
Capita

Trade (Import
and Export)

ASEAN

10 countries

544.36
million

US$798.7 billion

US$ 1,467

US$ 1,079.4
billion

European
Union (EU)

25 countries Austria,
Belgium,Cyprus,
Czech, Denmark,
Estonia, Finland,
France, Germany,
Greece, Hungary,
Ireland, Italy, Latvia,
Lithuania,
Luxembourg, Malta,
Netherlands,
Poland, Portugal,
Slovakia, Slovenia,
Spain, Sweden, U.K.

455.30
million

US$12,690.6
billion

US$ 27,873

US$ 7,322.1
billion

North American
Free Trade
Agreement
(NAFTA)

3 countriesU.S.A.,
Canada, Mexico

429.21
million

US$13,323.8
billion

US$ 31,043

US$ 3,278.8
billion

Mercado
Comun del Sur
(MERCOSUR)

4 countries
Argentina, Brazil,
Paraguay, Uruguay

226.13
million

US$776.6 billion

US$ 3,434

US$

230.4
billion

*The following descriptions are taken from the Regional Policy Division,
Asian and Oceanian Affairs Bureau, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan (January,
2006).

(3) Population (2004)


Population (million)
Brunei
0.36
Cambodia
13.63
Indonesia
217.59
Laos
5.79
Malaysia
25.21
Myanmar
49.91
Philippines
82.99
Singapore
4.34
Thailand
62.39
Vietnam
82.16
ASEAN *
544.36
Japan
127.76
China
1,296.50
S. Korea
48.14
Hong Kong
6.85
Taiwan
22.69
U.S.A.
293.51
World Total 6,345.13

Ratio (%)
0.0
0.2
3.4
0.1
0.4
0.8
1.3
0.1
1.0
1.3
8.6
2.0
20.4
0.8
0.1
0.4
4.6
100.0

ASEAN population is approx. 4.3 times that of


Japan and 1.9 that of the United States.

*The following descriptions are taken from the Regional Policy Division,
Asian and Oceanian Affairs Bureau, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan (January,
2006).

(5) Nominal GDP per Capita (2004)


Actual figure (US$)
Brunei
Cambodia
Indonesia
Laos
Malaysia
Myanmar
Philippines
Singapore
Thailand
Vietnam
ASEAN*
Japan
China
S. Korea
Hong Kong
Taiwan
U.S.
World total

13,046
337
1,184
416
4,672
192
1,041
24,641
2,621
550
1,467
36,187
1,272
14,118
23,814
14,093
39,752
6,444

ASEAN's GDP per Capita is Approx. 22.8% of the world average and 4.1% of that of Japan.

*The following descriptions are taken from the Regional Policy Division,
Asian and Oceanian Affairs Bureau, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan (January,
2006).

(4) Nominal GDP (2004)


Actual figure (US$billion)
Brunei
4.7
Cambodia
4.6
Indonesia
257.6
Laos
2.4
Malaysia
117.8
Myanmar
9.6
Philippines
86.4
Singapore
106.8
Thailand
163.5
Vietnam
45.2
ASEAN*
798.7
Japan
4,623.4
China
1,649.3
S. Korea
679.7
Hong Kong
163.0
Taiwan
319.8
U.S.A.
11,667.5
World total
40,887.8

Ratio (%)
0.0
0.0
0.6
0.0
0.3
0.0
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.1
2.0
11.3
4.0
1.7
0.4
0.8
28.5
100.0

ASEAN's nominal GDP accounts for approx. 22% of


that of East Asia (excluding Japan)
* ASEAN's nominal GDP accounts for 2.0% of the
world's nominal GDP and 17.2% of that of Japan.

*The following descriptions are taken from the Regional Policy Division,
Asian and Oceanian Affairs Bureau, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan (January,
2006).

*The following descriptions are taken from the Regional Policy Division,
Asian and Oceanian Affairs Bureau, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan (January,
2006).

ASEAN's Trade Value


Approx. 23% of ASEAN's export
and approx. 24% of ASEAN's
import is intra-regional.

Komoditi Kopi
Oxfam UK :
the price of raw coffee exported from producer
countries accounts for less than 7% of the
eventual cost of coffee to Western consumers the rest, over 90%, goes to coffee processors
and retailers in rich countries
the increased profits at Nestle, the giant Swiss
instant coffee processor, and the fashionable
American coffee shop chain Starbucks as
evidence of its case

British Coffee Association (BCA) :


"Increasing prices of green coffee beans without
implementing appropriate controls on production would
not help the livelihood of the growers in producing
countries in the longer term"

Coffee is a multi-million dollar industry, but the profits don't go to


the people who actually work so hard to grow the coffee beans,
and carry all the risks of failing crops or falling prices.

How much of that price


went to the growers, the
people who planted the
coffee, took care of the
plants, picked the coffee
beans, cleaned them, and
dried them?

How much went to the exporters?


How much went to the companies
who shipped the coffee beans and
roasted them?
How much went to the retailers
who sold the coffee in their shops
Most of the profits go to the
shippers, roasters and retailers.

Most of the world's coffee is bought by just a


few countries, and most of the world's coffer
market is controlled by a very few companies.
Over 70% of the coffee on the world market is
imported by just nine countries in the North.

Komoditi Kakao

Ivory Coast > 1,5 juta ton


Ghana > 1 juta ton
Indonesia > 800 ribu ton

Share of countries in total cocoa beans


production (2005/06 crop year forecasts)

World production of cocoa beans,


in thousand tonnes

Share of main consuming


countries in 2004/05

Source: UNCTAD based on the data from International Cocoa Organization

Pusat Penelitian Kopi dan Kakao, 2005

Komoditi Minyak Sawit

Palm oil is the major bulk of the worlds


production of oils and fats. It is 27.6% share
when its production in 2009 was 45.5 million
tonnes. Soyabean ranked second with a
production of 35.9 million tonnes or 21.8%,
animal fats third with 24.4 million tonnes
produced or 14.8% while rapeseed was fourth
with an output of 21.5 million tonnes or 13.1%.

2011 Palm Oil Getting the Facts Right. All Rights Reserved.

The two major palm oil producers


in the world are Indonesia and
Malaysia, with outputs of 21.1 and
17.6 million tonnes respectively in
2009. Together, they constitute a
magnanimous 85.3% of the
worlds production.

The Asian market has seen a strong growth in production


and consumption of edible oils with Indonesia setting the
pace for production in a close run race with Malaysia.
They are followed by China and India, with Philippines,
Thailand, Pakistan, and Viet Nam trailling.
Malaysia and Indonesia export 70% of the edible oil they
produce or around 28 million tons while China and India
import 12 million tons which leaves the region as a whole
in net surplus. Some of the imports come from outside
the Region, mainly South America, but around 66% are
from the Region. Consumption in India and China is
growing rapidly and is increasingly dependent on palm
oil, over 16 million tons imported by the latter two in
contrast to 2.7 million tons of soy oil.
Vinay Chand Associates

ASEAN Economic Community Blueprint


A. Single Market and Production Base
A.7. Food, Agriculture and Forestry
38. Enhance intra- and extra-ASEAN trade and long-term competitiveness of ASEANs food,
agriculture and forestry products/commodities.

Actions:
i. Monitor implementation of CEPT-AFTA schemes for agricultural and forest products;
ii. Develop and apply fisheries quality management systems that ensure food safety and support
competitive position of ASEAN fisheries products on world markets through the implementation,
validation, verification of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)-based systems and
improved laboratories practices, and adapting quality and safety management systems so that
they may be applied to small enterprises in ASEAN by 2009;
iii. Establish Good Agriculture / Aquaculture Practices (GAP), Good Animal Husbandry Practices
(GAHP), Good Hygiene Practices (GHP), Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP), and Hazard
Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) based systems; for agricultural and food products with
significant trade / trade potential by 2012;

A. Single Market and Production Base

iv. Harmonise the quarantine and inspection/sampling procedure by 2010 and Sanitary and
Phytosanitary (SPS) measures for agricultural, food and forestry products with significant trade /
trade potential; in accordance with international standards/guidelines, where applicable, by
2015;
v. Harmonise the Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs) of commonly used pesticides for widely traded
crop products in accordance with international standards/guidelines, where applicable, by 2010;
vi. Harmonise the regulatory framework for agricultural products derived from modern
biotechnology in accordance with international standards/guidelines, where applicable, by 2015;
vii. Harmonise the safety and quality standards for horticultural produce and agricultural products
of economic importance in the ASEAN region, in accordance with international
standards/guidelines, where applicable, by 2015;

viii. Harmonise the animal (both terrestrial and aquatic animals) health control for safety of food of
animal origin through a common bio-security management standards scheme, in accordance
with international standards/guidelines, where applicable, by 2015;
ix. Harmonise guidelines for the use of chemicals in aquaculture and measures to eliminate the
use of harmful chemicals, in accordance with international standards/guidelines, where
applicable, by 2009; and
x. Develop a regional reference framework on phased-approach to forest certification by 2015.

39. Promote cooperation, joint approaches and technology transfer among ASEAN Member
Countries and international, regional organisations and private sector.
Actions:
i. Develop joint strategies / positions on issues of related interest to ASEAN with international
organisations such as WTO, Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO),
World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC),
CODEX, Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora
(CITES) and dialogue partners;
ii. Promote collaborative research and technology transfer in agriculture, food and forestry products;
iii. Establish strategic alliances and joint approaches with the private sectors in promoting food safety,
investment and joint venture opportunities, promotion of agricultural products and market access;
iv. Strengthen efforts to combat illegal logging and its associated trade, forest fire and its resultant
effects; and
v. Strengthen efforts to combat illegal fishing.

40. Promote ASEAN agricultural cooperatives as a means to empower and enhance market access
of agricultural products, to build a network mechanism linking agricultural cooperatives, and to
fulfil the purpose of agricultural cooperatives for the benefit of farmers in the region.
Actions:
i. Strengthen strategic alliance between agricultural cooperatives in ASEAN through bilateral,
regional and multilateral cooperation;
ii. Establish business linkages among the potential agricultural cooperatives within ASEAN; and
iii. Promote direct investment and strategic partnership with ASEAN agricultural cooperatives
producers, consumers, and traders.

ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community Blueprint


B.3. Enhancing food security and safety
21. Strategic Objective: Ensure adequate access to food at all times for all ASEAN peoples and
ensure food safety in ASEAN Member States.
Actions:
i. Harmonise national food safety regulations with internationally-accepted standard, including
quarantine and inspection procedures for the movement of plants, animals, and their products;
ii. Strengthen the work of ASEAN Coordinating Committee on Food Safety to better coordinate all
ASEAN Food bodies/subsidiaries, and the implementation of their work programmes;
iii. Promote production of safe and healthy food by producers at all levels;
iv. Develop model food legislative framework and guidelines and strengthen food inspection and
certification system from farm to table in ASEAN Member States;
v. Develop further the competency of existing network of food laboratories in ASEAN to facilitate the
exchange of information, findings, experiences, and best practices relating food laboratories works
and new technology;
vi. Strengthen the capability of ASEAN Member States to conduct risk analysis;
vii. Enhance consumer participation and empowerment in food safety;
viii. Enhance the roles of ASEAN Food Security Reserve Board (AFSRB) as well as increase regional
staple food reserves;
ix. Strengthen the cooperation with regional and international institutions including private organisations
to secure food for the region;

x. Establish a network to enhance intra and extra ASEAN food trade cooperation to ensure stability in
regional food distribution;
xi. Ensure that food is available at all times for all ASEAN citizens;
xii. Encourage the application of environmentally sound technologies in farming and food processing;
xiii. Improve the quality of surveillance and the effectiveness of responses to food-borne diseases and
food poisoning outbreaks through, among others, information sharing and exchange of expertise;
xiv. Enhance advocacy to promote production of safe and healthy food by producers and education and
communication to communities for empowerment in food safety;
xv. Provide opportunities such as forums, meetings to facilitate coordinated actions among stakeholders
geared for promotion of food security and safety; and
xvi. Integrate these actions into a comprehensive plan of action with the ultimate goal of improving
health outcomes.

Good Manufacturing Practise (GMP)


Coffee Production

GMP :
Manufacturing processes are clearly defined and controlled. All
critical processes are validated to ensure consistency and
compliance with specifications.
Manufacturing processes are controlled, and any changes to
the process are evaluated. Changes that have an impact on the
quality of the drug are validated as necessary.
Instructions and procedures are written in clear and
unambiguous language. (Good Documentation Practices)
Operators are trained to carry out and document procedures.
Records are made, manually or by instruments, during
manufacture that demonstrate that all the steps required by the
defined procedures and instructions were in fact taken and that
the quantity and quality of the drug was as expected.
Deviations are investigated and documented.
Records of manufacture (including distribution) that enable the
complete history of a batch to be traced are retained in a
comprehensible and accessible form.
The distribution of the drugs minimizes any risk to their quality.
A system is available for recalling any batch of drug from sale
or supply.
Complaints about marketed drugs are examined, the causes of
quality defects are investigated, and appropriate measures are
taken with respect to the defective drugs and to prevent
recurrence.

Industri Produk Hilir Kopi


Coffee Production

Good Agricultural Practise


Good Manufacturing Practise (GMP)
Coffee Production
The Coffee Value Chain. In addition, the
Fairtrade
coffee
production
is
environmentally friendly, as special rules
and guidelines by the organisation Fairtrade
have to be followed. For example, it is
forbidden to grow coffee in protected
rainforests and national parks. Organic
farming without any chemicals maintains
soil
fertility
and
the
surrounding
environment, including the groundwater,
stays clean (15).
GOOD AGRICULTURAL PRACTISE

Practice schedule irrigation, with monitoring of


plant needs, and soil water reserve status to
avoid water loss by drainage

Prevent soil salinization by limiting water input to


needs, and recycling water whenever possible

Avoid crops with high water requirements in a


low availability region

Avoid drainage and fertilizer run-off

Maintain permanent soil covering, in particular in


winter to avoid nitrogen run-off

Manage carefully water table, by limiting heavy


output of water

Restore or maintain wetlands (see marshlands)

Provide good water points for livestock4

Insitu water harvesting by digging catch pits,


crescent bunds across slope

Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP)


In Food Industry

The HACCP 7 Principles


Principle 1: Conduct a hazard analysis. Plans determine the food safety hazards and identify the preventive measures the
plan can apply to control these hazards. A food safety hazard is any biological, chemical, or physical property that
may cause a food to be unsafe for human consumption.
Principle 2: Identify critical control points. A critical control point (CCP) is a point, step, or procedure in a food
manufacturing process at which control can be applied and, as a result, a food safety hazard can be prevented,
eliminated, or reduced to an acceptable level.
Principle 3: Establish critical limits for each critical control point. A critical limit is the maximum or minimum value to
which a physical, biological, or chemical hazard must be controlled at a critical control point to prevent, eliminate,
or reduce to an acceptable level.
Principle 4: Establish critical control point monitoring requirements. Monitoring activities are necessary to ensure that
the process is under control at each critical control point. In the United States, the FSIS is requiring that each
monitoring procedure and its frequency be listed in the HACCP plan.
Principle 5: Establish corrective actions. These are actions to be taken when monitoring indicates a deviation from an
established critical limit. The final rule requires a plant's HACCP plan to identify the corrective actions to be taken
if a critical limit is not met. Corrective actions are intended to ensure that no product injurious to health or
otherwise adulterated as a result of the deviation enters commerce.
Principle 6: Establish procedures for ensuring the HACCP system is working as intended. Validation ensures that the
plants do what they were designed to do; that is, they are successful in ensuring the production of a safe product.
Plants will be required to validate their own HACCP plans. FSIS will not approve HACCP plans in advance, but
will review them for conformance with the final rule.
Principle 7: Establish record keeping procedures. The HACCP regulation requires that all plants maintain certain
documents, including its hazard analysis and written HACCP plan, and records documenting the monitoring of
critical control points, critical limits, verification activities, and the handling of processing deviations.

Good Quality and Safety Management System


Coffee Production at STARBUCKS

Good Manufacturing Practise (GMP)


Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)
Cocoa Production

Industri Produk Hilir Kakao


Cocoa Production

Good Manufacturing Practise (GMP)


Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)
Palm Oil Production

Industri Produk Hilir Sawit


Oil Palm Production

Agricultural Products Derived From Modern Biotechnology In Accordance With


International Standards/Guidelines

Ethanol production in
Indonesia was about 140
million liters in 2007, and
the economy plans to
reach 3,770 million liters
in 2010 (Figure 1).

Biodiesel production in
2007 was about 1,550
million liters and it is
estimated to reach 5,570
million liters in 2010
(Figure 2).
National Renewable Energy Laboratory
(NREL).

Media Massa Terkait ASEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY 2015


OkezoneKamis, 11 Agustus 2011 10:01 wib 1 0Email0
Logo ASEANJAKARTA - Sebanyak delapan belas menteri-menteri ekonomi di
negara-negara Asean dan mitranya seperti China, Korea, Australia dan Rusia
bertemu dalam sebuah forum bertajuk ASEAN Economic Meeting (AEM) ke-43 di
Manado. Dalam pertemuan ini, mereka akan membahas perkembangan dan tantangan
ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) 2015.
"Untuk mengembangkan peran UKM, menteri ekonomi ASEAN mendukung
terbentuknya Badan Penasehat UKM ASEAN atau ASEAN SME Advisory Board,
pengembangan portal khusus niaga UKM di ASEAN atau ASEAN SME Biz Portal,
pelaksanaan ASEAN SME Trade Fair, dan rangkaian program sosialisasi tentang
manfaat dari FTA (Free Trade Agreement) bagi sektor UKM," lanjutnya.
"Menurut hemat kami, ASEAN perlu mengimplementasikan AEC Blueprint 2015
tepat waktu karena membawa dampak positif bagi seluruh anggota Asean dan
memfasilitasi tiga pengembangan kerja sama ASEAN dengan mitra dialog. Kami
juga perlu memperkokoh konektivitas di tingkat ASEAN dengan kawasan Asia
Pasifik sehingga ASEAN menjadi bagian rantai penyaluran barang di tingkat global.
Kami berharap ASEAN yang kompetitif, inklusif, merata, berkesinambungan dan
memiliki ketahanan yang tinggi," ujar Mari.

OkezoneKamis, 13 Oktober 2011 17:48 wib 0 5Email1


IlustrasiDENPASAR - Nilai investasi Indonesia di sejumlah negara di Asean mengalami peningkatan tajam dari
USD37,8 miliar pada periode 2009 naik hingga 100 persen menjadi USD70,8 miliar di periode 2010.
"Nilai investasi kita di wilayah Asean mengalami peningkatan signifikan sebesar 100 persen yang sebagian besar di
bidang industri, ujar Wakil Tetap Republik Indonesia untuk Asean, Gede Ngurah Swajaya, saat jumpa pers di
Denpasar, Kamis (13/10/2011).
Dia menambahkan sesuai tujuan pembentukan komunitas ASEAN pada 2015 sebagai pusat industri yang kompetitif
bagi negara-negara industri di dunia seperti Jepang dan Jerman, maka ada beberapa prioritas yang akan dilakukan.
International
Minggu, 04 Desember 2011 - 17:44:36Merajut ASEAN Community
2015
Fajar NugrahaRabu, 18 Agustus 2010 20:13 wib 0 0Email0
Foto: Ist JAKARTA - Association of South East Asian Nation (ASEAN) terus mengalami perkembangan setiap
tahunnya. ASEAN kini sedang menuju pada ASEAN Community yang diharapkan dapat dicapai pada 2015
mendatang.
Hal inilah yang diutarakan oleh Direktur Jenderal Kerjasama ASEAN Djauhari Oratmangun, pada diskusi Posisi Indonesia di ASEAN- di Hotel Aryaduta hari di Jakarta. Menurutnya, arah transformasi ini sudah mulai
terbentuk sejak Bali Concord yang berlangsung pada 2003 silam.
Djauhari menyatakan, Bali Concord pada Oktober 2003, yang diikuti pemimpin negara ASEAN menegaskan,
pembentukan ASEAN Community paling lambat dilakukan 2020. Sekadar diketahui, komunitas ASEAN ini
mencakup tiga pilar, yaitu komunitas politik keamanan, komunitas ekonomi dan komunitas sosial budaya.

SARAN DALAM MENUNJANG AEC 2015


Perlu kajian yang mendalam oleh Akademisi di Perguruan Tinggi untuk setiap
komoditi hasil pertanian, perkebunan, perikanan, dan peternakan :

Good Agricultural Practise


Good Hygiene Practise
Good Laboratory Practise
Good Manufacturing Practise
Good Animal Husbandry Practise
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point
Quality and Safety Management System
Collaborative Research And Technology Transfer
Business Linkages Among The Potential Agricultural Cooperatives

Terima kasih

Detik. Com. Minggu, 11/12/2011 16:10 WIB


Pemerintah 'Mimpi' RI Jadi Penghasil Coklat Terbesar Dunia
Ambisi jadi peringkat pertama negara penghasil kakao terbesar mengalahkan Pantai Gading dan Ghana,
pemerintah targetkan peningkatan produksi kakao menjadi 1,2 ton per hektare pada tahun 2014.
Menteri Koordinator (Menko) Perekonomian Hatta Rajasa menyatakan saat ini konsumsi coklat masyarakat
Indonesia hanya 0,7 ons/orang/tahun. Angka tersebut masih jauh jika dibandingkan dengan masyarakat Eropa
yang hampir 5 kg/orang/tahun.
Chocolate Party Gedung Sarinah MH Thamrin Jakarta