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Introduction to Device Boxes - Module 6: Device Boxes Diploma in Electrical Studies

Device Boxes
Device boxes are required for outlets, switches, pull boxes, and junction.
The National Electric Code limits the number of conductors, fittings, and devices allowed in each
outlet or switch box according to its size.
Large enough boxes must be installed to accommodate the number of conductors that must be
spliced in the box or fed through it. For this reason knowing the various types of boxes and their
volume capacity is very important. Moreover, electricians must also know what box to use for any
given job.
Terms Associated with Device Boxes
Click on each term to find out more:
Device used to physically connect conduit or cable to an outlet box, cabinet, or other enclosure.
Designed and constructed to withstand an internal explosion without creating an external explosion
or fire.
Handy Box
Single-gang outlet box used for surface mounting to enclose receptacles or wall switches on
concrete or concrete block construction in industrial and commercial buildings. Also known as a
utility box, it is made for recessed mounting, too.
Junction Box
An enclosure where one or more raceways or cables enter, and in which electrical conductors can
be, or are spliced.
Outlet Box
A metallic or nonmetallic box installed in an electrical wiring system from which current is taken to
supply to some apparatus or device.
Pull Box
A sheet metal box-like enclosure used in conduit runs to facilitate the pulling of cables from point to
point in long runs, or to provide for the installation of conduit support bushings needed to support the
weight of long riser cables, or to provide for turns in multiple conduit runs.
Rain Tight
Constructed so that moisture will not interfere with successful operations.
Constructed so that water, under specified test conditions, will not enter the enclosure.

Types of Device Boxes - Module 6: Device Boxes - Diploma in

Electrical Studies
Types of Device Boxes
Outlet boxes fall into three categories:

1. Pressed steel boxes with knockouts of various sizes for raceway or cable entrances.
Types of Pressed Steel Boxes
boxes with conduit, electric metallic tubing, and cable
boxes designed for use with specific types of surface metal raceways
2. Cast iron, aluminum, or brass boxes with threaded hubs of various sizes and locations for
raceway entrances.
3. Nonmetallic boxes
Some of the boxes that electricians work with are listed below:
Octagon and Round Boxes
Square boxes
Device boxes
Masonry boxes
Boxes for damp and wet locations
Pull and Junction boxes
Octagon and Round Boxes:
Octagon boxes are available with knockouts for use with either conduit or cable box connections.
The standard width of octagon boxes is four inches, with depths of 11/4, 11/2, or 21/8.
Round boxes are available in the same dimensions, but the National Electric Code limits their use.
Square Boxes:
Square boxes are available in 4 and 411/16 square sizes. Both are available in depths of 11/4, 11/2
, and 21/8. These boxes are available with or without mounting brackets.
Device Boxes
Device boxes are designated for flush mounting mainly in residential and some commercial
They are available with or without cable clamps and brackets for mounting to wooden structural
Masonry Boxes

Masonry boxes are used in flat-slab construction jobs. These boxes consist of a sleeve with external
ears and a plate that is attached after the sleeve is nailed to the deck.
Boxes for Damp and Wet Locations
In damp or wet locations, boxes and fitting must be placed or equipped to prevent moisture or water
from entering and accumulating.
These boxes are made of nonconductive material with nonmetallic sheathed cable (or approved
nonmetallic conduit when used in locations where it is moist).
Underground installations or those in concrete slabs or masonry which is in direct contact with earth
must be considered as wet locations.
In such places, boxes with threaded conduit hubs and gasket covers should be used. These raintight, waterproof, or watertight equipment will prevent water from entering the box, except for
condensation within the box.
Pull and Junction Boxes
Pull and junction boxes in an electrical installation facilitate the installation of conductors, or provide
a junction point for the connection of conductors, or both.
Generally, the electrician on-the-job will determine the size of the pull box. Pull boxes should be as
large as possible.
Types of Device Boxes
Click on each button to find out more:
Pull Box
A pull box is a junction box that is placed in long conduit runs to make the pulling in of the wires
easier. The code only allows 4 one-quarter bends between pull boxes. If the conduit run incorporates
more than 4 bends, then a pull box has to be inserted into the run.
Junction Box
An electrical junction box is a container for electrical connections, usually intended to conceal these
connections from sight and meter tampering.
A small metal or plastic junction box may form part of an electrical conduit wiring system in a
building, or may be buried in the plaster of a wall, concealed behind an access panel or cast into
concrete with only the lid showing. It sometimes includes terminals for joining wires.

Sizing and Installing Device Boxes - Module 6: Device Boxes Diploma in Electrical Studies
Sizing Outlet Boxes
The maximum number of conductors permitted in a standard outlet box is generally limited due to
safety. So, choosing the correct size outlet box is the first step in correctly installing a receptacle.
The main factor to consider when buying an electrical box is volume, or cubic inches of space inside
the box.
The National Electrical Code outlines the standard outlet boxes, but these figures do not take into
account any other fittings or devices such as fixture studs, cables clamps, switches, etc., the box
would contain.
Installing Boxes
The NEC (National Electrical Code) lays down the following requirements for installing boxes. In the
absence of NEC, these points should be considered.
Click on each point to find out more:
1. The box selected must be listed for the given application. For example, a box used in a wet
location must be listed for use in that location.
2. The box must have sufficient volume and must allow sufficient free space for conductors.
3. Conductors entering the boxes as well as fittings must be protected from abrasion.
4. Boxes must be installed and supported properly, and the finished installation must be accessible
for later repair or maintenance.
Making Connections
1. Before installing the box, study the electrical floor plan and consult the builder and architect for
any changes.
2. Install all boxes in accordance with the electrical drawings.
3. Space the boxes evenly.
4. The box center is the midpoint on the vertical dimension of the box.
5. Check the door swing direction to ensure that the switches are not installed behind a door.
6. Measure the height of the switch boxes from the floor.
Splicing Wires
After the boxes are installed, the wires must be spliced. The general step for splicing wires with wire
nuts is given below. Click on each step to know more:
1. Select the proper size wire nut to accommodate the wires being spliced. Wire nut packages

contain charts that list the allowable combinations of wires by size.

2. Select the appropriate tool and then strip the insulation from the ends of the wire to be spliced.
3. Stick the ends of the wires into the wire nut and turn clockwise until tight. The wire nut draws the
conductors and insulation into the body of the connectors.
4. After making the connections within a box, tuck the wires neatly into the back of the box.

Introduction to Hand Bending - Module 7: Hand Bending

Conduits - Diploma in Electrical Studies
Hand Bending
Electrical conduit is a pipe or tube that protects electrical wires from accidental damage and
exposure to the elements.
It is vital that electricians know how to bend and install conduits correctly. A properly bent conduit
permits easy installation and provides a physical protection for conductors once the conduit is
This module discusses the techniques for using hand-operated conduit benders.
Terms Associated with Hand Bending
Click on each term to find out more:
90-degree Bend
A bend that changes the direction of the conduit by 90.
Back-to-Back Bend
Any bend formed by two 90 bends, with a straight section of conduit between the bends.
Concentric Bend
90 bends made in two or more parallel runs of conduit with the radius of each bend increasing from
the inside of the run toward the outside.
Developed Bend
The actual length of the conduit that will be bent.
Because a conduit bends in a radius and not at right angles, the length of conduit needed for a bend
will not equal the total determined length. Gain is the distance saved by the arc of a 90 bend.
An offset (kick) is two bends placed in a piece of conduit to change elevation to go over or under
obstructions or for proper entry into boxes, cabinets, etc.
The length of the bent section of conduit measured from the bottom, centerline, or top of the straight
section to the end of the bent section.
Segment Bend
A large bend formed by multiple short bends or shots.
Another name for the rise in a section of conduit. Also, a term used for conduit penetrating a slab or
the ground.

Hand Bending Process and Equipment - Module 7: Hand

Bending Conduits - Diploma in Electrical Studies
Hand Bending Equipment
A conduit is a pipe or tube that protects electrical wires from accidental damage and exposure.
Electricians must know how to bend and install conduits that go over and around obstacles.
The National Electrical Code limits the number and the degree of bends allowed in a single run of
conduit. These limitations ensure that the conductors inside the conduit are protected.
To bend conduits correctly, an electrician must make precise measurements of lengths and angles
using hand benders.
Hand benders are convenient to use on the job. Click on each button to know the reasons:
1. They are portable.
2. They require no electrical power.
3. They have a shape that supports the walls of the conduit being bent.
Note: When performing a bend, it is important to keep the conduit on a stable, firm, and flat surface.
Segment Bending Device
A hickey is a segment bending device. Used for rigid metal conduits and intermediate metal
conduits, a hickey functions differently than a regular hand bender.
When using a hickey, be careful not to flatten or kink the conduit. Also, hickeys should only be used
with rigid metal conduits and intermediate metal conduits because very little support is given to the
walls of the conduit being bent.
First, a small bend of about 10 degree is made. Then, the hickey is moved to a new position and
another small bend is made. This process is continued until the bend is completed.
A hickey can be used for conduit stub-ups, in slabs and decks. (Remember a stub-up is another
name for the rise in a section of conduit; it is also a term used for a conduit penetrating a slab or the
Using a Hand Bender
The following points must be considered when using a hand bender:
The first step in making a good bend is familiarization with benders.
Conduit bending is dependent upon the skills of the electrician and requires a working knowledge
of basic terms and proven procedures.

To bend conduits correctly, an electrician must make precise measurements of lengths and angles,
refer to tables of predetermined values, and apply some basic knowledge of geometry.

Geometry Required to Make a Bend - Module 7: Hand Bending

Conduits - Diploma in Electrical Studies
Geometry Required to Make a Bend
Bending conduit requires some basic knowledge of geometry, mostly knowing a right triangle.
A right triangle is defined as any triangle with a 90 degree angle. The side directly opposite the 90
degree angle is called hypotenuse, and the side on which the triangle sits is the base. The vertical
side is called the height.
Note: On the job, apply the relationship in a right triangle when making an offset bend. The offset
forms the hypotenuse of a right triangle.
90-Degree Bend
The 90-degree stub-bend is the most basic bend of all. The stub or rise is a section of the conduit,
regardless of the type of conduit being installed.
Before making a bend two measurements must be considered: desired rise and take-up distance of
the bender.
Desired Rise
The desired rise is the height of the stub-up.
Take-up Distance
The take-up is the amount of conduit the bender will use to form the bend.
Making a 90-Degree Bend
Click on the numbers below to know the step-by-step procedure of making a 90-degree bend:
1. Determine the take-up distance; subtract it from the stub-up height.
2. Mark that distance on the conduit, all the way around. The mark will indicate the point at which
you will bend the conduit.
3. Line up the starting point on the conduit with the starting point on the bender.
4. Use one foot to hold the conduit steady. Keep your heel on the floor for balance.
5. Apply constant pressure on the bender foot pedal with your foot, making sure the bender handle is
perpendicular to the floor to get maximum leverage.
6. Bend the conduit in one smooth motion, pulling as steadily as possible.

Making a 90-Degree Bend

After finishing the bend, follow these two steps to ensure the 90-degree bend is accurate:
1. With the back of the bend on the floor, measure to the end of the conduit stub-up to make sure it
is the right length.
2. Check the 90-degree angle of the bend with a square, or at the angle formed by the floor and a
wall. A torpedo level may also be used for this purpose.
Gain is the distance saved by the arc of a 90-degree bend.
Knowing the gain helps to precut, ream, and pre-thread both ends of the conduit before you bend it.
Since it is easier to work with a 90-degree angle, you can work faster.
The actual length of the conduit that will be bent is known as developed length. This is shown by the
following equation:
Developed length = (A + B) gain
Back-to-Back 90-Degree Bends
A back-to-back bend consists of two 90-degree bends made on the same piece of conduit and
placed back-to-back.
Making an Offset Bend
Many situations require that the conduit be bent so that it can pass over objects such as beams and
other conduits, or enter meter cabinets and junction boxes.
Bends used for this purpose are called offsets. Two equal bends of less than 90 degree are required
for this purpose.
The larger the degree of bend, the harder it will be to pull the wire. And the smaller the degree of
bend, the easier it will be to pull the wire.
When a conduit is offset, some of the conduit length is used; so an allowance must be made for this
Parallel Offsets
When multiple pieces of conduit must be bent around a common obstruction, parallel offsets are
Since the bends are laid out along a common radius, an adjustment must be made to ensure that
the ends do not come out uneven.
Saddle Bends
A saddle bend is used to go around obstructions.
Making a saddle bend will cause the center of the saddle to shorten 3/16 for every inch of saddle

Four-Bend Saddles
Four-bend saddles can be difficult as they must be aligned exactly on the same plane.
Cutting Conduits
Rigid metal conduit (RMC), intermediate metal conduit (IMC), and electrical metallic tubing (EMT)
are available in standard 10-foot length. When installing a conduit, it is cut to fit the job requirements.
A conduit is normally cut using a hacksaw. A pipe cutter can also be used to cut RMC and IMC.
Reaming Conduits
When a conduit is cut, the inside edge is sharp. This edge will damage the insulation of the wire
when it is pulled through. To avoid this damage, the inside edge must be smoothed or reamed using
a reamer.

Introduction to Raceways and Fittings - Module 8: Raceways

and Fittings - Diploma in Electrical Studies
Raceways and Fittings
A raceway is an enclosed channel of metal or nonmetallic materials designed expressly for holding
wires, cables, or busbars. Raceways include conduit, wireways, ducting, and cable trays.
Raceways protect the wiring and provide the means of identifying one type of wiring when it is
located next to another type.
Each type of raceway is suited to a particular purpose. There are different ways to install raceways,
and this usually depends on the construction environment in which they are to be installed.
Raceways must be supported by securing them to the building structure with fasteners. So, it is
important that every electrician be familiar with the various types of fasteners used to attach raceway
supports to wood, concrete, and metal.
Every type of raceway is interconnected with a specifically designated series of boxes and fittings.
Boxes and fittings provide ease of raceway installation, and access points or outlets for circuit
conductors. Boxes are used as convenient pull points in the raceway system when installing large
conductors or a great number of conductors.
Note: It is important to always match the box and fittings with the type of raceway being installed.
Terms Associated with Raceways and Fittings
Click on each term to find out more:
Able to be reached, as in for service or repair.
Meeting the requirements of an appropriate regulatory agency.
Bonding Wire
A wire used to make a continuous grounding path between equipment and ground.
Cable Trays
Rigid structures used to support electrical conductors.
A round raceway, similar to a pipe, but one that houses conductors.
Exposed Locations
Not permanently closed in by the structure or finish of a building; able to be installed or removed
without damage to the structure.

A bend in a piece of conduit, usually less than 45 degrees, made to change the direction of the
Enclosed channels designed expressly for holding wires, cables, or busbars, with additional
Intermediate point on a main circuit where another wire is connected to supply electrical current to
another circuit.
A long, narrow box used to house electrical connections that could be exposed to the environment.
Steel troughs designed to carry electrical wire and cable.

Working with Raceways and Conduits - Module 8: Raceways

and Fittings - Diploma in Electrical Studies
Working with Raceways and Conduits
Raceway is a general term referring to a wide range of circular and rectangular enclosed channels
used to house electrical wiring.
Raceways can be metallic or nonmetallic and come in different shapes.
Depending on the particular purpose for which they are intended, raceways include enclosures such
as underfloor raceways, flexible metal conduit, tubing, wireways, surface metal raceways, surface
nonmetallic raceways, and support system such as cable trays.
A conduit is a raceway with a circular cross section similar to a pipe that contains wires or cables.
A conduit is used to provide protection for conductors and route them from one place to another.
In addition, a conduit makes it easier to replace or add wires to existing structures. Metal conduit
also provides a permanent electrical path to ground.
Metal Conduit Fittings
A large variety of conduit fittings are available for electric work. Manufactures design and construct
fittings to allow a multitude of applications.
The type of conduit used on a job depends on the size and type of conduit, the type of fittings
needed, the location of the fitting, and the installation methods.
Some common types of fittings are presented in the next slide.
Click on the terms below to know more on each type of conduit fitting:
Couplings are sleeve-like fittings, typically threaded inside, to join two male threaded pieces of rigid
conduit or IMC (Intermediate Metal Conduit).
Conduit Bodies
Conduit bodies are a separate portion of a conduit or tubing system that provide access through a
removable cover to the interior of the system, at a junction of two or more sections of the system.
Insulating Bushings
An insulating bushing is either nonmetallic or has an insulated throat. Insulating bushings are
installed on the threaded end of a conduit that enters a sheet metal enclosure.
Offset Conduit Nipples
Offset conduit nipples are used to connect two pieces of electrical equipment in close proximity

where a slight offset is required.

Making a Conduit-to-Box Connection
A conduit is joined to boxes by connectors, adapters, threaded hubs, or locknuts.
Bushings protect the wires from the sharp edges of the conduit. As previously discussed, bushings
are usually made of plastic or metal. Some metal bushings have a grounding screw to permit a
bounding wire to be installed.
Locknuts are used on the inside and outside walls of the box to which the conduit is connected.
A grounding locknut may be needed if a bonding wire is to be installed. Special sealing locknuts are
used in wet locations.
Sealing Fittings
Hazardous locations in manufacturing plants and other industrial facilities involve a wide variety of
flammable gases and vapors and ignitable dusts. These hazardous substances have widely different
flash points, ignition temperatures, and flammable limits.
Such working environments require fittings that can be sealed.
Sealing fittings are installed in conduit runs to minimize the passage of gases, vapors, or flames
through the conduit and reduce the accumulation of moisture.

Raceway Fasteners, Supports, Wireways - Module 8: Raceways

and Fittings - Diploma in Electrical Studies
Raceway Fasteners and Anchors
Conduits and other types of raceways used to carry wiring and cables must be properly supported.
This generally means attaching the raceway to the building structure.
Depending on the type of construction, the raceway may have to be attached to wood, concrete, or
metal. Each of these materials requires the use of fasteners designed specifically for the purpose.
Using the wrong fastener, or installing the right fastener incorrectly, can lead to a failure of the
raceway support. Therefore, it is important that every electrician be familiar with the different types of
fasteners, their uses, and their limitations.
Some typical types of fasteners used to attach raceways are as follows:
1. Tie wraps
2. Screws
3. Hammer-driven pins and studs
4. Powder-actuated tools and fasteners
5. Mechanical anchors
6. Hollow-wall anchors
7. Epoxy anchoring systems
Raceway Supports
Raceway supports are available in many types and shape. Electrical equipment and raceways must
have their own supporting methods and should not be supported by the supporting hardware of a
fire-rated roof / ceiling assembly.
The most common conduit supports found in electrical installations are listed below:
1. Straps
2. Standoff supports
3. Electrical framing channels
4. Beam clamps
Wireways are sheet metal troughs provided with hinged covers or with screws on removable covers.
Like other types of raceways, wireways are used for housing electric wires and cables. They are
available in various lengths, and this helps to install them without cutting the wireway ducts.
Types of Wireways
Click on each term to find out more:
Auxiliary Gutters
An auxiliary gutter is a wireway that is intended to add to the wiring space at switchboards, meters,
and other distribution locations.

Rectangular Duct-Type
Rectangular duct-type wireways come as either hinged-cover or screw-cover troughs. Wireway
troughs are exposed when first installed. Whenever possible, they are mounted on the ceilings or
walls, although they may sometimes be suspended from the ceiling.
Wireway components such as trough crosses, 90-degree internal elbows, and tee connectors serve
the same function as fittings on other types of raceways. The fittings are attached to the duct using
slip-on connectors.
Cable Trays
Cable trays function as a support for conductors and tubing. They are made from aluminum, steel,
and fiberglass; and are available in two basic forms -- ladder and trough.
A cable tray provides easy access to conductors, which can be added and removed easily.

Storing, Handling, Installing Raceways - Module 8: Raceways

and Fittings - Diploma in Electrical Studies
Storing, Handling, Installing Raceways
Storing Raceways
Proper and safe methods of storing conduits, wireways, raceways, and cable trays may sound like a
simple task, but improper storage techniques can result in wasted time and damage to the raceway
as well as personal injury.
Pipe racks are commonly used for storing conduit. The racks provide support and prevent the
bending, sagging, distorting, scratching, or marring of the conduit service.
Most racks have compartments where different types and sizes of conduits can be separated for
ease of identification and selection.
The storage compartment in racks is usually elevated to help avoid damage that might occur at
floor level. The ends of stored conduit should be sealed to help prevent contamination and damage.
Handling Raceways
A raceway is made to strict specifications. It can easily be damaged by careless handling. From the
time a raceway is delivered to a job site until the installation is complete, it should be handled in a
proper and safe manner.
The next slide presents some basic guidelines to the proper methods of handling raceways.
Click on each number below to know about the proper ways of handling raceways:
1. Never drag raceways on the ground or floor.
2. Keep the thread-protection caps on when handling or transporting conduit raceway.
3. Keep raceways away from any material that might contaminate it during handling.
4. Flag the ends of long lengths of raceways when transporting it to the job site.
5. Never drop or throw raceways when handling it.
6. Never hit a raceway against other objects when transporting it.
7. Always use two people to carry long pieces of raceways.

Installing Raceways
Note: Conduit and box installation varies with the type of construction.
For example, in a reinforced concrete construction environment, the conduit and the boxes must be
embedded in the concrete to achieve a flush surface.

Introduction to Conductors and Cables - Module 9: Conductors

and Cables - Diploma in Electrical Studies
Conductors and Cables
A conductor is the current-carrying portion of a wire along with its insulation.
As an electrician, you are required to install conductors. This involves choosing the proper wire and /
or cable for a job. You are also required to pull this wire or cable through conduit runs in order to
terminate it.
When selecting the right conductor for a job, electricians have many options, including conductor
material, ampacity, type of insulation, and color coding.
Conductor installation also requires using the right tool for the right job.
Installing conductors can be dangerous, so electricians must take safety precautions.
Terms Associated with Conductors and Cables
The current in amperes a conductor can carry continuously, under the condition of use, without
exceeding its temperature rating.
The turning drum of the cable puller on which the rope is wrapped and pulled.
Fish Tape
A hand device used to pull a wire through a conduit run.
A cylinder of foam rubber that is inside the conduit and is then propelled by compressed air or
vacuumed through the conduit run, pulling a line or tape.
Wire Grip
A device used to link pulling rope to cable during a pull.

Wire Assembly - Module 9: Conductors and Cables - Diploma in

Electrical Studies
Wire Assembly
Conductors and Insulation
The term conductor is used in two ways. It is used to describe:
1. the current-carrying portion of a wire or cable
2. the wire or cable composed of a current-carrying portion and an outer covering insulation
In this module, the term will be used to describe the wire assembly, which includes the insulation and
current-carrying portion of the wire.
Conductors are identified by size and insulation material.
Size refers to the cross-sectional area of the current-carrying portion of the wire. The ampacity is
affected by the conductor material and size, insulation, and installation location.

More Information on Conductors and Insulation

Wire Size: Wire sizes are expressed in gauge numbers.
Ampacity: Ampacity is the current in amperes a conductor can carry continuously under the
conditions of use, without exceeding its temperature rating.
Conductor Material: The most common conductor material is copper. Copper is used because of its
excellent conductivity (low resistance), ease of use, and value.
Conductor Insulation: A conductor is surrounded by insulation to prevent current leakage or short
Fixture Wires: Fixture wires are used for the interior wiring of fixtures and for wiring fixtures to a
power source.
Cables: Cables are two or more insulated wires and may contain a grounding wire covered by an
outer jacket or sheath. Cables are usually classified by the type of covering -- non-metallic (plastic)
or metallic.

Installing and Feeding Conductors into Conduits - Module 9:

Conductors and Cables - Diploma in Electrical Studies
Installing Conductors
Conductors are installed in all types of conduit by pulling them through the conduit. This is done by
using fish tape, pull lines, and pulling equipment.
Click on each button to know more:
Fish Tape
Fish tape can be made of flexible steel or nylon and is available in coils. Broken or damaged fish
tape should not be used. To prevent electrical shock, fish tape should not be used near or in live
Wire Grips
Wire grips are used to attach the cable to the pull tape.
Pull Lines
A pull line is usually made of nylon or some other synthetic fiber. It is made with a spliced eye for
easy connection to fish tape or conductors.
Pulling Equipment
Many types of pulling equipment are available to help pull conductors through conduit. A manually
operated puller is used mainly for smaller pulling jobs, while an electronically driven power puller is
used where long runs, several bends, or large conductors are involved.
The main parts of a power puller are the electric motor, the chain or sprocket drive, the capstan, the
sheave, and the pull line.
Feeding Conductors into Conduit
After the fish tape or pull line is attached to the conductors, they must be pulled back through the
conduit. As the fish tape is pulled, the attached conductors must be properly fed into the conduit.
Usually more than one conductor is fed into the conduit during a wire pull.
It is important to keep the conductors straight and parallel, and free from kinks, bends, and
Conductor Lubrication
When conductors are fed into long runs of conduit or conduit with several bends, both the conduit
and the wires are lubricated with a compound designated for wire lubrication.
Conductor Termination
The amount of free conductor at each junction or outlet box must meet certain specifications.
Click on each button to find out more:

Where conductors pass through junction or pull boxes

Where conductors pass through junction or pull boxes, enough slack should be provided for splices
at a later date.
When a box is used as a pull box
When a box is used as a pull box, the conductors are not necessarily spliced. They may enter the
pull box through one conduit run and exit via another conduit run.
The purpose of a pull box is to facilitate pulling conductors on long runs. A junction box is not only
used to facilitate pulling conductors through the raceway system, but it also provides an enclosure
for splices in the conductors.