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CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter presents the Research Design that was employed in the study. The section
includes a further discussion of respondents whom the data gathered; the location of the study
methodology used, instruments utilized in the study. It presented the statistical tools and
treatment that were used for interpretation of collected data.

Research Design
A descriptive type of research (Descriptive Survey) was used in this study. The said
method was a fact finding study with adequate and accurate interpretation of the findings.
Descriptive research is a study that describes the nature of the phenomenon under investigation
after a survey of current trends, practices and conditions that were related to that phenomenon.
Descriptive studies involved analysis of an extremely broad range of phenomena, its result was a
comprehensive presentation and interpretation of statistical tabulations of data yielded by a
survey.

Population Data
The primary source of data was collected through survey questionnaires, which was
answered by a total of fifty (50) respondents. Data and information was gathered using a
checklist type of questionnaire wherein the respondents check the specific options that pertain to

their knowledge on family planning methods. The researchers guided the respondents in
answering the questionnaires to make sure that they fully understand the questions and ensure
accuracy.

Respondents of the Study


This study will involve respondents that were selected according to the following:
1.

The respondents of this study were fifty selected mother.

2.

A resident of Barangay San Antonio, 4th Estate Subdivision, Paranaque, City.

Sampling Technique
The researchers used purposive sampling technique. It is a random sampling technique
which seeks to include respondents who fit the criteria needed for the study. The respondents
were chosen based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. This was used because the chosen
respondents had to be selected mothers who used family planning method. They have to agree to
be interviewed and literate enough to comprehend the questions asked of them. The researchers
excluded those who did not fit the criteria.

Research Instrument
The most commonly used and frequently self-devised measuring instrument, the
questionnaire will be used simply to obtain information directly from subject as to make a
standardized list of factual information or elicited opinions that was generalized to a larger
population. Both open and closed ended type was to put a check to the appropriate or chosen
answer provided according to their perception. Analysis and interpretation of data obtain was the
researchers step.
A questionnaire will be design to elicit answer pertaining to the effects of the Natural and
Artificial Family Planning methods used by the selected mother at the Brgy. San Antonio, Fourth
Estate Subdivision, Paranaque, City.

The questionnaires will be to prepare in English and

Tagalog version.
The data that will be derive from the answers of the selected respondents will be the basis
in the assessment of the effectiveness of natural and artificial family planning methods in the
selected mothers in Brgy. San Antonio, Fourth Estate Subdivision, Paranaque, City.

Validation of Instruments
The principal tool for the data gathering is the questionnaires. The researchers will
instruct questions related to topic under studies. Part I consisted of the demographic profile of
respondents. Part II is family planning method use consisted of two parts: (a) natural method and
(b) artificial method. The natural method consisted of standard base method; lactation
amenorrhea method and basal body temperature. The artificial method consisted of pill, condom

intrauterine devices, bilateral tubal ligation, and Injectable. Part III consisted of questions on the
effect of natural and artificial family planning method in the health condition of the selected
mothers. The effect of natural and artificial family planning methods in the health condition of
selected mothers consisted of three parts: (a) physical aspects; (b) emotional aspects; and (c)
psychological aspects. The physical aspects consisted of experience decrease of libido, able to
maintain body weight, experience dizziness and drowsiness, feeling of nausea and vomiting,
feeling of light headedness. The emotional aspects consisted of with episodes of depression,
relationship satisfaction, experience of nervousness when using contraceptive method, and mood
swing and episode of anger outburst. The psychological aspects consisted of experience of stress
when family planning method is unavailable, feeling of guilt using contraceptive method,
difficulty in thinking or concentrating, cerate positive outlook in life, and change in selfperception.
In validating the questionnaire, the researcher conducted a test with fifty (50) selected
mothers.

Data Gathering Procedure


Approval to conduct the study was obtained from the researcher panel according to the
institutions protocols for conducting research. Based on established knowledge on supported in
the literature, the researchers developed a survey tool and interview questions as the instrument
for gathering data from the respondents. Data collection was done through interview using the
researcher-made instrument phrased in English. The interview was done after the permission was
obtained from proper authorities. Informed consent was solicited from each respondent in their

willingness to participate in the study. The purpose of the study was explained to the
respondents.

Evaluation and Scoring


Likert Scale
To determine the effect of natural and artificial family method in selected mothers, the 5Point Likert Scale was used and the interpretations are as follows:
Numerical Equivalent
5
4
3
2
1

Statistical Limit
4.20-5.00
3.30-4.19
2.60-3.29
1.80-2.59
1.00-1.79

Interpretation
Strongly Agree
Agree
Neither Agree or Disagree
Disagree
Strongly Disagree

Statistical Treatment
To add credence and reliability of the result and the empirical data of respondents,
statistical methods were used for the purpose. To be able to arrive at the possible answers to the
research problem, the researchers used the following statistical procedures to the test the
hypothesis of the study:
1. Weighted mean. The procedure employed in the use of the weighted mean is as follows:

The weight from the 5-point Likert scale assigned to the research instrument will be taken

to obtain the weighted frequency.

The total weighted frequencies will be divided by the total frequency to obtain the

weighted mean. The formula is as follows:

WM

(f )(weight )
N

Where: WM = weighted mean


f = frequency
n = total number of respondents
2. Standard Deviation. To measure the quantify amount of variation or dispersion of data
values.
Formula:
S=

fm - (fm)
n-1 - n (n -1)

Wherein:
S= standard deviation
f= corresponding frequency
m= class mark or midpoint of each class interval
n= sample s
3. Frequency and Percentage Distribution. Was used to describe the profile of the pregnant
women in terms of age, civil status, and educational attainment. The formula of the percentage
is:
P =f

x
N

100

Where:
P
=
percentage
f
=
Frequency of response
N
=
total number of cases
4. Integrated t-test. For correlated mean was used to find out the difference of pre- test and
post- test.
Formula:
t=

nD

D
- (D) / (n-1)

Wherein:
t= t- value
D= the difference
n= number of cases
5. An Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) will be employed to determine the significant
difference between the mean level of awareness of the respondents when grouped
according to age, educational attainment, number of children and monthly income. The
formula is as follows:
F=

MSbet
MSw

MSbet =

SSbet
k- 1

MSw =

Where:
MSbet Mean Square between Groups
MSw Mean Square within Groups
SSbet Sum of Squares between Groups
SSw Sum of Squares within Groups
K number of groups
N total sample size
F calculated F-statistic

SSw
N- k