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VISCOSITY

GARDNER STANDARD BUBBLE VISCOMETERS

SETS OF FILLED STANDARD TUBES FROM A-5 to Z-10 SERIES


MEETS ASTM D1131, D1545, D1725; AOC:Ka 6-63; FTMS 141a:4272
VI-VG-9100
GARDNER BUBBLE VISCOMETER SET A THRU T......................$1,228.00
VI-VG-9100/C SET W/ NIST CERTIFICATION.....................................................2,643.00

Set of 20 bubble tube standards designated A thru T with 2 empty tubes


(Grade A, Class G) and directions for
use, complete in storage case.
Weight: 3 lbs net;
Shipping Weight: 7 lbs

MANUFACTURED BY
BYK-GARDNER INC.

SINGLE FILLED STANDARD BUBBLE VISCOMETER TUBES A THRU T:



Kinematic
Cat No.
Tube Centistokes
PRICE
VI-VG-9101 A 53.6 $66.00
VI-VG-9102 B 68.8 66.00
VI-VG-9103 C 92.7 66.00
VI-VG-9104 D 102.9 66.00
VI-VG-9105 E 122.7 66.00
VI-VG-9106 F 151.9 66.00
VI-VG-9107 G 160.0 66.00
VI-VG-9108 H 210.8 66.00
VI-VG-9109 I 224.2 66.00
VI-VG-9110 J 268.2 66.00
VI-VG-9000
VI-VG-9000/C


Cat No.
VI-VG-9111
VI-VG-9112
VI-VG-9113
VI-VG-9114
VI-VG-9115
VI-VG-9116
VI-VG-9117
VI-VG-9118
VI-VG-9119
VI-VG-9120

Tube
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T

Kinematic
Centistokes
287.9
302.3
335.4
345.2
377.9
408.8
441.8
467.4
517.7
547.2

PRICE
$66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00

GARDNER BUBBLE VISCOMETER SET A5 THRU A1....................$394.00


Set w/ NIST Certification........................................................1,195.00

Set of 5 bubble tube standards


designated A5 thru A1 with 2
empty tubes (Grade A, Class G)
and directions for use, complete
in storage case.
Weight: 1 1/2 lbs net
Shipping Weight.: 5 lbs

SINGLE STANDARD BUBBLE TUBES A5 - A1:



Cat No.
VI-VG-9001
VI-VG-9002
VI-VG-9003
VI-VG-9004
VI-VG-9005

Tube
A5
A4
A3
A2
A1

Kinematic
Centistokes Price (each)
5.1
$66.00
7.1
66.00
14.0
66.00
21.3
66.00
31.0
66.00

Individual tubes w/ N.I.S.T. Certification available Add /C2 to item Number.........$286.00

Paul N. Gardner Co., Inc. www.gardco.com (954) 946-9454 1-800-762-2478

VISCOSITY
VI-VG-9200 GARDNER BUBBLE VISCOMETER SET, U THRU Z6...........$ 747.00
VI-VG-9200/C SET W/NIST CERTIFICATION...........................................2,185.00

Set of 12 bubble tube standards designated U thru Z6


with 2 empty tubes (Grade
A, Class G) and directions
for use. Complete in case.
Weight: 2 1/2 lbs net; 7
lbs shipping weight.

SINGLE STANDARD BUBBLE TUBES U - Z6:



Kinematic
Cat No.
Tube
Centistokes Price (each)
VI-VG-9201
VI-VG-9202
VI-VG-9203
VI-VG-9204
VI-VG-9205
VI-VG-9206
VI-VG-9207
VI-VG-9208
VI-VG-9209
VI-VG-9210
VI-VG-9211
VI-VG-9212

U
V
W
X
Y
Z
Z1
Z2
Z3
Z4
Z5
Z6

665.9
889.2
1073.0
1200.0
1737.0
2289.0
2909.0
4056.0
4840.0
7241.0
9917.0
15080.0

$66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
75.00
75.00
75.00
75.00
75.00
75.00

VI-VG-9250 GARDNER BUBBLE VISCOMETER SET, Z7 THRU Z10......$415.00


VI-VG-9250/C SET W/NIST CERTIFICATION.................................................1,843.00
Set of 4 bubble tube standards
designated Z7 thru Z10 with 2
empty tubes (Grade A, Class
G) and directions for use,
complete in storage case.
Weight: 1 1/2 lbs net;
Shipping weight: 5 lbs

SINGLE STANDARD BUBBLE TUBES Z7 - Z10:



Kinematic
Cat No.
Tube
Centistokes Price (each)
VI-VG-9251
VI-VG-9252
VI-VG-9253
VI-VG-9254

Z7 40650.0 $94.00
Z8 73280.0 94.00
Z9 91500.0 94.00
Z10 119000.0 94.00

Individual tubes U thru Z w/ N.I.S.T. Certification available Add /C2 to item Number.........$280.00
Individual tubes Z1 thru Z10 w/ N.I.S.T. Certification available Add /C2 to item Number...$346.00

Procedure

ORIGINAL GARDNER EMPTY VISCOSITY TUBES

Knowing the approximate viscosity, pick four standard tubes closest in viscosity to your sample
Fill the sample tube iwth liquid, insert a cork, and then using the tube holder insert the four
lettered tubes and the sample tube into the holder.
Turn over the holder and visually compare what letter best matches
the rise time of the bubble in the sample
The rise time in seconds of the sealed tubes and samples can
also be determined using a basic timer
Please be aware of the following accuracies when
performing the test:
Temperature control: 1C
= 10% error
Verticality control:
5 slant = 10% error
Tube I.D. control:
0.1mm = 2% error
VI-730391
VI-730392
VI-730551
VI-44004

Empty Tubes, Grade A, Class G, 144/pkg w/corks, 10.65mm........................$224.00


Empty Tubes, Grade B, Class V, 144/pkg w/corks, 10.75mm...........................195.00
Empty Tubes, Grade N, 144/pkg w/corks & Time Test ASTM D 1545.................251.00
Corks, 150/pkg.............................................................................................19.00
Paul N. Gardner Co., Inc. www.gardco.com (954) 946-9454 1-800-762-2478

VISCOSITY
HAND-HELD TUBE HOLDER, 5 TUBE
Sturdy metal frame with plastic handle holding 5 tubes in
one row by means of spring clips. Flat ends allow holder
to be set in vertical position in water bath or on table.
Comes without tubes.
Weights: 1/2 lbs net; 2 lbs shipping weight.
VI-VG-7420 Tube Holder ......................................... 158.00

CARGILLE EMPTY VISCOSITY TUBES


FOR MEASURING VISCOSITY BY THE AIR BUBBLE RISE METHOD
MEETS ASTM D 1545
INTRODUCTION

Rheology is a branch of science dealing with the deformation and flow of materials which includes the subject of
viscosity. Viscosity is a measurement of internal friction, or
resistance, to flow by external forces. Viscosity is the ratio
of shear force to shear rate (the slope of the curves in Fig.
1a) expressed by:
n = f / A = shear force
f = Force
dv/dx shear rate
A = Area
v = Velocity
x = Distance
The viscosity of many materials depends on shear rate and
is classified accordingly, Fig 1b. Viscosity is expressed as
Absolute, n, and Kinematic, v. Absolute viscosity is determined
by measuring the shear force required to produce a given shear rate and is independent of
the density of the liquid. Kinematic viscosity is measured by the time required for a given
volume of liquid to flow through a capillary or restriction. It is related to flow caused by the
hydrostatic head of the liquid and therefore strongly dependent on density.
The relationship between Absolute and Kinematic viscosity is given by the following, where
p is density:
v = n/p
One of the simplest methods for determining Kinematic viscosity is by the rising bubble
technique employing matched viscosity tubes. The method is visual, convenient, rapid and
easily learned by technical and non-technical personnel.

Fig. 1a

Fig. 1b

Paul N. Gardner Co., Inc. www.gardco.com (954) 946-9454 1-800-762-2478

VISCOSITY
RISING BUBBLE TECHNIQUE, PRINCIPLE
The time required for an air bubble in a liquid to rise is directly proportional to its viscosity. Bubble rise
rates vary with the inside diameters of viscosity tubes; therefore, the tubes must be precision matched to a
tolerance that will keep bubble rise rate variations below the level of visual detection. Variations in viscosity
readings or comparisons are visually imperceptible from viscosity tubes with inside diameter tolerances
closer than 0.025mm. Any variations in readings are attributed to differences in viscosities.
Viscosity is determined by either measuring the time an air bubble takes to pass between two specifically spaced marks on viscosity tubes, or by comparison to the bubble rate rise of calibrated viscosity
standards. The accuracy of the method is therefore a function of precision matching of tube bores and
identical score heights, which are measured from the center outside bottom.
Other factors, such as uniformity of temperature and verticality of tubes, influence timed bubble travel and
controlled laboratory techniques are essential for precise results. For example, a variation in temperature
of 0.1C will cause a 1% variation in the timed bubble travel, and a one radius departure from tube
verticality may introduce a 10% error in the timed bubble travel.

PROCEDURE FOR USING CARGILLE VISCOSITY TUBES


A viscosity tube is filled to the 100mm level score with the material to be tested. A cork is inserted to
the 108mm score which provides and fixes a uniform air bubble. The sample, and standard if used, is
placed in a suitable rack and immersed in a water bath until a uniform temperature of 25C (77F) is
attained. If viscosity determinations are performed by referral to comparison samples of known viscosities or precisely calibrated standards, then they, too, should be at the same temperature as the samples.
Viscosity is determined by one of two methods:

COMPARISON METHOD
The bubble rate rise of the samples is compared to samples of known viscosities or calibrated standards
contained in tubes of the same dimensions. The rack containing the samples and standards is removed
from the water bath, held vertically to stabilize the air bubbles and quickly inverted maintaining verticality. A comparison of air bubble speed of the samples to the standards permits estimation of viscosity;
the faster the rate of bubble rise, the lower the viscosity. The user may prepare viscosity standards or
employ Gardner Viscosity Standards.

TIME-METHOD (ASTM D 1545)

Time-Test Tubes are required to determine viscosity by the Timed-Method. The length of time, in seconds,
required for an air bubble to pass from the 27mm to 100mm score mark, a distance of 73mm, is approximately equal to the viscosity of the liquid in Stoke units; alternatively, viscosity may be expressed
in Bubble Seconds. It is important to note that the position of the air bubble in relation to the 27mm
score should be similar at the end of the test on the 100mm score.

VISCOSITY TUBE SELECTION GUIDE


Cargille Viscosity Tubes are divided into three Classes as determined by precision sorting in accordance
with bore size, number of score marks and contemplated method of use for bubble rise testing, Fig. 2.
The numbers assigned refer to the bore size, which is expressed in mm.

TIME-TEST VISCOSITY TUBES, 10.65mm

Time-Test Viscosity Tubes are frequently referred to as ASTM D-1545 Tubes, which originated from the
adopted standard method of test for viscosity as described in ASTM D-1545 issued by the American
Society for Testing and Materials. Time-Test Tubes are scored in three places: Fig. 3a: 27mm, 100mm
and 108mm. The score mark at 27mm is used for a 73mm timed travel. Time-Test Viscosity Tubes
are also subjected to additional testing procedures to ascertain the 10.65mm bore which is very critical
for precision measuring.

Paul N. Gardner Co., Inc. www.gardco.com (954) 946-9454 1-800-762-2478

VISCOSITY
CLASS G-10.65 AND CLASS V-10.75 TUBES

Class G-10.65 and V-10.75 Viscosity Tubes are used principally for direct comparisons to Gardner
Viscosity Standards. Both Classes of tubes are inscribed at the 100mm and 108mm lengths, Fig. 3b.
For bubble rate rise comparisons to Gardner Viscosity Standards, the following equivalency chart is
provided:

Cargille Class G-10.65 = Gardner Grade A Tubes

Cargille Class V-10.75 = Gardner Grade B Tubes

CLASSIFICATION OF CARGILLE VISCOSITY TUBES


CLASS
SCORE MARKS I.D. 0.025mm
Time-Test, 10.65mm 108mm, 100mm
10.65
(ASTM D 1545)
27mm
(equivalent to Gardner
N Grade Tubes)
Class G-10.65
108mm, 100mm
10.65


(equivalent to Gardner

A Grade Tubes)

Class V-10.75
108mm, 100mm
10.75

(equivalent to Gardner

B Grade Tubes)

DIMENSIONS

METHOD OF TESTING
Bubble time rise or
bubble comparisons
Bubble comparisons
to Gardner Standards;
or to calibrated standards
with identical tube
dimensions

VISCOSITY TUBE SPECIFICATIONS

Cargille Viscosity Tubes are manufactured to the closest


possible tolerances and then precisely measured for final
selection.
Length.......................114mm 2mm
Wall Thickness..........0.65mm
Tolerance, I.D...........0.025mm
Composition.....Soda-lime glass, flat-bottom
Score Height Tolerance......0.5mm
NOTE: Inside diameter tolerance closer than 0.025mm
is unnecessary since variations in viscosity readings or
comparisons would be imperceptible.

SCORE MARKS

All Cargille Viscosity Tubes are permanently inscribed with


two score marks, at 100mm and 108mm heights (Fig 3b)
with the exception of Time-Test Viscosity Tubes, which have
an additional score at 27mm (Fig. 3a). In compliance
with ASTM D 1545, all score marks are measured from
the center outside bottom of the tubes.
The score mark at 100mm represents the filling level and
the 108mm score is used to fix the size of the air bubble
in the tube by inserting a cork to this mark. The 27mm
and 100mm scores on Time-Test Viscosity Tubes are used
to time the bubble rise.

Fig. 3a

Fig. 3b

SPECIFICATION REFERENCES

American Oil Chemists Society (AOCS)


Method Ka6-63
American Society For Testing and Materials
D1131 53 (1975), D1545 89
D1725 62 (1970)
Federal Test Method Standard (FTMS)
Method 4271

Paul N. Gardner Co., Inc. www.gardco.com (954) 946-9454 1-800-762-2478

VISCOSITY
VISCOSITY TUBE ACCESSORIES
ROUGH SORT TUBES
Tubes unsuitable for viscosity applications are separated,
sorted, matched and grouped into two ranges according
to tube bore size. Although these tubes are not precesion
matched or scored, they are adquately matched in bore
size for diversified use in general industrial and laboratory procedures.
Rough Sort Tubes-Low.....Range 10.50-10.75mm
Rough Sort Tubes-High....Range 10.75-11.00mm

CORKS
High quality, short length corks, properly fit
viscosity tubes so that the small end is in firm
contact with inside of tubes to prevent small
extraneous bubbles from interfering with timed
bubble movement.

VISCOSITY TUBE SAMPLE STORAGE BOX


A durable, compact, solid, fibreboard Sample Storage Box with attractive
dark green, moisture and abrasive resistant exterior covering holds up
to 100 viscosity tubes in partitioned compartments. The compartments
are arranged 5X20 and are alpha-numerically indexed for rapidly
locating stored viscosity samples. Boxes are supplied with separate,
correspondingly-numbered index charts for recording pertinent sample information, and an exterior card
in a polished brass card holder for easily identifying the general contents of the sample storage box.
SHELL VIALS
Tubes exhibiting bore sizes exceeding Viscosity,
Color and Rough Sort Tube specifications are
availabe for innumerable laboratory applications
where inside dimensional tolerance is critical .
Dimensions 114mm long, approximate 12mm
O.D., 0.65mm wall thickness.

COLOR TUBES
Critical color or turbidity comparisons are frequently
affected by variations in the light path of the liquid
sample. To minimize this visual diluting effect, tubes
are availlable with matched bore sizes to 0.05mm to
insure replicate volume comparisons under similar light
path conditions. Dimensions 114mm long , 10.80mm
I.D., 0.65mm wall thickness.

CARGILLE LABORATORIES VISCOSITY TUBES


PRICE PER GROSS
VI-44154/GR
Time Test (ASTM D-1545) Grade N w/ corks........................... $283.00
VI-44106/GR
Class G-10.65mm dia Grade A w/ corks................................ 248.00
VI-44107/GR
Class V-10.75mm dia Grade B w/ corks................................ 219.00
ACCESSORIES
VI-44200 or 44250/GR
Rough Sort Tubes (Specify High or Low Range) ......................... 83.00
VI-44350/GR
Viscosity/Color Tubes with corks.............................................. 111.00
VI-36134/GR
Shell Vials............................................................................... 70.00
VI-36132
Viscosity Tube Sample Storage box (Model CK-3)---(Ea.)............ 42.00
VI-44004
Corks (for Viscosity Tubes), 150 corks per package---(Pkg)......... 19.00

Paul N. Gardner Co., Inc. www.gardco.com (954) 946-9454 1-800-762-2478