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Reproduction and Heredity Notes


Mitosis and Meiosis
- copying a cell

- making sex cells

Why make new cells?


1.
2.
3.
- the cell planner. Provides instructions for how an organism should grow.
- place where DNA is found.
- when its time for DNA to be copied and split into two cells, it takes this shape to make
the movement less tangled.
- bands on chromosomes that are responsible for building or maintaining a specific part
of an organisms body.
Bear Trap: Which of the following contains ALL of the instructions for how a cell should be created?
Swinging Axe Trap: Plant cells contain chromosomes.
Two types of cells: 1.

2.

Are used to create all the parts that make up an organism.


used to create new offspring through sexual reproduction.
organisms have
but only organisms that sexually reproduce have
is
Meiosis is
with one cell and ends with
, and Meiosis starts with one cell and ends with
the product of meiosis?
Whats the product of mitosis?
In mitosis, chromosomes

are
All
. Mitosis
Mitosis starts
. Double Dare: What is

but in meiosis chromosomes

Why Mitosis?
Why Meiosis?
Cuddly Hamster Trap: Chromosomes are different in sex cells and body cells. Which of the following is the only way
that they are similar?
Cheeseman Challenge: You need two sex cells in order to create a full set of DNA.

Genetics and Heredity


___________________________ - a complete code of instructions to build ALL parts of a species body. There are two
halves to each set of DNA: one from mom, one from dad.
___________________________ - a part of the DNA code that has instructions for ONE part of a species body. There
are two halves to each gene: one from mom, one from dad.
___________________________ - an option a gene can be coded as. There are multiple options for each gene. Theres
one allele from mom, and one allele from dad.
Mr. Michael has very dark, black facial hair. How did he get this hair? He has a complete set of ___________,
which grows every part of his body, including facial hair. A single _________ from his DNA controls the color of his

facial hair. Yes, there is an individual code to grow this! To grow black, his gene for facial hair color must have
________________ from his parents that code for black hair!
Mr. Rawlins has very light red facial hair. How did he get this hair? He has a complete set of ___________, which
grows every part of his body, including facial hair. A single _________ from his DNA controls the color of his facial hair.
Yes, there is an individual code to grow this! To grow red, his gene for facial hair color must have ________________
from his parents that code for red hair!
Bear Trap: Which of
the following contains the ALL of the instructions for how a cell should be created?
What two things do Mr. Rawlins and Mr. Michael share? We both have a set of human __________________ and the
__________________ for facial hair. What do they have different? We both have different codes for our
_________________________ that makes our hair color different.
When describing alleles, scientists usually pick a ________________________ and use it to represent the DNA code.
Because each organism has two alleles, one from each parent, the alleles are written as _______ letter combos.
For example, scientists might use the letter H to represent facial hair. A capital H codes for dark hair. Mr. Michael
probably has the alleles ___ ___ or ___ ___. A lower case h codes for lighter hair. Mr. Rawlins probably has the
alleles ___ ___. Wed have to learn more about their genes to be sure.
Alleles (letters)
(gene for number of fingers)
F
f
(gene for number of fingers)
F
f
(gene for freckles)
Q
q
(gene for freckles)
Q
q
We all have the
determined by the
have

for
. We all have the
is determined by the
Alleles
= List of Alleles
Dominant
.
Recessive .

Punnett Squares

Traits (the way an allele looks on an organism)

. The
for

of fingers we have is
. Whether or not we

.
Traits
= List of Traits
ears
ears

P= Allele: Ee Trait: Pointy ears


P= Allele: Ee Trait: Pointy ears