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1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

CONTAIN:

INTRODUCTION

SYSTEM OF UNITS (MEASUREMENT).

DIMENSION.

UNIT AND DIMENTION

SIGNIFICANT FIGURE

DESCRIPTIVE PART

1: What is PHYSICS?

The word 'Physics' comes from the Greek word

'phusis' meaning 'nature', introduced by the ancient

scientist 'Aristotle'. Man has always been fascinated

by nature. The branch of science which is devoted to

the study of nature and natural phenomena is called

Physics. It is expected that all the events in nature

take place according to some basic laws. Thus

Physics (the knowledge of nature) is the science

concerned with the discovery and understanding of

the most basic fundamental laws of the universe that

control the way everything in the world around us

behaves. Discoveries in basic physics have important

ramifications for all of science.

Physics is the scientific study of matter and energy and how they interact with each other. Physics deals

with matter on scales ranging from sub-atomic particles (i.e. the particles that make up the atom and the particles

that make up those particles) to stars and even entire galaxies. Physics is the truly universal science.

There are many fields of physics, for example: mechanics, electricity, heat, sound, light, condensed matter,

atomic physics, nuclear physics, and elementary particle physics. Physics is the foundation of all the physical

sciences, such as chemistry, material science, and geology and is important for many other fields: biology,

medicine, computing, ice hockey, and television, list goes on.

The physics was divided in main two branches:

i.

ii.

Classical mechanics

Quantum mechanics.

The Mechanics or classical physics is an important field of physics. Developed by Sir Isaac Newton in the 17th

century, the laws of mechanics and the law of gravity successfully explained the orbits of the moon around the

earth and the planets around the sun. Newtons laws are used to design cars, clocks, airplanes, earth satellites,

bridges, buildings, just about everything, it seems, except electronics.

Electricity is another example of physics, one that you may experience as a spark when you touch a doorknob on

a dry winter day. The electrical attraction of protons and electrons is the basis for chemistry. Magnetism is

another force of nature, familiar to us from refrigerator magnets and compasses. In the 19th century, James Clerk

Maxwell combined electricity and magnetism. He showed that light is an electromagnetic wave that travels

through empty space.

The Quantum mechanics deals Einsteins theory of relativity and other modern concepts of twentieth century are

discussed. The modern physics divided in to: Atomic physics, Elementary physics, Nuclear physics, Molecular

physics, Plasma physics, Medical physics, Solid state physics, Astronomical physics, and many others.

2: Physical Quantities:

Physical quantity is the numerical value of a measurable property that describes a physical system's state at a

moment in time.

Extensive and Intensive Quantities:

Extensive: when its magnitude is additive for subsystems (volume, mass, etc.)

Intensive when the magnitude is independent of the extent of the system (temperature, pressure, etc.)

Page 1

Some physical quantities are prefixed in order to further qualify their meaning:

Molar is added to refer to a quantity which is expressed per unit mass (such as specific heat capacity)

Specific is added to refer to a quantity which is expressed per unit amount of substance (such as molar volume).

There are also physical quantities that can be classified as neither extensive nor intensive, for example angular

momentum, area, force, length, and time

Coordinates are sets of numbers that describe position along a line, on a surface or in space. Latitude and

longitude, or declination and right ascension, each is a system of coordinates on the surface of a sphere on the

globe of the Earth or the globe of the heavens.

3: Unit:

Unit is the universally accepted definite amount of a physical quantity taken as a standard for the measurement of

the same physical quantity of any amount. E.g. Kilogram (kg), meter (m), second (s), and etc some physical

quantities have no units, since each is expressed by a ratio of similar physical quantities. For example,

mechanical advantage, velocity ratio, refractive index, atomic weight, and etc. It means, a unit is a particular

physical quantity, defined and adopted by convention, with which other particular quantities of the same kind are

compared to express their value.

4: Fundamental Quantities:

The first standard units of measurement were established by the French Academy of Sciences in the 1790. The

measurement of any quantity is made relative to particular standard or unit and this unit must be specified along

with the numerical value of the quantity. Fixing the unit of only three physical quantities forms a system of units,

which contains the unit of every physical quantity. These quantities are called fundamental quantities, and their

units are called fundamental units. A physical quantity is a physical property that can be quantified. This means

it can be measured or calculated and expressed in numbers. For example, "mass" is a physical quantity that can

be expressed by stating a number of some basic measurement units. A quantity of mass might be represented by

the symbol m, and could be expressed in the units kilograms.

Basic SI quantities:

The International System of Units SI is the modern form of the metric system. The SI was developed in 1960

from the old meter-kilogram-second (MKS) system, rather than the centimeter-gram-second (CGS) system. The

system is nearly universally employed. In all there are seven SI base units: the meter for distance, the kilogram

for mass, the second for time, the ampere for electric current, the Kelvin for temperature, the mole for amount of

substance, and the candela for intensity of light.

5: Derived Quantities:

The quantities other than fundamental quantities are, called derived quantities, are defined in terms of the seven

base quantities via a system of quantity equations. Thus, Derived physical quantities are those, each of which

associates one or more fundamental physical quantities. The SI derived units for these derived quantities are

obtained from these equations and the seven SI base units.

6: System of Units:

Measurements have an important role not only in physics but also in every branch of science and everywhere in

our day-to-day life. To solve problems and to understand the basics of the Physics it is very important to know

what is a physical quantity, types of physical quantities, what is a unit, what are the units of different physical

quantities, types of units, symbols of units.

In 1960, an international committee established a set of standards for length, mass, and other basic quantities.

The system established is an adaptation of the metric system, and it is called the SI system of units. In this

system, the units of length, mass, and time are the meter, kilogram, and second, respectively. Other SI standards

established by the committee are those for temperature (the Kelvin), electric current (the ampere), luminous

intensity (the candela), and the amount of substance (the mole). The laws of physics are expressed in terms of

Page 2

basic quantities that require a clear definition. In mechanics, the three basic quantities are length (L), mass (M),

and time (T). All other quantities in mechanics can be expressed in terms of these three.

Set of fundamental and derived units for the accurate measurement of physical quantities is called system of

units.

There are seven base units of the SI:

i.

The Meter:

The unit of length as the meter was defined as the distance between two fixed points on a platinum

iridium bar stored under controlled conditions kept at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures

at Sevres, France.

Meter the unit of length is defined as 1650763.73 times the wave length of orange light emitted by

krypton -86 atoms.

In October 1983, the meter (m) was again redefined as the distance traveled by light in vacuum during a

1

time of 299 792 458 second.

1m = 100 cm

1 cm =10 mm

ii.

The Kilogram:

One kilogram defined as the mass of a platinum-iridium cylinder3.9cm in diameter and 3.9cm in height

kept at the International Bureau of Weight and Measurement at Sevres, France, established in 1887

1 kilogram = 1000 gm

1gm = 1000 mg

One a.m.u or u is used as the unit of mass in atomic physics. Mass of a C 12 atom is 12 atomic mass units.

One u is defined as 1/12th of the mass of one C12 atom.

iii.

The Second

Before 1960, the standard of time was defined in terms of the mean solar day for the year 1900. The one

1

second was originally defined as 60

1 1

60

24

of a mean solar day.

In 1967, the atomic clock was adopted, choosing caesium-133 atom, which emits electromagnetic

radiation of a precise and unvarying frequency, corresponding to the transition between two hyperfine

levels of the ground state.

The second is the duration of 9 192 631 770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition

between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the cesium 133 atom

1day = 24 hours

1hour = 60 min.

1min = 60 sec.

iv.

v.

The Ampere

The ampere is that constant current which, if maintained in two straight parallel conductors of infinite

length, of negligible circular cross-section, and placed 1 m apart in vacuum, would produce between

these conductors a force equal to 2 x 107 Newton per meter of length

The Kelvin:

1

The Kelvin, unit of thermodynamic temperature, is the fraction 273.16 of the thermodynamic

temperature of the triple point of water. Is 273.16 K.

Page 3

vi.

vii.

The Mole:

The mole is the amount of substance of a system which contains as many elementary entities as there are

atoms in 0.012 kilogram of carbon-12.

The Candela:

The candela is the luminous intensity, in a given direction, of a source that emits monochromatic

radiation of frequency 540 x 1012 hertz and that has a radiant intensity in that direction of 1/683 watt per

steradian.

It can be defined as the unit of luminous intensity the luminous intensity in the perpendicular direction

1

of surface 600000 square meter of a perfect black body at the temperature of freezing platinum under

the pressure of 1.013255x105 N/m2 of that surface.

Supplementary unit:

1. RADIAN: This is the SI unit of (supplementary) plane angle. One radian is the plane angle between two

radii of a circle which cut off on the circumference of an arc equal to the length of the radian.

2. STERADIAN: This is the SI unit of solid angle. One steradian is the solid angle which, with its vertex at

the centre of the sphere, cuts off an area of the surface of the sphere, equal to that of a square having

sides of length equal to the radian of the sphere.

3. CURIE: This is the SI unit of radioactivity. One curie is the quantity of any radioactive substance which

undergoes 3.7 x 1010 disintegrations per second.

2. British engineering system:

In addition to SI system of units, another system of units is the British engineering system (sometimes called the

conventional system), is still used in the United States despite acceptance of SI by the rest of the world. In this

system, the units of length, force, and time are the foot (ft), pound, and second, respectively. In this system mass

is derived quantity of unit slug.

After fixing the units of fundamental quantities, the units of any other quantities are easily derived. For example,

Force, F = m a

F= 1kg. 1m / sec

1Newton = 1kg.m sec-

Similarly, for other derived units are derived for derived quantities from their formulae.

The constant value of acceleration due to gravity is 9.8 m / sec in MKS system, 980 cm / sec in CGS system

and 32 ft / sec in FPS system of units. F = m a

One pound = 1 slug 1ft. sec- 2

1 slug = one pound / 1ft. sec- 2

1 slug = 4.45 N / 0.3048 m sec- 2

1 slug = 14.60 kg.

The conversion of mass in CGS and MKS system of units:

10 milligram = 1 centigram

1 gram = 1x10-3 kilogram

10 centigram = 1decigram

10 decigram = 1 gram

10 gram = 1decagram

10 decagram = 1 hectogram

10 hectogram = 1 kilogram

10 kilogram = 1 miriagram

10 miriagram = 100 kilogram = 1 quintal

10 quintal = 1 metric tone

1kg= 2.21 lb = 2.06x1026 a.m.u = 0.0685 slug

1slug= 32.2lb = 14.6 kg.

1amu= 1.66x10-27kg

Page 4

10 millimeter = 1centimeter

10 centimeter = 1 decimeter

10 decimeter = 1 meter

10 meter = 1 decameter

10 decameter = 1hectometer

10 hectometer = 1 kilometer

1 hectometer = 100 meters

10 kilometer = 1 miria meter

1 m = 39.4 in = 3.23 ft

1 km = 0.621 miles

1 angstrom =10-10m

1 light year = 9.46x1012 km= 9.46x1015 m

1 parsec = 3.26 light year

1 parsec= 3.084x1013 km

1 fathom= 6 ft

1 Fermi= 1 femto meter = 1015 m

12 inches = 1 foot

3 foot = 1 yard

220 yard = 1 furlong

inches

1 inch = 2.54 cm

1 foot = 30.48 cm

1 mile = 160934 cm

Force:

1 lb= 4.45 N

1 N= 105 dyne = 0.225 lb

Energy and power:

1joule= 107erg =2.78x10-7 kWh

1 electron volt =1.6x10-19 joule=1.6x10-12 erg

Page 5

1 cm = 0.3937 inch

1 meter = 39.37inch = 1.094 yard

1 kilometer = 0.621 mile

Ft.Pound /sec

7: Dimension:

The word dimension has a special meaning in physics. It usually denotes the physical nature of a quantity.

Whether a distance is measured in the length unit feet or the length unit meters, it is still a distance. We say the

dimensionthe physical natureof distance is length.

For example, the symbol we use for speed is v, and in our notation the dimensions of speed are written, as

[LT-1] another example, the dimensions of area, for which we use the symbol A, are The dimensions of area,

volume, speed, and acceleration are listed in below, as well as other quantities:

M

E

C

H

A

N

I

C

A

L

Quantity

Definition

Formula

Units

Dimensions

Length or Distance

fundamental

m (meter)

[L ]

Time

Mass

Area

Volume

Density

Velocity

Acceleration

Momentum

fundamental

fundamental

distance2

distance3

mass / volume

distance / time

Velocity / time

mass velocity

T

M

A = d2

V = d3

d = m/V

v = d/t

a = v/t

p = mv

s (second)

kg (kilogram)

m2

m3

kg/m3

m/s

m/s2

kgm/s

[T]

[M ]

[ L2 ]

[ L3 ]

[ M L-3 ]

[ L T-1 ]

[ L T-2 ]

{ M L T-1 ]

Force or Weight

Mass

acceleration

Mass (acceleration.

of gravity)

force / area

F = ma

W = mg

N (Newton) =

kgm/s2

[ M L T-2 ]

p = F/A

[ M L-1 T-2 ]

Energy or Work

Kinetic Energy

Potential Energy

Force distance

mass velocity2/ 2

mass (Acc: gravity)

height

E = Fd

Pa (Pascal)=N/m2 =

kg/(ms2)

J

(joule)=Nm=gm2/s2

Power

energy / time

[M L2 T-3 ]

Impulse

Action

force time

energy time

momentum

distance

Fundamental

W (watt)=J/s =

kgm2/s3

Ns = kgm/s

Js = kgm2/s

Pressure or Stress

A

N

G

U

L

A

R

Angle

K.E=1/2mv

2

PE =

mgh

P = E/t

I = Ft

A = Et

A = pd

(degrees) or rad

(radians)

360 = 2 rad

cyc (cycles)

Hz (hertz) = cyc/s =

1/ s

rad/s = 1/ s

rad/s2 = 1/ s2

[ M L2 T-2 ]

[M L T-1 ]

[M L2 T-1 ]

Dimension less

Cycles

Frequency

fundamental

cycles / time

N

f = n/t

Angular Velocity

Angular

acceleration

Moment of Inertia

Angular

Momentum

angle / time

angular velocity/ time

= /t

= /t

mass radius2

Radius momentum

mom. Of inert.

(angular velocity)

Radius force

mom. of

inert.(angular

acceleration)

fundamental

I = m r2

L=rp

L=I

kgm2

kgm2/s

[ M L2 ]

[ M L2T-1 ]

T=rF

T=I

Nm = kgm2/s2

[ M L2 T-2 ]

C (Celsius) or K

(Kelvin)

[K ]

Torque

Temperature

T

Page 6

Dimension less

[ T-1 ]

[ T-1 ]

[ T-2 ]

H

E

R

M

A

L

E

L

E

C

T

R

O

M

A

G

N

E

T

I

C

Heat

Entropy

heat energy

heat / temperature

Q

S = Q/T

J (joule) = kgm2/s2

J/K

[ M L2 T-2 ]

[ M L2 T-2 K-1 ]

Electric Charge(+/-)

Current time

C (coulomb)

[C ]

Current

Voltage or Potential

Resistance

Capacitance

Inductance

charge / time

energy / charge

voltage / current

charge / voltage

voltage/(current/

time)

voltage / distance

force / charge

electric field area

force / (charge

velocity)

magnetic field area

i = q/t

V = E/q

R = V/i

C = q/V

L = V/

(i/t)

E = V/d

E = F/q

E = EA

B = F/qv

A (amp) = C/s

V (volt) = J/C

(ohm) = V/A

F (farad) = C/V

H (Henry) = Vs/A

[ C T-1]

[ M L2 C-1 T-2 ]

[ M L2 C-2 T-1 ]

[ C2 T2 M-1 L-2 ]

[ M L2 T-2 ]

V/m = N/C

[ M L C-1 T-2 ]

Vm = Nm2/C

T (tesla)= Wb/m2 =

Ns/(Cm)

Wb (Weber)=Vs=

Js/C

[ M L3 C-1 T-2 ]

[ M C-1 T-1]

Electric Field

Electric Flux

Magnetic Field

Magnetic Flux

M = BA

[ M L2 C-1 T- 1]

8: Significant Figures:

When physical quantities are measured, the measured values are known only to within the limits of the

experimental uncertainty. The value of this uncertainty can depend on various factors, such as the quality of

the apparatus, the skill of the experimenter, and the number of measurements performed. The concept of

significant figures is often used in connection with rounding.

When multiplying several quantities, the number of significant figures in the final answer is the same as the

number of significant figures in the least accurate of the quantities being multiplied, where

least accurate means having the lowest number of significant figures. The same rule applies to division.

When numbers are added or subtracted, the number of decimal places in the result should equal the smallest

number of decimal places of any term in these.

The rules for identifying significant digits when writing or interpreting numbers are as follows:

1. All non-zero digits are considered significant. Ex: 1, 20, and 300 all have one significant figure. Their

significant figures are 1, 2, and 3 respectively. 123.45 have five significant figures: 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5.

2. Zeros appearing anywhere between two non-zero digits are significant. Example: 101.12 have five

significant figures: 1, 0, 1, 1 and 2.

3. Leading zeros are not significant. For example, 0.00012 has two significant figures: 1 and 2.Trailing

zeros in a number containing a decimal point are significant. For example, 12.2300 have six

significant figures: 1, 2, 2, 3, 0 and 0. The number 0.000122300 still has only six significant figures

(the zeros before the 1 are not significant). In addition, 120.00 have five significant figures. This

convention clarifies the precision of such numbers; for example, if a result accurate to four decimal

places is given as 12.23 then it might be understood that only two decimal places of accuracy are

available. Stating the result as 12.2300 makes clear that it is accurate to four decimal places.

4. The significance of trailing zeros in a number not containing a decimal point can be ambiguous. For

example, it may not always be clear if a number like 1300 is accurate to the nearest unit (and just

happens coincidentally to be an exact multiple of a hundred) or if it is only shown to the nearest

hundred due to rounding or uncertainty. Various conventions exist to address this issue:

5. A bar may be placed over the last significant digit; any trailing zeros following this are insignificant.

For example, 1300has three significant figures (and hence indicates that the number is accurate to the

nearest ten).

6. The last significant figure of a number may be underlined; for example, "20000" has two significant

figures.

Page 7

7. A decimal point may be placed after the number; for example "100." indicates specifically that three

significant figures are meant.

A number with all zero digits (e.g. 0.000) has no significant digits, because the uncertainty is larger than

the actual measurement.

Question #1What is an atomic clock?

An atomic clock is a clock that keeps time using natural characteristic frequencies of atoms, such as cesium,

hydrogen or rubidium. Atomic clocks are extremely stable because the atom's characteristic frequencies are

not affected by factors like temperature, pressure or humidity.

Question #2How long is a nanosecond, a picoseconds or a femto second?

A nanosecond is one billionth of a second, and picoseconds are one trillionth of a second. Timekeeping

technology has not yet reached the stage where we can measure femto seconds. However, just for the record, a

femto second is a thousand times smaller than picoseconds!

Question #3What is an atomic Balance?

Atomic balances, which are capable of measurement of nano particles mass, are described. The precision of

measurements is defined by the geometry of measuring micro console and may be as high as 10-19 g. Atomic

balance can also measure lateral stress and surface tension in thin films (also in mono layers). Experimental

data on the atomic balance usage as highly sensitive gas and liquid analyzers, chemical and biological sensors

are presented

Quantity

A:

Acceleration, angular

Abb number

Absorbed radiation dose

Absorbed dose rate

Acceleration, linear

Action

Activity of radioactive source

Angular acceleration

Angular moment of inertia

Angular moment of motion

Alternatives

Definition/Notes

s-2

1

m2.s-2

m2.s-3

m.s-2

kg.m2.s-1

s-1

s-2

kg.m2

kg.m2.s-1

rad.s-2

Dimensionless

J.kg-1, Gy

Gy.s-1

s-1

m2

rad.s-1

Inverse of refractive index.

[Energy] / [Mass].

[Absorbed dose] / [Time].

[Velocity] / [Time]

[Energy] [Time].

[Events] / [Time].

[Angular Velocity] / [Time].

[Mass] [Distance2].

[Moment of motion]

[Distance]. Like [action].

[Plane angle] / [Time].

[Distance] [Distance].

bit.s-1

Baud

kg-1.m.s2

Pa-1

kg-1.m-2.s4.A2

m2.s-1

C.V-1, F

J.s.kg-1

Characteristic impedance

kg.m2.s-3.A-2

V.A-1, , ohm

Charge, electric

Charge, quantum

s .A

1

C

Dimensionless

Angular velocity

Area

B:

Baud rate

Bulk modulus

C:

Capacitance, electric

Circulation

UNIT

Page 8

J.s

Bq

rad.s-2

J.s

[Information] / [Time]

Also: information flux.

[Pressure] / ([Volume] /

[Volume]).

Same as compressibility.

[Charge] / [Potential]

[Angular moment of

motion]/[Mass]

([Mag.Permeability] /

[El.Permittivity]).

[Current] [Time]

[Charge] / [Elementary

Charge, molecular/ionic,

quantum

Dimensionless

Charge density

Charge/mass ratio

m-3.s.A

kg-1.s.A

C.m-3

C.kg-1

Charge, molar

Chemical potential, molar

s.A.mol-1

kg.m2.s-2.mol-1

C.mol-1

J.mol-1

m2

Compressibility

kg-1.m.s2

Pa-1

Compression modulus

kg-1.m.s2

Pa-1

Concentration, molar

m-3.mol

Concentration, by mass

Dimensionless

Concentration, by volume

Dimensionless

Concentration, by weight

Dimensionless

Conductance, electric

kg-1.m-2.s3.A2

A.V-1, S

Conductivity, electric

Conductivity, molar

kg-1.m-3.s3.A2

kg-1.s3.A2.mol-1

S.m-1

S.m2.mol-1

Conductivity, thermal

kg.m.s-3.K-1

W.m-1.K-1

Convergence

Count rate

Cross section

Cryoscopic constant

m-1

s-1

m2

kg.mol-1.K

dioptry

Current, electric

Current density (electric)

A

m-2.A

m-2.A

Curvature radius

s.A2

m

Page 9

K/(mol/kg)

A2/Hz

charge quantum]

[Charge of a molecule or

ion] /

[Elementary charge

quantum]

[Charge] / [Volume]

[Charge] / [Mass]. Same as

specific charge.

[Charge] / [Quantity]

[InternalEnergy] /

[Quantity Of Substance].

[Distance] [Distance].

Same as cross section.

[Pressure] / ([Volume] /

[Volume]).

Same as bulk modulus.

[Pressure] / ([Volume] /

[Volume]).

Same as compressibility.

[Quantity] / [Volume]. Same

as molar density.

[Mass of substance] / [Total

mass].

Same as mass concentration

[Volume of substance] /

[Total volume].

Same as volume

concentration.

[Mass of substance] / [Total

mass].

Same as mass concentration

[Current] / [Potential].

Inverse of resistance.

1 / [Resistivity].

[El.conductivity] /

[Concentration].

[Heat flux] / ([Distance]

[Temperature]).

in optics, but not only ...

[Events] / [Time].

[Distance] [Distance].

[Temperature] /

[Molality].

[Current] / [Area]. Same as

current intensity.

[Current] / [Area]. Same as

current density.

[Current]2 / Bandwidth]

of a line in plane/space or

surface in space

D:

Density of electric charge

Density of electric current

m-3.s.A

m-2.A

C.m-3

Density of energy

Density of mass

kg.m-1.s-2

kg.m-3

J.m-3

Density of substance

m-3.mol

Dielectric constant

Dimensionless

Dielectric strength

kg.m.s-3.A-1

V.m-1

Diffusion coefficient

Diffusivity, thermal

m2.s-1

m2.s-1

Dipole moment, magnetic

Dispersive power

m.s.A

m2.A

1

Dispersivity quotient

m-1

Distance

Dose rate

Drift speed

m2.s-2

m2.s-3

m.s-1

J.kg-1, Gy

Gy.s-1

Duration

Dynamic viscosity

s

kg.m-1.s-1

s

Pa.s

kg.mol-1.K

K/(mol/kg)

Electric capacitance

Electric charge

Electric conductance

kg-1.m-2.s4.A2

s .A

kg-1.m-2.s3.A2

C.V-1, F

C

A.V-1, S

Electric conductivity

Electric conductivity, molar

kg-1.m-3.s3.A2

kg-1.s3.A2.mol-1

S.m-1

S.m2.mol-1

Electric current

Electric dipole moment

Electric field strength

A

m.s.A

kg.m.s-3.A-1

A

C.m

V.m-1

kg.s-3.A-1

V.m-2

m-2.s.A

C.m-2

E:

Ebullioscopic constant

Page 10

C.m

J.T-1

Dimensionless

[Charge] / [Volume]

[Current] / [Area]. Same as

current intensity.

[Energy] / [Volume].

[Mass] / [Volume]. Same as

specific density.

[Quantity] / [Volume]. Same

as concentration.

[Permittivity] / [Permittivity

of vacuum].

Same as relative

permittivity.

[Potential] /

[Distance]. Same as electric

strength.

[Distance2] / [Time].

([Temperatute] / [Time]) /

[2Temperature].

[Charge] [Distance]

[Current] [Area]

Ratio of differences of

refractive indices.

[Refractive index] /

[Wavelength]

in all Euclidean ndimensional spaces.

[Energy] / [Mass].

[Absorbed dose] / [Time].

Steady-state speed of an

object. .

([Force] [Area]) /

[Velocity]

[Temperature] /

[Molality].

[Charge] / [Potential]

[Current] [Time]

[Current] / [Potential].

Inverse of resistance.

1 / [Resistivity].

[El.conductivity] /

[Concentration].

[Charge] [Distance]

[Potential] / [Distance].

Also called electric intensity

[El.field strength] /

[Distance].

[Charge ] / [Area].

Electric inductance

Electric induction

kg.m2.s-2.A-2

m-2.s.A

V.s.A-1, H

C.m-2

Electric intensity

kg.m.s-3.A-1

V.m-1

Electric permittivity

kg-1.m-3.s4.A2

F.m-1

Dimensionless

Electric polarization

m-2.s.A

C.m-2

Electric potential

kg.m2.s-3.A-1

W.A-1, J.C-1, V

Electric resistance

Electric resistivity

m2.s.A

kg.m2.s-3.A-2

kg.m3.s-3.A-2

C.m2

V.A-1,

.m

Electric strength

kg.m.s-3.A-1

V.m-1

Electromagnetic vector

potential

kg.m.s-2.A-1

V.s.m-1, T.m

Electrostriction coefficient

kg.m2.s-3.A-1

kg-2.m-2.s6.A2

V

m2.V-2

Energy

kg.m2.s-2

N.m, J

Energy, molar

Energy, specific

Energy density

Energy flux

kg.m2.s-2.mol-1

m2.s-2

kg.m-1.s-2

kg.m2.s-3

J.mol-1

J.kg-1

J.m-3

J.s-1, W

Enthalpy

Enthalpy, molar

kg.m2.s-2

kg.m2.s-2.mol-1

J

J.mol-1

Enthalpy, specific

m2.s-2

J.kg-1

Entropy

Entropy, molar

Entropy, specific

Evolution rate on log-scale

kg.m2.s-2.K-1

kg.m2.s-2.K-1.mol-1

m2.s-2.K-1

s-1

J.K-1

J.K-1.mol-1

J.K-1.kg-1

Expansion coefficient,

thermal

K-1

Page 11

induction

[Potential] / [current / dt ]

[Charge] / [Area].

More properly electric flux

density

[Potential] / [Distance].

More properly electric field

strength

[El.flux density] / [El.field

strength].

[Permittivity] / [Permittivity

of vacuum].

Same as dielectric constant.

[Charge] / [Area]. Like

electric flux density

[Power] / [Current],

[Energy] / [Charge]

[El.dipole] [Distance]

[Potential] / [Current]

([Resistance] [Length]) /

[Area].

[Potential] / [Distance].

Also called dielectric

strength.

[El.field strength] [Time],

[Mag.flux density]

[Distance]

[Potential]

([Volume] / [Volume]) /

[Electric field strength]2.

[Force] [Distance],

[Power] [Time].

[Energy] / [Quantity].

[Energy] / [Mass].

[Energy] / [Volume].

[Energy ] / [Time]. Same as

power.

Like energy and heat.

[Enthalpy] / [Quantity].

Like molar heat.

[Enthalpy] / [Mass]. Like

specific heat.

[Heat] / [Temperature].

[Entropy] / [Quantity].

[Entropy] / [Mass].

d{ln(Q)} / dt = (dQ / dt) /

Q.

Also relative evolution rate.

([Length] / [Length]) /

[Temperature].

Exposure

kg-1.s.A

C.kg-1

ionizing radiations.

In transmission of a

radiation through space.

Extinction coefficient

m-1

kg.m.s-2

kg.m.s-2.mol-1

N

N/mol

Free energy

kg.m2.s-2

kg.m2.s-2.mol-1

J.mol-1

m2.s-2

J.kg-1

Free enthalpy

kg.m2.s-2

kg.m2.s-2.mol-1

J.mol-1

m2.s-2

J.kg-1

[Mass] [Acceleration].

[Chemical potential] /

[Distance].

Also Helmholtz function.

Like energy.

[Free energy] / [Quantity].

Also molar Helmholtz

function.

[Free energy] / [Mass].

Also specific Helmholtz

function.

Also Gibbs function. Like

energy.

[Free enthalpy] /

[Quantity].

Also molar Gibbs function.

[Free enthalpy] / [Mass].

Also specific Gibbs

function.

Frequency drift rate

Friction coefficient

s-1

s-2

1

Hz

Hz.s-1

Dimensionless

Fugacity

kg.m-1.s-2

Pa

Dimensionless

kg.s-3.A-1

V.m-2

kg.m-1.s-2.A-1

T.m-1

Gradient, thermal

K.m-1

m.s-2

Gravity

m2.s-2

m.s-2

Gyromagnetic ratio

kg-1.s.A

F:

Force

Force, thermodynamic

G:

g-factor of a particle

H:

Page 12

Hz.T-1

[Frequency] / [Time].

[Tangential force] / [Normal

force].

Effective pressure in real

gases.

[Magnetic moment] /

([Spin].[Bohr magneton])

[El.field strength] /

[Distance].

[Mag.flux density] /

[Distance].

[Temperature] /

[Distance].

Same as temperature

gradient.

[Force] / [Mass],

[Acceleration].Same as

gravity

[Energy] / [Mass].

[Force] / [Mass],

[Acceleration].

Same as grav. field intensity

[Mag.moment] / [Angular

moment of motion].

Half life

Hamiltonian

kg.m2.s-2

Hardness

Heat

Heat, molar

Heat, specific

Heat capacity

Heat capacity, molar

kg.m-1.s-2

kg.m2.s-2

kg.m2.s-2.mol-1

m2.s-2

kg.m2.s-2.K-1

kg.m2.s-2.K-1.mol-1

N.m-2

J

J.mol-1

J.kg-1

J.K-1

J.K-1.mol-1

Heat | Thermal conductivity

m2.s-2.K-1

kg.m.s-3.K-1

J.K-1.kg-1

W.m-1.K-1

Heat flux

kg.m2.s-3

J.s, W

kg.s-3

W.m-2

cd.sr.m-2

kg.m2.s-3.A-2

lm.m-2, lx

V.A-1, , ohm

Impact resistance

Inductance

kg.s-2

kg.m2.s-2.A-2

J.m-2

V.s.A-1, Wb.A-1, H

Induction, electric

m-2.s.A

C.m-2

Information

bit-1

bit

Information flux

bit.s-1

Baud

m-2.A

Internal energy

Internal energy, molar

kg.m2.s-2

kg.m2.s-2.mol-1

J

J.mol-1

m2.s-2

J.kg-1

Ion mobility

kg-1.m-1.s2.A

m2.s-1.V-1

m-3.mol

m-3.mol

Irradiance

kg.s-3

I:

Illuminance

Impedance, characteristic

J:

Page 13

Dimensionless

W.m-2

typically of a radioactive

substance

[Force] [Distance],

[Power] [Time]. Like

energy.

[Force] / [Area]

Like energy.

[Heat] / [Quantity].

[Heat] / [Mass].

[Heat] / [Temperature].

[Heat capacity] /

[Quantity].

[Heat capacity] / [Mass].

[Heat flux] / ([Distance]

[Temperature]).

[Heat] / [Time]. Like

power.

[Heat flux] / [Area]. Same

as irradiance.

[Luminous flux] / [Area].

([Mag.Permeability] /

[El.Permittivity]).

[Energy] / [Area]

[Potential] / [dCurrent/dt],

[Mag.flux] / [Current]

[Charge] / [Area].

Same as electric flux

density

One bit is the elementary

information quantum.

[Information] / [Time]. Also

called baud rate.

[Current] / [Area]. Same as

current density.

Like energy and heat.

[Internal energy] /

[Quantity]. Like molar heat.

[Internal energy] / [Mass].

Like specific heat.

[Velocity] / [Electric field

strength].

Sum ([Concentration]

[Ionic quantum charge]2).

[Ion charge] / [Elementary

charge quantum]

Sum ([Concentration]

[Ionic quantum charge]2).

[Heat flux] / [Area]. Same

as heat flux density

kg-1.m.s2.K

K.Pa-1

[Temperature] / [Pressure].

mol.s-1

katal

[Quantity] / [Time].

Same as molar production

rate.

[Dynamic viscosity] /

[Density]

Same as reciprocal space

position.

kg.m2.s-2

[Force] [Distance],

[Power] [Time]. Like

energy.

Length

Logarithmic ratio logb(A/A')

m

1

m

log in any base b

Np

Logarithmic ratio

Log(P/P')/10

dB

Logarithmic ratio

Log(X/X')/20

dB

Dimensionless

Luminance

Luminosity

Luminous flux

cd.m-2

cd

cd.sr

cd

lm

cd

cd

m2.A

J.T-1

kg.m-1.s-2.A-1

T.m-1

m-1.A

Magnetic flux

kg.m2.s-2.A-1

V.s, W.s.A-1, Wb

kg.s-2.A-1

Wb.m-2, T

Magnetic induction

kg.s-2.A-1

Wb.m-2, T

Magnetic intensity

m-1.A

Joule-Thomson coefficient

K:

Katalytic activity

Kinematic viscosity

m2.s-1

K-space vector

m-1

L:

Lagrangian

Luminous intensity

M:

Magnetic dipole moment

Page 14

like quantities.

neper. Uses natural

logarithm.

Decibel. Uses base-10

logarithm. Aplies only to

power P.

Decibel. Aplies to voltages

(X = V) and currents (X =

I).

dQ / Q , d{ln(Q)}, for any

quantity Q

Also relative differential.

[Luminosity] / [Area]

Same as luminous intensity.

[Luminosity] [Solid

angle]

Same as luminosity.

[Current] [Area]. Like

magnetic moment.

[Mag.flux density] /

[Distance].

[Current] / [Distance].

Also called magnetic

intensity

[Potential] [Time],

[Power] / [current / dt]

[Mag.flux] / [Area].

Also called magnetic

induction.

[Mag.flux] / [Area].

More properly magnetic

flux density.

[Current] / [Distance].

More properly magnetic

field strength

Magnetic moment

Magnetic permeability

m2.A

kg.m.s-2.A-2

J.T-1

H.m-1

Magnetic permeability,

relative

Magnetic quadrupole

moment

Magnetic susceptibility

Magnetization

Dimensionless

m3.A

m.J.T-1

1

m-1.A

Dimensionless

Magnetogyric ratio

kg.s-1.A-1

T.Hz-1

Magnitude of a star

Dimensionless

Mass

Mass density

kg

kg.m-3

kg

Mass concentration

Dimensionless

Mass flow

kg.s-1

kg

kg.s-1

Mass, molar

Modulus of compression

kg.mol-1

kg-1.m.s2

Pa-1

Modulus of rigidity

kg.m.s-2

N, N.rad-1

Mobility, ionic

kg-1.m-1.s2.A

m2.s-1.V-1

Molality

kg-1.mol

mol/kg

Molar charge

Molar concentration

s.A.mol-1

m-3.mol

C.mol-1

kg-1.m-3.s3.A2.mol-1

S.m-1.mol-1

Molar density

m-3.mol

Molar energy

Molar enthalpy

kg.m2.s-2.mol-1

kg.m2.s-2.mol-1

Page 15

J.mol-1

J.mol-1

[Current] [Area]

[Mag.flux density] /

[Mag.field strength].

[Permeability] /

[Permeability of vacuum].

[Mag.dipole] [Distance]

[Relative permeability]-1.

[Mag.moment] / [Volume].

Like magnetic field

strength.

[Angular moment of

motion] / [Mag.moment].

[Current] [Number fo

turms]

M - m'= -100.4 (S/S'), where

S,S' are the luminous fluxes

of two stars.

[Mass] / [Volume]. Same as

specific density.

[Mass of substance] / [Total

mass].

Also concentration by

weight.

[Mass] / [Time].

Same as mass production

rate.

[Mass] / [Time]. Same as

mass flow.

[Mass]/[Quantity]

[Pressure] / ([Volume] /

[Volume]).

Same as compressibility.

[Force] / [Angle]. Same as

shear modulus.

[Velocity] / [Electric field

strength].

[Quantity] / [Mass]. A way

to specify concentration of a

solution.

[Charge] / [Quantity]

[Quantity] / [Volume]. Same

as concentration

[El.conductivity] /

[Concentration].

[Quantity] / [Volume]. Same

as concentration.

[Energy] / [Quantity].

[Enthalpy] / [Quantity].

Like molar heat.

Molar entropy

Molar free energy

kg.m2.s-2.K-1.mol-1

kg.m2.s-2.mol-1

J.K-1.mol-1

J.mol-1

kg.m2.s-2.mol-1

J.mol-1

Molar heat

Molar heat capacity

kg.m2.s-2.mol-1

kg.m2.s-2.K-1.mol-1

J.mol-1

J.K-1.mol-1

kg.m2.s-2.mol-1

J.mol-1

Molar mass

Molar production rate

kg.mol-1

mol.s-1

katal

Molar refractivity

m3.mol-1

Molar relaxivity

m3.s-1.mol-1

Molar solubility

m-3.mol

Molar volume

Molarity

m3.mol-1

m-3.mol

Dimensionless

Moment of force

Moment of motion

kg.m2.s-2

kg.m.s-1

N.m

Mutual inductance

kg.m2.s-2.A-2

V.s.A-1, Wb.A-1, H

kg.s-2

J.m-2

kg.m-1.s-2

Pa

kg.m2.s-3.A-1

kg.m.s-2.A-2

W.A-1, V

H.m-1

Permittivity, electric

kg-1.m-3.s4.A2

F.m-1

Permittivity, relative

Dimensionless

Phase angle

Phase drift rate

Pi coefficient, molar

1

s-1

kg.m-1.s-2.mol-1

rad

rad.s-1

J.m-3

N:

Notch resistance

O:

Osmotic pressure

P:

Peltier coefficient

Permeability, magnetic

Page 16

[Entropy] / [Quantity].

[Free energy] / [Quantity]

Also molar Helmholtz

function.

[Free enthalpy] /

[Quantity]. Also molar

Gibbs function.

[Heat] / [Quantity].

[Heat capacity] /

[Quantity].

[Internal energy] /

[Quantity]. Like molar heat.

[Mass] / [Quantity]

[Quantity] / [Time]. Like

katalytic activity.

[( r2- 1 ) / (r2 +2 )] /

[Concentration],

where r is the refractive

index.

[Relaxation rate] /

[Concentration].

[Quantity] / [Volume]. Same

as concentration

[Volume] / [Quantity].

[Quantity] / [Volume].

Same as concentration or

molar density

[Charge of a molecule] /

[ Elementary charge

quantum]

[Force] [Distance].

[Mass] [Velocity], [Mass

flow] [Distance].

[Potential] / [dCurrent/dt],

[Mag.flux] / [Current]

[Energy ] / [Area]

[Mag.flux density] /

[Mag.field strength].

[El.flux density] / [El.field

strength].

[Permittivity] / [Permittivity

of vacuum]. Dielectric

constant.

in exp( i(t + ))

[Phase angle] /[Time].

[InternalEnergy] /

-3

-1

-1

Piezzoelectric coefficient

kg.m.s .A

V.m

Plane angle

Polarization, electric

1

m-2.s.A

rad

C.m-2

Position vector

Potential, electric

kg.m2.s-3.A-1

W.A-1, J.C-1, V

Power

kg.m2.s-3

J.s-1, W

Prandtl number

Dimensionless

Poynting vector

kg.s-3

W.m-2

Pressure

Probability of an event

kg.m-1.s-2

1

N.m-2, Pa

Np-1

m2.s.A

m3.A

C.m2

m.J.T-1

mol

1

mol

Dimensionless

Dimensionless

Probability density on

ln-scale

Q:

Quadrupole moment, electric

Quadrupole moment,

magnetic

Quantity of substance

Quantum charge

Quantum charge,

molecular or ionic

Quotient of dispersivity

R:

Radiance

m-1

kg.s-3.sr-1

W.m-2.sr-1

Radiation dose

Radiation dose rate

Radioactivity

Radius of curvature

m2.s-2

m2.s-3

s-1

m

J.kg-1, Gy

Gy.s-1

Bq

Reciprocal space position

Redox potential

1

m-1

kg.m2.s-3.A-1

Dimensionless

Reduction potential

Refractive index

kg.m2.s-3.A-1

1

V

Dimensionless

Refractivity, molar

m3.mol-1

Refractivity, specific

m3.kg-1

Page 17

[Volume].

[Electric field strength] /

([Length] / [Length]).

[Charge]/ [Area]. Like

electric flux density.

in all Euclidean ndimensional spaces.

[Power] / [Current],

[Energy] / [Charge]

[Energy] / [Time].

Equivalent to energy flux.

[Kinematic viscosity] /

[Thermal diffusivity].

[El.field strength] /

[Mag.field strength].

Like irradiance.

[Force] / [Area].

Real number lying in the

interval [0,1].

[Probability] / [Naturallogarithmic ratio]

[El.dipole] [Distance]

[Mag.dipole] [Distance]

[Charge] / [Elementary

charge quantum]

[Molecule/ion charge] /

[Charge quantum]

[Refractive index] /

[Wavelength]

([Power] / [Area]) / [Solid

angle].

[Energy] / [Mass].

[Absorbed dose] / [Time].

[Events] / [Time].

of a line in plane/space or

surface in space

Same as k-space vector.

Same as reduction

potential.

Same as redox potential.

Light speeds ration (in a

medium) / (in vacuum).

[( r2 - 1) / ( r2 + 2 )] /

[Concentration]

[( r2 - 1) / ( r2 + 2)] /

Relative differential

s-1

Dimensionless

Relative permeability,

magnetic

Relative permittivity, electric

Dimensionless

Dimensionless

Relative variation

Relaxation rate

1

s-1

Dimensionless

Relaxation time

Relaxivity, molar

m3.s-1.mol-1

Resistance, electric

Resistance to impact

kg.m2.s-3.A-2

kg.s-2

V.A-1,

J.m-2

Resistivity, electric

kg.m3.s-3.A-2

.m

Reynolds number

Dimensionless

kg.m2.s-3.A-1.K-1

V.K-1

Self-diffusion coefficient

Shear modulus

m2.s-1

kg.m.s-2

N, N.rad-1

Solid angle

Solubility, molar

1

m-3.mol

sr

Specific charge

kg-1.s.A

C.kg-1

Specific density

kg.m-3

Specific energy

Specific enthalpy

m2.s-2

m2.s-2

J.kg-1

J.kg-1

Specific entropy

Specific free energy

m2.s-2.K-1

m2.s-2

J.K-1.kg-1

J.kg-1

m2.s-2

J.kg-1

S:

Seeback coefficient

Page 18

[Specific density],

dQ / Q, d{ln(Q)}, for any

quantity Q.

Also log-scale differential.

d{ln(Q)} / dt = (dQ / dt) / Q.

Also evolution rate on logscale.

[Permeability] /

[Permeability of vacuum].

[Permittivity] / [Permittivity

of vacuum]. Dielectric

constant.

Q/Q, for any quantity Q.

1/ [Relaxation time]. Used

in all branches of Science.

Used in all branches of

Science.

[Relaxation rate] /

[Concentration].

[Potential] / [Current]

[Energy] / [Area]. Same

dimension as notch

resistance.

([Resistance] [Length]) /

[Area].

[Velocity] [length] /

[ Kinematic viscosity]

[Potential] / [Temperature.

Same as thermoelectric

power.

[Distance2] / [Time].

[Force] / [Angle].

Same as modulus of

rigidity.

[Quantity] / [Volume]. Same

as concentration

[Charge] / [Mass].

Charge/mass ratio.

[Mass] / [Volume]. Same as

density of mass

[Energy] / [Mass].

[Enthalpy] / [Mass]. Like

specific heat.

[Entropy] / [Mass].

[Free energy] / [Mass].

Also specific Helmholtz

function.

[Free enthalpy] / [Mass].

Specific heat

Specific heat capacity

Specific internal energy

m2.s-2

m2.s-2.K-1

m2.s-2

Specific refractivity

m3.kg-1

Specific volume

Speed

m3.kg-1

m.s-1

Spin

Star magnitude

1

1

Dimensionless

Dimensionless

Surface element

m-2.s.A

m2

C.m-2

Surface energy

kg.s-2

J/m2

Surface tension

kg.s-2

N/m

Susceptibility, magnetic

Stress

1

kg.m-1.s-2

Dimensionless

Pa, N.m-2

K

K.m-1

Tension

kg.m-1.s-2

Pa, N.m-2

Thermal conductivity

kg.m.s-3.K-1

W.m-1.K-1

Thermal diffusivity

m2.s-1

Thermal expansion

coefficient

Thermal gradient

K-1

Thermodynamic force

kg.m.s-2.mol-1

N/mol

Thermoelectric power |

Thermo power

kg.m2.s-3.A-1.K-1

V.K-1

Thomson coefficient

kg.m2.s-3.A-1.K-1

W.K-1.A-1

T:

Temperature

Temperature gradient

J.kg-1

J.K-1.kg-1

J.kg-1

K.m-1

Page 19

function.

[Heat] / [Mass].

[Heat capacity] / [Mass].

[Internal energy] / [Mass].

Like specific heat.

[( r2 - 1 ) / ( r2 + 2 )] /

[Specific density]

[Volume] / [Mass].

[Distance] / [Time]. Same

as velocity.

of a quantum particle

m - m' = -100.4 ( S / S' ),

where

S,S' are luminous fluxes of

two stars.

[Charge] / [Area]

[Distance] [Distance].

Same as area

[Energy] / [Area]. Same as

surface tension.

[Force] / [Length]. Same as

surface energy.

[Relative permeability]-1.

[Force] / [Area]. Same as

pressure.

[Temperature] / [Distance].

Same as thermal gradient.

[Force] / [Area]. Like

pressure.

[Heat flux] / ([Distance]

[Temperature]).

Same as heat conductivity.

([Temperatute] / [Time]) /

[2Temperature].

([Length] / [Length]) /

[Temperature].

[Temperature] /

[Distance].

Same as temperature

gradient.

[Chemical potential] /

[Distance].

[Potential] /

[Temperature].

Same as Seeback

coefficient.

[Heat flux] /

([Temperature]

[Current]).

Time

Torque

V:

van der Waals constant: a

s

kg.m2.s-2

s

N.m

kg.m5.s-2

Pa.m6

[Force] [Distance].

Same as moment of force.

m3

A

van der Waals virial constant:

B

Variance of current noise nJ2

Variance of voltage noise nV2

Vector potential,

electromagnetic

kg-1.m5.s-2.mol-2

Velocity

m.s-1

Verdet constant

kg-1.m-1.s2.A1

rad.m-1.T-1

kg.m5.s-2.mol-2

Pa.(mol.m-3)-2

kg.m8.s-2.mol-3

Pa.(mol.m-3)-3

kg.m11.s-2.mol-4

Pa.(mol.m-3)-4

Viscosity, dynamic

kg.m-1.s-1

Pa.s

Viscosity, kinematic

m2.s-1

Volume

Volume concentration

kg2.m4.s-5.A-2

m3

1

W:

Wavelength

kg-1.m3.mol-1

s.A2

kg2.m4.s-5.A-2

kg.m.s-2.A-1

A2/Hz

V2/Hz

V.s.m-1, T.m

V2/Hz

Dimensionless

Wave number

m-1

Work function

kg.m2.s-2

J, eV

Y:

Young modulus

kg.m-1.s-2

N.m-2, Pa

CONSTANT VALUES

Page 20

a in (p+ a / V2) ( V - b) =

RT.

b in ( p+ a / V2) ( V- b ) =

RT.

A in p =( n / V) RT+ ( n /

V )2 (RTB A ).

B in p = ( n / V )RT + ( n /

V)2 (RTB - A).

[Current]2 / [Bandwidth]

[Voltage]2 / [ Bandwidth]

[El.field strength] [ Time],

[Mag.flux density]

[Distance]

[Distance] / [Time]. Same

as speed.

([Angle] / [Length]) /

[Magnetic flux density]

A in p= (n / V) RT + A (n /

V)2 + B (n / V )3 +C(n / V)4.

B in p =( n / V) RT + a (n /

V)2 + B (n / V)3 + C( n / V )4.

C in p =( n / V )RT +

A( n/V)2+B(n / V)3 + C( n /

V)4.

([Force] / [Area] ) /

[Velocity]

[Dynamic viscosity] /

[Density]

[Voltage]2 / [Bandwidth]

[Area] [Distance]

[Volume of substance] /

[Total volume]

[Wave velocity] /

[Frequency].

[Number of waves] /

[Distance].

[Energy] needed to remove

an electron.

[Stress]/[Length] /

[Length]).

1 mile per hour (mph) =1.47 ft/sec=0.447 m/s

Mass of earth = 5.98x1024 kg

Mean radius of earth = 6.37x106 m = 3960 mil

Mean earthsun distance=1.49x108 km=2.39x 105 mil

Mean earthmoon distance=3.8 x105km=2.39 x105 mil

Speed of light=3.00x108 m/sec=1.86 x105 miles /sec

Charge of electron and proton =1.6x10-19 coulombs

Mass of proton = 1.67x 10 27 kg

Mass of electron = 9.11x 10 31 kg

Electric current: 1 abampere = 10 amperes

Electric charge: 1 abcoulomb = 10 coulombs

Capacitance: 1 abfarad = 109 farads = 1 gigafarad

Inductance: 1 abhenry = 10-9 Henry = 1 annoyer

Resistance: 1 abhor = 10-9 ohm = 1 nano

Conductance: 1 abhor = 109 Siemens

Magnetic flux density: 1 abets =10-4 tesla =1 gauss

Potential: 1 abbot = 10-8 volt = 10 Nan volts

Power: 1 abaft = 10-7 watt = 0.1 microwatt

Erg: 1 erg = 10-7 J

Dyne: 1 dyn = 10-5 N

Poise: 1 P = 1 dyn s/cm2 = 0.1 Pa s

Stokes: 1 St = 1 cm2/s = 10-4 m2/s

Gauss: 1 G = 10-4 T

Oersted: 1 Oe = (1000/(4 )) A/m

Maxwell: 1 Mx = 10-8 Wb

Stilb: 1 sb = 1 cd/cm2 = 104 cd/m2

Magnetic flux: 1 baneberry = 10-8 Weber = 1Maxwell

Atomic mass constant mu =1.660 538 73(13) 10-27 kg

Avogadro constant L, NA = 6.022141 99(47)1023 mol-1

Bohr magneton B = 9.274 008 99(37) 10-24 J T-1

Boltzmann constant k = 1.380 650 3(24) 10-23 J K-1

Electron charge e = 1.602 176 462(63) 10-19 C

Electron mass me = 9.109 381 88(72) 10-31 kg

Faraday constant F = 9.648 534 15(39) 104 C mol-1

Loschmidt's constant NL= 2.686 777 5(47)1025 m-3

Planck constant h = 6.626 068 76(52) 10-34 J s

Proton mass mp =1.672 621 58(13) 10-27 kg

Speed of light c = 2.997 924 58 108 m s-1

Neutron mass mn = 1.674 927 16(13) 10-27 kg

Stefan-Boltzmann constant = 5.670 400(40) 10-8 W m-2 K-4

Newton's gravitational constant G= 6.673(10) 10-11 N m2 kg-2

Permeability of vacuum 0 =410-7NA-2=1.25663706110-6 NA-2

Molar gas constant R= 8.314 472(15) J K-1 mol-1 Permittivity of vacuum

0 =8.854187 817 10-12 F m-1

Molar volume = (ideal gas, 101.325 kPa) Vm 2.241 399 6(39) 10-2 m3

mol-1

English and Other Subjects Visit:

www.meustaad.blogspot.com

www.notesnotes4free.co.vu

Prof: Najeeb Mughal, Edited by Tarvesh Kumar

Page 21

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