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CHAPTER 1

THE SCOPE OF PHYSICS


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

CONTAIN:
INTRODUCTION
SYSTEM OF UNITS (MEASUREMENT).
DIMENSION.
UNIT AND DIMENTION
SIGNIFICANT FIGURE

DESCRIPTIVE PART

1: What is PHYSICS?
The word 'Physics' comes from the Greek word
'phusis' meaning 'nature', introduced by the ancient
scientist 'Aristotle'. Man has always been fascinated
by nature. The branch of science which is devoted to
the study of nature and natural phenomena is called
Physics. It is expected that all the events in nature
take place according to some basic laws. Thus
Physics (the knowledge of nature) is the science
concerned with the discovery and understanding of
the most basic fundamental laws of the universe that
control the way everything in the world around us
behaves. Discoveries in basic physics have important
ramifications for all of science.
Physics is the scientific study of matter and energy and how they interact with each other. Physics deals
with matter on scales ranging from sub-atomic particles (i.e. the particles that make up the atom and the particles
that make up those particles) to stars and even entire galaxies. Physics is the truly universal science.
There are many fields of physics, for example: mechanics, electricity, heat, sound, light, condensed matter,
atomic physics, nuclear physics, and elementary particle physics. Physics is the foundation of all the physical
sciences, such as chemistry, material science, and geology and is important for many other fields: biology,
medicine, computing, ice hockey, and television, list goes on.
The physics was divided in main two branches:
i.
ii.

Classical mechanics
Quantum mechanics.

The Mechanics or classical physics is an important field of physics. Developed by Sir Isaac Newton in the 17th
century, the laws of mechanics and the law of gravity successfully explained the orbits of the moon around the
earth and the planets around the sun. Newtons laws are used to design cars, clocks, airplanes, earth satellites,
bridges, buildings, just about everything, it seems, except electronics.
Electricity is another example of physics, one that you may experience as a spark when you touch a doorknob on
a dry winter day. The electrical attraction of protons and electrons is the basis for chemistry. Magnetism is
another force of nature, familiar to us from refrigerator magnets and compasses. In the 19th century, James Clerk
Maxwell combined electricity and magnetism. He showed that light is an electromagnetic wave that travels
through empty space.
The Quantum mechanics deals Einsteins theory of relativity and other modern concepts of twentieth century are
discussed. The modern physics divided in to: Atomic physics, Elementary physics, Nuclear physics, Molecular
physics, Plasma physics, Medical physics, Solid state physics, Astronomical physics, and many others.
2: Physical Quantities:
Physical quantity is the numerical value of a measurable property that describes a physical system's state at a
moment in time.
Extensive and Intensive Quantities:
Extensive: when its magnitude is additive for subsystems (volume, mass, etc.)
Intensive when the magnitude is independent of the extent of the system (temperature, pressure, etc.)

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Some physical quantities are prefixed in order to further qualify their meaning:
Molar is added to refer to a quantity which is expressed per unit mass (such as specific heat capacity)
Specific is added to refer to a quantity which is expressed per unit amount of substance (such as molar volume).
There are also physical quantities that can be classified as neither extensive nor intensive, for example angular
momentum, area, force, length, and time
Coordinates are sets of numbers that describe position along a line, on a surface or in space. Latitude and
longitude, or declination and right ascension, each is a system of coordinates on the surface of a sphere on the
globe of the Earth or the globe of the heavens.
3: Unit:
Unit is the universally accepted definite amount of a physical quantity taken as a standard for the measurement of
the same physical quantity of any amount. E.g. Kilogram (kg), meter (m), second (s), and etc some physical
quantities have no units, since each is expressed by a ratio of similar physical quantities. For example,
mechanical advantage, velocity ratio, refractive index, atomic weight, and etc. It means, a unit is a particular
physical quantity, defined and adopted by convention, with which other particular quantities of the same kind are
compared to express their value.
4: Fundamental Quantities:
The first standard units of measurement were established by the French Academy of Sciences in the 1790. The
measurement of any quantity is made relative to particular standard or unit and this unit must be specified along
with the numerical value of the quantity. Fixing the unit of only three physical quantities forms a system of units,
which contains the unit of every physical quantity. These quantities are called fundamental quantities, and their
units are called fundamental units. A physical quantity is a physical property that can be quantified. This means
it can be measured or calculated and expressed in numbers. For example, "mass" is a physical quantity that can
be expressed by stating a number of some basic measurement units. A quantity of mass might be represented by
the symbol m, and could be expressed in the units kilograms.
Basic SI quantities:
The International System of Units SI is the modern form of the metric system. The SI was developed in 1960
from the old meter-kilogram-second (MKS) system, rather than the centimeter-gram-second (CGS) system. The
system is nearly universally employed. In all there are seven SI base units: the meter for distance, the kilogram
for mass, the second for time, the ampere for electric current, the Kelvin for temperature, the mole for amount of
substance, and the candela for intensity of light.
5: Derived Quantities:
The quantities other than fundamental quantities are, called derived quantities, are defined in terms of the seven
base quantities via a system of quantity equations. Thus, Derived physical quantities are those, each of which
associates one or more fundamental physical quantities. The SI derived units for these derived quantities are
obtained from these equations and the seven SI base units.
6: System of Units:
Measurements have an important role not only in physics but also in every branch of science and everywhere in
our day-to-day life. To solve problems and to understand the basics of the Physics it is very important to know
what is a physical quantity, types of physical quantities, what is a unit, what are the units of different physical
quantities, types of units, symbols of units.

1. S.I. System of units:


In 1960, an international committee established a set of standards for length, mass, and other basic quantities.
The system established is an adaptation of the metric system, and it is called the SI system of units. In this
system, the units of length, mass, and time are the meter, kilogram, and second, respectively. Other SI standards
established by the committee are those for temperature (the Kelvin), electric current (the ampere), luminous
intensity (the candela), and the amount of substance (the mole). The laws of physics are expressed in terms of

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basic quantities that require a clear definition. In mechanics, the three basic quantities are length (L), mass (M),
and time (T). All other quantities in mechanics can be expressed in terms of these three.
Set of fundamental and derived units for the accurate measurement of physical quantities is called system of
units.
There are seven base units of the SI:
i.
The Meter:
The unit of length as the meter was defined as the distance between two fixed points on a platinum
iridium bar stored under controlled conditions kept at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures
at Sevres, France.

In the 1960s and 1970s.


Meter the unit of length is defined as 1650763.73 times the wave length of orange light emitted by
krypton -86 atoms.
In October 1983, the meter (m) was again redefined as the distance traveled by light in vacuum during a

1
time of 299 792 458 second.
1m = 100 cm
1 cm =10 mm
ii.

The Kilogram:
One kilogram defined as the mass of a platinum-iridium cylinder3.9cm in diameter and 3.9cm in height
kept at the International Bureau of Weight and Measurement at Sevres, France, established in 1887
1 kilogram = 1000 gm
1gm = 1000 mg
One a.m.u or u is used as the unit of mass in atomic physics. Mass of a C 12 atom is 12 atomic mass units.
One u is defined as 1/12th of the mass of one C12 atom.

iii.

The Second
Before 1960, the standard of time was defined in terms of the mean solar day for the year 1900. The one

1

second was originally defined as 60

1 1
60
24
of a mean solar day.

In 1967, the atomic clock was adopted, choosing caesium-133 atom, which emits electromagnetic
radiation of a precise and unvarying frequency, corresponding to the transition between two hyperfine
levels of the ground state.
The second is the duration of 9 192 631 770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition
between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the cesium 133 atom
1day = 24 hours
1hour = 60 min.
1min = 60 sec.
iv.

v.

The Ampere
The ampere is that constant current which, if maintained in two straight parallel conductors of infinite
length, of negligible circular cross-section, and placed 1 m apart in vacuum, would produce between
these conductors a force equal to 2 x 107 Newton per meter of length
The Kelvin:

1
The Kelvin, unit of thermodynamic temperature, is the fraction 273.16 of the thermodynamic
temperature of the triple point of water. Is 273.16 K.

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vi.

vii.

The Mole:
The mole is the amount of substance of a system which contains as many elementary entities as there are
atoms in 0.012 kilogram of carbon-12.
The Candela:
The candela is the luminous intensity, in a given direction, of a source that emits monochromatic
radiation of frequency 540 x 1012 hertz and that has a radiant intensity in that direction of 1/683 watt per
steradian.
It can be defined as the unit of luminous intensity the luminous intensity in the perpendicular direction

1
of surface 600000 square meter of a perfect black body at the temperature of freezing platinum under
the pressure of 1.013255x105 N/m2 of that surface.
Supplementary unit:
1. RADIAN: This is the SI unit of (supplementary) plane angle. One radian is the plane angle between two
radii of a circle which cut off on the circumference of an arc equal to the length of the radian.
2. STERADIAN: This is the SI unit of solid angle. One steradian is the solid angle which, with its vertex at
the centre of the sphere, cuts off an area of the surface of the sphere, equal to that of a square having
sides of length equal to the radian of the sphere.
3. CURIE: This is the SI unit of radioactivity. One curie is the quantity of any radioactive substance which
undergoes 3.7 x 1010 disintegrations per second.
2. British engineering system:
In addition to SI system of units, another system of units is the British engineering system (sometimes called the
conventional system), is still used in the United States despite acceptance of SI by the rest of the world. In this
system, the units of length, force, and time are the foot (ft), pound, and second, respectively. In this system mass
is derived quantity of unit slug.
After fixing the units of fundamental quantities, the units of any other quantities are easily derived. For example,
Force, F = m a
F= 1kg. 1m / sec
1Newton = 1kg.m sec-
Similarly, for other derived units are derived for derived quantities from their formulae.
The constant value of acceleration due to gravity is 9.8 m / sec in MKS system, 980 cm / sec in CGS system
and 32 ft / sec in FPS system of units. F = m a
One pound = 1 slug 1ft. sec- 2
1 slug = one pound / 1ft. sec- 2
1 slug = 4.45 N / 0.3048 m sec- 2
1 slug = 14.60 kg.
The conversion of mass in CGS and MKS system of units:
10 milligram = 1 centigram
1 gram = 1x10-3 kilogram
10 centigram = 1decigram
10 decigram = 1 gram
10 gram = 1decagram
10 decagram = 1 hectogram
10 hectogram = 1 kilogram
10 kilogram = 1 miriagram
10 miriagram = 100 kilogram = 1 quintal
10 quintal = 1 metric tone
1kg= 2.21 lb = 2.06x1026 a.m.u = 0.0685 slug
1slug= 32.2lb = 14.6 kg.
1amu= 1.66x10-27kg

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Other units of length in MKS and CGS systems:


10 millimeter = 1centimeter
10 centimeter = 1 decimeter
10 decimeter = 1 meter
10 meter = 1 decameter
10 decameter = 1hectometer
10 hectometer = 1 kilometer
1 hectometer = 100 meters
10 kilometer = 1 miria meter
1 m = 39.4 in = 3.23 ft

1 mile = 1.61km = 5280 ft


1 km = 0.621 miles
1 angstrom =10-10m
1 light year = 9.46x1012 km= 9.46x1015 m
1 parsec = 3.26 light year
1 parsec= 3.084x1013 km
1 fathom= 6 ft
1 Fermi= 1 femto meter = 1015 m

Units of length in FPS system:


12 inches = 1 foot
3 foot = 1 yard
220 yard = 1 furlong

1760 yard = 1mile = 8 furlong =63, 360


inches

Relation between units of length in different systems:


1 inch = 2.54 cm
1 foot = 30.48 cm
1 mile = 160934 cm
Force:
1 lb= 4.45 N
1 N= 105 dyne = 0.225 lb
Energy and power:
1joule= 107erg =2.78x10-7 kWh
1 electron volt =1.6x10-19 joule=1.6x10-12 erg

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1 cm = 0.3937 inch
1 meter = 39.37inch = 1.094 yard
1 kilometer = 0.621 mile

1 horse power = 746 watts = 550


Ft.Pound /sec

7: Dimension:
The word dimension has a special meaning in physics. It usually denotes the physical nature of a quantity.
Whether a distance is measured in the length unit feet or the length unit meters, it is still a distance. We say the
dimensionthe physical natureof distance is length.
For example, the symbol we use for speed is v, and in our notation the dimensions of speed are written, as
[LT-1] another example, the dimensions of area, for which we use the symbol A, are The dimensions of area,
volume, speed, and acceleration are listed in below, as well as other quantities:

M
E
C
H
A
N
I
C
A
L

Quantity

Definition

Formula

Units

Dimensions

Length or Distance

fundamental

m (meter)

[L ]

Time
Mass
Area
Volume
Density
Velocity
Acceleration
Momentum

fundamental
fundamental
distance2
distance3
mass / volume
distance / time
Velocity / time
mass velocity

T
M
A = d2
V = d3
d = m/V
v = d/t
a = v/t
p = mv

s (second)
kg (kilogram)
m2
m3
kg/m3
m/s
m/s2
kgm/s

[T]
[M ]
[ L2 ]
[ L3 ]
[ M L-3 ]
[ L T-1 ]
[ L T-2 ]
{ M L T-1 ]

Force or Weight

Mass
acceleration
Mass (acceleration.
of gravity)
force / area

F = ma
W = mg

N (Newton) =
kgm/s2

[ M L T-2 ]

p = F/A

[ M L-1 T-2 ]

Energy or Work
Kinetic Energy
Potential Energy

Force distance
mass velocity2/ 2
mass (Acc: gravity)
height

E = Fd

Pa (Pascal)=N/m2 =
kg/(ms2)
J
(joule)=Nm=gm2/s2

Power

energy / time

[M L2 T-3 ]

Impulse
Action

force time
energy time
momentum
distance
Fundamental

W (watt)=J/s =
kgm2/s3
Ns = kgm/s
Js = kgm2/s

Pressure or Stress

A
N
G
U
L
A
R

Angle

K.E=1/2mv
2

PE =
mgh
P = E/t
I = Ft
A = Et
A = pd

(degrees) or rad
(radians)
360 = 2 rad
cyc (cycles)
Hz (hertz) = cyc/s =
1/ s
rad/s = 1/ s
rad/s2 = 1/ s2

[ M L2 T-2 ]

[M L T-1 ]
[M L2 T-1 ]

Dimension less

Cycles
Frequency

fundamental
cycles / time

N
f = n/t

Angular Velocity
Angular
acceleration
Moment of Inertia
Angular
Momentum

angle / time
angular velocity/ time

= /t
= /t

mass radius2
Radius momentum
mom. Of inert.
(angular velocity)
Radius force
mom. of
inert.(angular
acceleration)
fundamental

I = m r2
L=rp
L=I

kgm2
kgm2/s

[ M L2 ]
[ M L2T-1 ]

T=rF
T=I

Nm = kgm2/s2

[ M L2 T-2 ]

C (Celsius) or K
(Kelvin)

[K ]

Torque

Temperature
T

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Dimension less
[ T-1 ]
[ T-1 ]
[ T-2 ]

H
E
R
M
A
L
E
L
E
C
T
R
O
M
A
G
N
E
T
I
C

Heat
Entropy

heat energy
heat / temperature

Q
S = Q/T

J (joule) = kgm2/s2
J/K

[ M L2 T-2 ]
[ M L2 T-2 K-1 ]

Electric Charge(+/-)

Current time

C (coulomb)

[C ]

Current
Voltage or Potential
Resistance
Capacitance
Inductance

charge / time
energy / charge
voltage / current
charge / voltage
voltage/(current/
time)
voltage / distance
force / charge
electric field area
force / (charge
velocity)
magnetic field area

i = q/t
V = E/q
R = V/i
C = q/V
L = V/
(i/t)
E = V/d
E = F/q
E = EA
B = F/qv

A (amp) = C/s
V (volt) = J/C
(ohm) = V/A
F (farad) = C/V
H (Henry) = Vs/A

[ C T-1]
[ M L2 C-1 T-2 ]
[ M L2 C-2 T-1 ]
[ C2 T2 M-1 L-2 ]
[ M L2 T-2 ]

V/m = N/C

[ M L C-1 T-2 ]

Vm = Nm2/C
T (tesla)= Wb/m2 =
Ns/(Cm)
Wb (Weber)=Vs=
Js/C

[ M L3 C-1 T-2 ]
[ M C-1 T-1]

Electric Field
Electric Flux
Magnetic Field
Magnetic Flux

M = BA

[ M L2 C-1 T- 1]

8: Significant Figures:
When physical quantities are measured, the measured values are known only to within the limits of the
experimental uncertainty. The value of this uncertainty can depend on various factors, such as the quality of
the apparatus, the skill of the experimenter, and the number of measurements performed. The concept of
significant figures is often used in connection with rounding.
When multiplying several quantities, the number of significant figures in the final answer is the same as the
number of significant figures in the least accurate of the quantities being multiplied, where
least accurate means having the lowest number of significant figures. The same rule applies to division.
When numbers are added or subtracted, the number of decimal places in the result should equal the smallest
number of decimal places of any term in these.
The rules for identifying significant digits when writing or interpreting numbers are as follows:
1. All non-zero digits are considered significant. Ex: 1, 20, and 300 all have one significant figure. Their
significant figures are 1, 2, and 3 respectively. 123.45 have five significant figures: 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5.
2. Zeros appearing anywhere between two non-zero digits are significant. Example: 101.12 have five
significant figures: 1, 0, 1, 1 and 2.
3. Leading zeros are not significant. For example, 0.00012 has two significant figures: 1 and 2.Trailing
zeros in a number containing a decimal point are significant. For example, 12.2300 have six
significant figures: 1, 2, 2, 3, 0 and 0. The number 0.000122300 still has only six significant figures
(the zeros before the 1 are not significant). In addition, 120.00 have five significant figures. This
convention clarifies the precision of such numbers; for example, if a result accurate to four decimal
places is given as 12.23 then it might be understood that only two decimal places of accuracy are
available. Stating the result as 12.2300 makes clear that it is accurate to four decimal places.
4. The significance of trailing zeros in a number not containing a decimal point can be ambiguous. For
example, it may not always be clear if a number like 1300 is accurate to the nearest unit (and just
happens coincidentally to be an exact multiple of a hundred) or if it is only shown to the nearest
hundred due to rounding or uncertainty. Various conventions exist to address this issue:
5. A bar may be placed over the last significant digit; any trailing zeros following this are insignificant.
For example, 1300has three significant figures (and hence indicates that the number is accurate to the
nearest ten).
6. The last significant figure of a number may be underlined; for example, "20000" has two significant
figures.

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7. A decimal point may be placed after the number; for example "100." indicates specifically that three
significant figures are meant.
A number with all zero digits (e.g. 0.000) has no significant digits, because the uncertainty is larger than
the actual measurement.

Short questions and Answers


Question #1What is an atomic clock?
An atomic clock is a clock that keeps time using natural characteristic frequencies of atoms, such as cesium,
hydrogen or rubidium. Atomic clocks are extremely stable because the atom's characteristic frequencies are
not affected by factors like temperature, pressure or humidity.
Question #2How long is a nanosecond, a picoseconds or a femto second?
A nanosecond is one billionth of a second, and picoseconds are one trillionth of a second. Timekeeping
technology has not yet reached the stage where we can measure femto seconds. However, just for the record, a
femto second is a thousand times smaller than picoseconds!
Question #3What is an atomic Balance?
Atomic balances, which are capable of measurement of nano particles mass, are described. The precision of
measurements is defined by the geometry of measuring micro console and may be as high as 10-19 g. Atomic
balance can also measure lateral stress and surface tension in thin films (also in mono layers). Experimental
data on the atomic balance usage as highly sensitive gas and liquid analyzers, chemical and biological sensors
are presented
Quantity
A:
Acceleration, angular
Abb number
Absorbed radiation dose
Absorbed dose rate
Acceleration, linear
Action
Activity of radioactive source
Angular acceleration
Angular moment of inertia
Angular moment of motion

Alternatives

Definition/Notes

s-2
1
m2.s-2
m2.s-3
m.s-2
kg.m2.s-1
s-1
s-2
kg.m2
kg.m2.s-1

rad.s-2
Dimensionless
J.kg-1, Gy
Gy.s-1

s-1
m2

rad.s-1

[Angular Velocity] / [Time].


Inverse of refractive index.
[Energy] / [Mass].
[Absorbed dose] / [Time].
[Velocity] / [Time]
[Energy] [Time].
[Events] / [Time].
[Angular Velocity] / [Time].
[Mass] [Distance2].
[Moment of motion]
[Distance]. Like [action].
[Plane angle] / [Time].
[Distance] [Distance].

bit.s-1

Baud

kg-1.m.s2

Pa-1

kg-1.m-2.s4.A2
m2.s-1

C.V-1, F
J.s.kg-1

Characteristic impedance

kg.m2.s-3.A-2

V.A-1, , ohm

Charge, electric
Charge, quantum

s .A
1

C
Dimensionless

Angular velocity
Area
B:
Baud rate
Bulk modulus

C:
Capacitance, electric
Circulation

UNIT

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J.s
Bq
rad.s-2
J.s

[Information] / [Time]
Also: information flux.
[Pressure] / ([Volume] /
[Volume]).
Same as compressibility.
[Charge] / [Potential]
[Angular moment of
motion]/[Mass]
([Mag.Permeability] /
[El.Permittivity]).
[Current] [Time]
[Charge] / [Elementary

Charge, molecular/ionic,
quantum

Dimensionless

Charge density
Charge/mass ratio

m-3.s.A
kg-1.s.A

C.m-3
C.kg-1

Charge, molar
Chemical potential, molar

s.A.mol-1
kg.m2.s-2.mol-1

C.mol-1
J.mol-1

Collision cross section

m2

Compressibility

kg-1.m.s2

Pa-1

Compression modulus

kg-1.m.s2

Pa-1

Concentration, molar

m-3.mol

Concentration, by mass

Dimensionless

Concentration, by volume

Dimensionless

Concentration, by weight

Dimensionless

Conductance, electric

kg-1.m-2.s3.A2

A.V-1, S

Conductivity, electric
Conductivity, molar

kg-1.m-3.s3.A2
kg-1.s3.A2.mol-1

S.m-1
S.m2.mol-1

Conductivity, thermal

kg.m.s-3.K-1

W.m-1.K-1

Convergence
Count rate
Cross section
Cryoscopic constant

m-1
s-1
m2
kg.mol-1.K

dioptry

Current, electric
Current density (electric)

A
m-2.A

Current intensity (electric)

m-2.A

Current noise, variance nJ2


Curvature radius

s.A2
m

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K/(mol/kg)

A2/Hz

charge quantum]
[Charge of a molecule or
ion] /
[Elementary charge
quantum]
[Charge] / [Volume]
[Charge] / [Mass]. Same as
specific charge.
[Charge] / [Quantity]
[InternalEnergy] /
[Quantity Of Substance].
[Distance] [Distance].
Same as cross section.
[Pressure] / ([Volume] /
[Volume]).
Same as bulk modulus.
[Pressure] / ([Volume] /
[Volume]).
Same as compressibility.
[Quantity] / [Volume]. Same
as molar density.
[Mass of substance] / [Total
mass].
Same as mass concentration
[Volume of substance] /
[Total volume].
Same as volume
concentration.
[Mass of substance] / [Total
mass].
Same as mass concentration
[Current] / [Potential].
Inverse of resistance.
1 / [Resistivity].
[El.conductivity] /
[Concentration].
[Heat flux] / ([Distance]
[Temperature]).
in optics, but not only ...
[Events] / [Time].
[Distance] [Distance].
[Temperature] /
[Molality].
[Current] / [Area]. Same as
current intensity.
[Current] / [Area]. Same as
current density.
[Current]2 / Bandwidth]
of a line in plane/space or
surface in space

D:
Density of electric charge
Density of electric current

m-3.s.A
m-2.A

C.m-3

Density of energy
Density of mass

kg.m-1.s-2
kg.m-3

J.m-3

Density of substance

m-3.mol

Dielectric constant

Dimensionless

Dielectric strength

kg.m.s-3.A-1

V.m-1

Diffusion coefficient
Diffusivity, thermal

m2.s-1
m2.s-1

Dipole moment, electric


Dipole moment, magnetic
Dispersive power

m.s.A
m2.A
1

Dispersivity quotient

m-1

Distance

Dose of absorbed radiation


Dose rate
Drift speed

m2.s-2
m2.s-3
m.s-1

J.kg-1, Gy
Gy.s-1

Duration
Dynamic viscosity

s
kg.m-1.s-1

s
Pa.s

kg.mol-1.K

K/(mol/kg)

Electric capacitance
Electric charge
Electric conductance

kg-1.m-2.s4.A2
s .A
kg-1.m-2.s3.A2

C.V-1, F
C
A.V-1, S

Electric conductivity
Electric conductivity, molar

kg-1.m-3.s3.A2
kg-1.s3.A2.mol-1

S.m-1
S.m2.mol-1

Electric current
Electric dipole moment
Electric field strength

A
m.s.A
kg.m.s-3.A-1

A
C.m
V.m-1

Electric field gradient

kg.s-3.A-1

V.m-2

Electric flux density

m-2.s.A

C.m-2

E:
Ebullioscopic constant

Prof: Najeeb Mughal, Edited by Tarvesh Kumar


Page 10

C.m
J.T-1
Dimensionless

[Charge] / [Volume]
[Current] / [Area]. Same as
current intensity.
[Energy] / [Volume].
[Mass] / [Volume]. Same as
specific density.
[Quantity] / [Volume]. Same
as concentration.
[Permittivity] / [Permittivity
of vacuum].
Same as relative
permittivity.
[Potential] /
[Distance]. Same as electric
strength.
[Distance2] / [Time].
([Temperatute] / [Time]) /
[2Temperature].
[Charge] [Distance]
[Current] [Area]
Ratio of differences of
refractive indices.
[Refractive index] /
[Wavelength]
in all Euclidean ndimensional spaces.
[Energy] / [Mass].
[Absorbed dose] / [Time].
Steady-state speed of an
object. .
([Force] [Area]) /
[Velocity]
[Temperature] /
[Molality].
[Charge] / [Potential]
[Current] [Time]
[Current] / [Potential].
Inverse of resistance.
1 / [Resistivity].
[El.conductivity] /
[Concentration].
[Charge] [Distance]
[Potential] / [Distance].
Also called electric intensity
[El.field strength] /
[Distance].
[Charge ] / [Area].

Electric inductance
Electric induction

kg.m2.s-2.A-2
m-2.s.A

V.s.A-1, H
C.m-2

Electric intensity

kg.m.s-3.A-1

V.m-1

Electric permittivity

kg-1.m-3.s4.A2

F.m-1

Electric permittivity, relative

Dimensionless

Electric polarization

m-2.s.A

C.m-2

Electric potential

kg.m2.s-3.A-1

W.A-1, J.C-1, V

Electric quadrupole moment


Electric resistance
Electric resistivity

m2.s.A
kg.m2.s-3.A-2
kg.m3.s-3.A-2

C.m2
V.A-1,
.m

Electric strength

kg.m.s-3.A-1

V.m-1

Electromagnetic vector
potential

kg.m.s-2.A-1

V.s.m-1, T.m

Electromotive force (emf)


Electrostriction coefficient

kg.m2.s-3.A-1
kg-2.m-2.s6.A2

V
m2.V-2

Energy

kg.m2.s-2

N.m, J

Energy, molar
Energy, specific
Energy density
Energy flux

kg.m2.s-2.mol-1
m2.s-2
kg.m-1.s-2
kg.m2.s-3

J.mol-1
J.kg-1
J.m-3
J.s-1, W

Enthalpy
Enthalpy, molar

kg.m2.s-2
kg.m2.s-2.mol-1

J
J.mol-1

Enthalpy, specific

m2.s-2

J.kg-1

Entropy
Entropy, molar
Entropy, specific
Evolution rate on log-scale

kg.m2.s-2.K-1
kg.m2.s-2.K-1.mol-1
m2.s-2.K-1
s-1

J.K-1
J.K-1.mol-1
J.K-1.kg-1

Expansion coefficient,
thermal

K-1

Prof: Najeeb Mughal, Edited by Tarvesh Kumar


Page 11

Also called electric


induction
[Potential] / [current / dt ]
[Charge] / [Area].
More properly electric flux
density
[Potential] / [Distance].
More properly electric field
strength
[El.flux density] / [El.field
strength].
[Permittivity] / [Permittivity
of vacuum].
Same as dielectric constant.
[Charge] / [Area]. Like
electric flux density
[Power] / [Current],
[Energy] / [Charge]
[El.dipole] [Distance]
[Potential] / [Current]
([Resistance] [Length]) /
[Area].
[Potential] / [Distance].
Also called dielectric
strength.
[El.field strength] [Time],
[Mag.flux density]
[Distance]
[Potential]
([Volume] / [Volume]) /
[Electric field strength]2.
[Force] [Distance],
[Power] [Time].
[Energy] / [Quantity].
[Energy] / [Mass].
[Energy] / [Volume].
[Energy ] / [Time]. Same as
power.
Like energy and heat.
[Enthalpy] / [Quantity].
Like molar heat.
[Enthalpy] / [Mass]. Like
specific heat.
[Heat] / [Temperature].
[Entropy] / [Quantity].
[Entropy] / [Mass].
d{ln(Q)} / dt = (dQ / dt) /
Q.
Also relative evolution rate.
([Length] / [Length]) /
[Temperature].

Exposure

kg-1.s.A

C.kg-1

[Charge] / [Mass]. Used for


ionizing radiations.
In transmission of a
radiation through space.

Extinction coefficient

m-1

kg.m.s-2
kg.m.s-2.mol-1

N
N/mol

Free energy

kg.m2.s-2

Free energy, molar

kg.m2.s-2.mol-1

J.mol-1

Free energy, specific

m2.s-2

J.kg-1

Free enthalpy

kg.m2.s-2

Free enthalpy, molar

kg.m2.s-2.mol-1

J.mol-1

Free enthalpy, specific

m2.s-2

J.kg-1

[Mass] [Acceleration].
[Chemical potential] /
[Distance].
Also Helmholtz function.
Like energy.
[Free energy] / [Quantity].
Also molar Helmholtz
function.
[Free energy] / [Mass].
Also specific Helmholtz
function.
Also Gibbs function. Like
energy.
[Free enthalpy] /
[Quantity].
Also molar Gibbs function.
[Free enthalpy] / [Mass].
Also specific Gibbs
function.

Frequency of waves or events


Frequency drift rate
Friction coefficient

s-1
s-2
1

Hz
Hz.s-1
Dimensionless

Fugacity

kg.m-1.s-2

Pa

Dimensionless

Gradient, of electric field

kg.s-3.A-1

V.m-2

Gradient, of magnetic field

kg.m-1.s-2.A-1

T.m-1

Gradient, thermal

K.m-1

Gravitational field intensity

m.s-2

Gravitational field potential


Gravity

m2.s-2
m.s-2

Gyromagnetic ratio

kg-1.s.A

F:
Force
Force, thermodynamic

G:
g-factor of a particle

H:

Prof: Najeeb Mughal, Edited by Tarvesh Kumar


Page 12

Hz.T-1

[Frequency] / [Time].
[Tangential force] / [Normal
force].
Effective pressure in real
gases.
[Magnetic moment] /
([Spin].[Bohr magneton])
[El.field strength] /
[Distance].
[Mag.flux density] /
[Distance].
[Temperature] /
[Distance].
Same as temperature
gradient.
[Force] / [Mass],
[Acceleration].Same as
gravity
[Energy] / [Mass].
[Force] / [Mass],
[Acceleration].
Same as grav. field intensity
[Mag.moment] / [Angular
moment of motion].

Half life

Hamiltonian

kg.m2.s-2

Hardness
Heat
Heat, molar
Heat, specific
Heat capacity
Heat capacity, molar

kg.m-1.s-2
kg.m2.s-2
kg.m2.s-2.mol-1
m2.s-2
kg.m2.s-2.K-1
kg.m2.s-2.K-1.mol-1

N.m-2
J
J.mol-1
J.kg-1
J.K-1
J.K-1.mol-1

Heat capacity, specific


Heat | Thermal conductivity

m2.s-2.K-1
kg.m.s-3.K-1

J.K-1.kg-1
W.m-1.K-1

Heat flux

kg.m2.s-3

J.s, W

Heat flux density

kg.s-3

W.m-2

cd.sr.m-2
kg.m2.s-3.A-2

lm.m-2, lx
V.A-1, , ohm

Impact resistance
Inductance

kg.s-2
kg.m2.s-2.A-2

J.m-2
V.s.A-1, Wb.A-1, H

Induction, electric

m-2.s.A

C.m-2

Information

bit-1

bit

Information flux

bit.s-1

Baud

Intensity of electric current

m-2.A

Internal energy
Internal energy, molar

kg.m2.s-2
kg.m2.s-2.mol-1

J
J.mol-1

Internal energy, specific

m2.s-2

J.kg-1

Ion mobility

kg-1.m-1.s2.A

m2.s-1.V-1

Ionic force (strength)

m-3.mol

Ionic quantum charge

Ionic strength (force)

m-3.mol

Irradiance

kg.s-3

I:
Illuminance
Impedance, characteristic

J:

Prof: Najeeb Mughal, Edited by Tarvesh Kumar


Page 13

Dimensionless

W.m-2

typically of a radioactive
substance
[Force] [Distance],
[Power] [Time]. Like
energy.
[Force] / [Area]
Like energy.
[Heat] / [Quantity].
[Heat] / [Mass].
[Heat] / [Temperature].
[Heat capacity] /
[Quantity].
[Heat capacity] / [Mass].
[Heat flux] / ([Distance]
[Temperature]).
[Heat] / [Time]. Like
power.
[Heat flux] / [Area]. Same
as irradiance.
[Luminous flux] / [Area].
([Mag.Permeability] /
[El.Permittivity]).
[Energy] / [Area]
[Potential] / [dCurrent/dt],
[Mag.flux] / [Current]
[Charge] / [Area].
Same as electric flux
density
One bit is the elementary
information quantum.
[Information] / [Time]. Also
called baud rate.
[Current] / [Area]. Same as
current density.
Like energy and heat.
[Internal energy] /
[Quantity]. Like molar heat.
[Internal energy] / [Mass].
Like specific heat.
[Velocity] / [Electric field
strength].
Sum ([Concentration]
[Ionic quantum charge]2).
[Ion charge] / [Elementary
charge quantum]
Sum ([Concentration]
[Ionic quantum charge]2).
[Heat flux] / [Area]. Same
as heat flux density

kg-1.m.s2.K

K.Pa-1

[Temperature] / [Pressure].

mol.s-1

katal

[Quantity] / [Time].
Same as molar production
rate.
[Dynamic viscosity] /
[Density]
Same as reciprocal space
position.

kg.m2.s-2

[Force] [Distance],
[Power] [Time]. Like
energy.

Length
Logarithmic ratio logb(A/A')

m
1

m
log in any base b

Logarithmic ratio ln(A/A')

Np

Logarithmic ratio
Log(P/P')/10

dB

Logarithmic ratio
Log(X/X')/20

dB

Logarithmic scale differential

Dimensionless

Luminance
Luminosity
Luminous flux

cd.m-2
cd
cd.sr

cd
lm

cd

cd

m2.A

J.T-1

Magnetic field gradient

kg.m-1.s-2.A-1

T.m-1

Magnetic field strength

m-1.A

Magnetic flux

kg.m2.s-2.A-1

V.s, W.s.A-1, Wb

Magnetic flux density

kg.s-2.A-1

Wb.m-2, T

Magnetic induction

kg.s-2.A-1

Wb.m-2, T

Magnetic intensity

m-1.A

Joule-Thomson coefficient
K:
Katalytic activity

Kinematic viscosity

m2.s-1

K-space vector

m-1

L:
Lagrangian

Luminous intensity
M:
Magnetic dipole moment

Prof: Najeeb Mughal, Edited by Tarvesh Kumar


Page 14

Applicable to any ratio of


like quantities.
neper. Uses natural
logarithm.
Decibel. Uses base-10
logarithm. Aplies only to
power P.
Decibel. Aplies to voltages
(X = V) and currents (X =
I).
dQ / Q , d{ln(Q)}, for any
quantity Q
Also relative differential.
[Luminosity] / [Area]
Same as luminous intensity.
[Luminosity] [Solid
angle]
Same as luminosity.
[Current] [Area]. Like
magnetic moment.
[Mag.flux density] /
[Distance].
[Current] / [Distance].
Also called magnetic
intensity
[Potential] [Time],
[Power] / [current / dt]
[Mag.flux] / [Area].
Also called magnetic
induction.
[Mag.flux] / [Area].
More properly magnetic
flux density.
[Current] / [Distance].
More properly magnetic
field strength

Magnetic moment
Magnetic permeability

m2.A
kg.m.s-2.A-2

J.T-1
H.m-1

Magnetic permeability,
relative
Magnetic quadrupole
moment
Magnetic susceptibility
Magnetization

Dimensionless

m3.A

m.J.T-1

1
m-1.A

Dimensionless

Magnetogyric ratio

kg.s-1.A-1

T.Hz-1

Magnetomotive force (mmf)

Magnitude of a star

Dimensionless

Mass
Mass density

kg
kg.m-3

kg

Mass concentration

Dimensionless

Mass flow

kg.s-1

kg

Mass production rate

kg.s-1

Mass, molar
Modulus of compression

kg.mol-1
kg-1.m.s2

Pa-1

Modulus of rigidity

kg.m.s-2

N, N.rad-1

Mobility, ionic

kg-1.m-1.s2.A

m2.s-1.V-1

Molality

kg-1.mol

mol/kg

Molar charge
Molar concentration

s.A.mol-1
m-3.mol

C.mol-1

Molar conductivity, electric

kg-1.m-3.s3.A2.mol-1

S.m-1.mol-1

Molar density

m-3.mol

Molar energy
Molar enthalpy

kg.m2.s-2.mol-1
kg.m2.s-2.mol-1

Prof: Najeeb Mughal, Edited by Tarvesh Kumar


Page 15

J.mol-1
J.mol-1

[Current] [Area]
[Mag.flux density] /
[Mag.field strength].
[Permeability] /
[Permeability of vacuum].
[Mag.dipole] [Distance]
[Relative permeability]-1.
[Mag.moment] / [Volume].
Like magnetic field
strength.
[Angular moment of
motion] / [Mag.moment].
[Current] [Number fo
turms]
M - m'= -100.4 (S/S'), where
S,S' are the luminous fluxes
of two stars.
[Mass] / [Volume]. Same as
specific density.
[Mass of substance] / [Total
mass].
Also concentration by
weight.
[Mass] / [Time].
Same as mass production
rate.
[Mass] / [Time]. Same as
mass flow.
[Mass]/[Quantity]
[Pressure] / ([Volume] /
[Volume]).
Same as compressibility.
[Force] / [Angle]. Same as
shear modulus.
[Velocity] / [Electric field
strength].
[Quantity] / [Mass]. A way
to specify concentration of a
solution.
[Charge] / [Quantity]
[Quantity] / [Volume]. Same
as concentration
[El.conductivity] /
[Concentration].
[Quantity] / [Volume]. Same
as concentration.
[Energy] / [Quantity].
[Enthalpy] / [Quantity].
Like molar heat.

Molar entropy
Molar free energy

kg.m2.s-2.K-1.mol-1
kg.m2.s-2.mol-1

J.K-1.mol-1
J.mol-1

Molar free enthalpy

kg.m2.s-2.mol-1

J.mol-1

Molar heat
Molar heat capacity

kg.m2.s-2.mol-1
kg.m2.s-2.K-1.mol-1

J.mol-1
J.K-1.mol-1

Molar internal energy

kg.m2.s-2.mol-1

J.mol-1

Molar mass
Molar production rate

kg.mol-1
mol.s-1

katal

Molar refractivity

m3.mol-1

Molar relaxivity

m3.s-1.mol-1

Molar solubility

m-3.mol

Molar volume
Molarity

m3.mol-1
m-3.mol

Molecular quantum charge

Dimensionless

Moment of force
Moment of motion

kg.m2.s-2
kg.m.s-1

N.m

Mutual inductance

kg.m2.s-2.A-2

V.s.A-1, Wb.A-1, H

kg.s-2

J.m-2

kg.m-1.s-2

Pa

kg.m2.s-3.A-1
kg.m.s-2.A-2

W.A-1, V
H.m-1

Permittivity, electric

kg-1.m-3.s4.A2

F.m-1

Permittivity, relative

Dimensionless

Phase angle
Phase drift rate
Pi coefficient, molar

1
s-1
kg.m-1.s-2.mol-1

rad
rad.s-1
J.m-3

N:
Notch resistance
O:
Osmotic pressure
P:
Peltier coefficient
Permeability, magnetic

Prof: Najeeb Mughal, Edited by Tarvesh Kumar


Page 16

[Entropy] / [Quantity].
[Free energy] / [Quantity]
Also molar Helmholtz
function.
[Free enthalpy] /
[Quantity]. Also molar
Gibbs function.
[Heat] / [Quantity].
[Heat capacity] /
[Quantity].
[Internal energy] /
[Quantity]. Like molar heat.
[Mass] / [Quantity]
[Quantity] / [Time]. Like
katalytic activity.
[( r2- 1 ) / (r2 +2 )] /
[Concentration],
where r is the refractive
index.
[Relaxation rate] /
[Concentration].
[Quantity] / [Volume]. Same
as concentration
[Volume] / [Quantity].
[Quantity] / [Volume].
Same as concentration or
molar density
[Charge of a molecule] /
[ Elementary charge
quantum]
[Force] [Distance].
[Mass] [Velocity], [Mass
flow] [Distance].
[Potential] / [dCurrent/dt],
[Mag.flux] / [Current]
[Energy ] / [Area]

[Heat flux] / [Current].


[Mag.flux density] /
[Mag.field strength].
[El.flux density] / [El.field
strength].
[Permittivity] / [Permittivity
of vacuum]. Dielectric
constant.
in exp( i(t + ))
[Phase angle] /[Time].
[InternalEnergy] /

-3

-1

-1

Piezzoelectric coefficient

kg.m.s .A

V.m

Plane angle
Polarization, electric

1
m-2.s.A

rad
C.m-2

Position vector

Potential, electric

kg.m2.s-3.A-1

W.A-1, J.C-1, V

Power

kg.m2.s-3

J.s-1, W

Prandtl number

Dimensionless

Poynting vector

kg.s-3

W.m-2

Pressure
Probability of an event

kg.m-1.s-2
1

N.m-2, Pa

Np-1

m2.s.A
m3.A

C.m2
m.J.T-1

mol
1

mol
Dimensionless

Dimensionless

Probability density on
ln-scale
Q:
Quadrupole moment, electric
Quadrupole moment,
magnetic
Quantity of substance
Quantum charge
Quantum charge,
molecular or ionic
Quotient of dispersivity
R:
Radiance

m-1

kg.s-3.sr-1

W.m-2.sr-1

Radiation dose
Radiation dose rate
Radioactivity
Radius of curvature

m2.s-2
m2.s-3
s-1
m

J.kg-1, Gy
Gy.s-1
Bq

Ratio of like quantities


Reciprocal space position
Redox potential

1
m-1
kg.m2.s-3.A-1

Dimensionless

Reduction potential
Refractive index

kg.m2.s-3.A-1
1

V
Dimensionless

Refractivity, molar

m3.mol-1

Refractivity, specific

m3.kg-1

Prof: Najeeb Mughal, Edited by Tarvesh Kumar


Page 17

[Volume].
[Electric field strength] /
([Length] / [Length]).
[Charge]/ [Area]. Like
electric flux density.
in all Euclidean ndimensional spaces.
[Power] / [Current],
[Energy] / [Charge]
[Energy] / [Time].
Equivalent to energy flux.
[Kinematic viscosity] /
[Thermal diffusivity].
[El.field strength] /
[Mag.field strength].
Like irradiance.
[Force] / [Area].
Real number lying in the
interval [0,1].
[Probability] / [Naturallogarithmic ratio]
[El.dipole] [Distance]
[Mag.dipole] [Distance]

[Charge] / [Elementary
charge quantum]
[Molecule/ion charge] /
[Charge quantum]
[Refractive index] /
[Wavelength]
([Power] / [Area]) / [Solid
angle].
[Energy] / [Mass].
[Absorbed dose] / [Time].
[Events] / [Time].
of a line in plane/space or
surface in space
Same as k-space vector.
Same as reduction
potential.
Same as redox potential.
Light speeds ration (in a
medium) / (in vacuum).
[( r2 - 1) / ( r2 + 2 )] /
[Concentration]
[( r2 - 1) / ( r2 + 2)] /

Relative differential

Relative evolution rate

s-1

Dimensionless

Relative permeability,
magnetic
Relative permittivity, electric

Dimensionless

Dimensionless

Relative variation
Relaxation rate

1
s-1

Dimensionless

Relaxation time

Relaxivity, molar

m3.s-1.mol-1

Resistance, electric
Resistance to impact

kg.m2.s-3.A-2
kg.s-2

V.A-1,
J.m-2

Resistivity, electric

kg.m3.s-3.A-2

.m

Reynolds number

Dimensionless

kg.m2.s-3.A-1.K-1

V.K-1

Self-diffusion coefficient
Shear modulus

m2.s-1
kg.m.s-2

N, N.rad-1

Solid angle
Solubility, molar

1
m-3.mol

sr

Specific charge

kg-1.s.A

C.kg-1

Specific density

kg.m-3

Specific energy
Specific enthalpy

m2.s-2
m2.s-2

J.kg-1
J.kg-1

Specific entropy
Specific free energy

m2.s-2.K-1
m2.s-2

J.K-1.kg-1
J.kg-1

Specific free enthalpy

m2.s-2

J.kg-1

S:
Seeback coefficient

Prof: Najeeb Mughal, Edited by Tarvesh Kumar


Page 18

[Specific density],
dQ / Q, d{ln(Q)}, for any
quantity Q.
Also log-scale differential.
d{ln(Q)} / dt = (dQ / dt) / Q.
Also evolution rate on logscale.
[Permeability] /
[Permeability of vacuum].
[Permittivity] / [Permittivity
of vacuum]. Dielectric
constant.
Q/Q, for any quantity Q.
1/ [Relaxation time]. Used
in all branches of Science.
Used in all branches of
Science.
[Relaxation rate] /
[Concentration].
[Potential] / [Current]
[Energy] / [Area]. Same
dimension as notch
resistance.
([Resistance] [Length]) /
[Area].
[Velocity] [length] /
[ Kinematic viscosity]
[Potential] / [Temperature.
Same as thermoelectric
power.
[Distance2] / [Time].
[Force] / [Angle].
Same as modulus of
rigidity.
[Quantity] / [Volume]. Same
as concentration
[Charge] / [Mass].
Charge/mass ratio.
[Mass] / [Volume]. Same as
density of mass
[Energy] / [Mass].
[Enthalpy] / [Mass]. Like
specific heat.
[Entropy] / [Mass].
[Free energy] / [Mass].
Also specific Helmholtz
function.
[Free enthalpy] / [Mass].

Specific heat
Specific heat capacity
Specific internal energy

m2.s-2
m2.s-2.K-1
m2.s-2

Specific refractivity

m3.kg-1

Specific volume
Speed

m3.kg-1
m.s-1

Spin
Star magnitude

1
1

Dimensionless
Dimensionless

Surface density of charge


Surface element

m-2.s.A
m2

C.m-2

Surface energy

kg.s-2

J/m2

Surface tension

kg.s-2

N/m

Susceptibility, magnetic
Stress

1
kg.m-1.s-2

Dimensionless
Pa, N.m-2

K
K.m-1

Tension

kg.m-1.s-2

Pa, N.m-2

Thermal conductivity

kg.m.s-3.K-1

W.m-1.K-1

Thermal diffusivity

m2.s-1

Thermal expansion
coefficient
Thermal gradient

K-1

Thermodynamic force

kg.m.s-2.mol-1

N/mol

Thermoelectric power |
Thermo power

kg.m2.s-3.A-1.K-1

V.K-1

Thomson coefficient

kg.m2.s-3.A-1.K-1

W.K-1.A-1

T:
Temperature
Temperature gradient

J.kg-1
J.K-1.kg-1
J.kg-1

K.m-1

Prof: Najeeb Mughal, Edited by Tarvesh Kumar


Page 19

Also specific Gibbs


function.
[Heat] / [Mass].
[Heat capacity] / [Mass].
[Internal energy] / [Mass].
Like specific heat.
[( r2 - 1 ) / ( r2 + 2 )] /
[Specific density]
[Volume] / [Mass].
[Distance] / [Time]. Same
as velocity.
of a quantum particle
m - m' = -100.4 ( S / S' ),
where
S,S' are luminous fluxes of
two stars.
[Charge] / [Area]
[Distance] [Distance].
Same as area
[Energy] / [Area]. Same as
surface tension.
[Force] / [Length]. Same as
surface energy.
[Relative permeability]-1.
[Force] / [Area]. Same as
pressure.

[Temperature] / [Distance].
Same as thermal gradient.
[Force] / [Area]. Like
pressure.
[Heat flux] / ([Distance]
[Temperature]).
Same as heat conductivity.
([Temperatute] / [Time]) /
[2Temperature].
([Length] / [Length]) /
[Temperature].
[Temperature] /
[Distance].
Same as temperature
gradient.
[Chemical potential] /
[Distance].
[Potential] /
[Temperature].
Same as Seeback
coefficient.
[Heat flux] /
([Temperature]

[Current]).
Time
Torque
V:
van der Waals constant: a

s
kg.m2.s-2

s
N.m

kg.m5.s-2

Pa.m6

[Force] [Distance].
Same as moment of force.

van der Waals constant: b

m3

van der Waals virial constant:


A
van der Waals virial constant:
B
Variance of current noise nJ2
Variance of voltage noise nV2
Vector potential,
electromagnetic

kg-1.m5.s-2.mol-2

Velocity

m.s-1

Verdet constant

kg-1.m-1.s2.A1

rad.m-1.T-1

Virial coefficient: second

kg.m5.s-2.mol-2

Pa.(mol.m-3)-2

Virial coefficient: third

kg.m8.s-2.mol-3

Pa.(mol.m-3)-3

Virial coefficient: fourth

kg.m11.s-2.mol-4

Pa.(mol.m-3)-4

Viscosity, dynamic

kg.m-1.s-1

Pa.s

Viscosity, kinematic

m2.s-1

Voltage noise, variance nV2


Volume
Volume concentration

kg2.m4.s-5.A-2
m3
1

W:
Wavelength

kg-1.m3.mol-1
s.A2
kg2.m4.s-5.A-2
kg.m.s-2.A-1

A2/Hz
V2/Hz
V.s.m-1, T.m

V2/Hz
Dimensionless

Wave number

m-1

Work function

kg.m2.s-2

J, eV

Y:
Young modulus

kg.m-1.s-2

N.m-2, Pa

CONSTANT VALUES

Prof: Najeeb Mughal, Edited by Tarvesh Kumar


Page 20

a in (p+ a / V2) ( V - b) =
RT.
b in ( p+ a / V2) ( V- b ) =
RT.
A in p =( n / V) RT+ ( n /
V )2 (RTB A ).
B in p = ( n / V )RT + ( n /
V)2 (RTB - A).
[Current]2 / [Bandwidth]
[Voltage]2 / [ Bandwidth]
[El.field strength] [ Time],
[Mag.flux density]
[Distance]
[Distance] / [Time]. Same
as speed.
([Angle] / [Length]) /
[Magnetic flux density]
A in p= (n / V) RT + A (n /
V)2 + B (n / V )3 +C(n / V)4.
B in p =( n / V) RT + a (n /
V)2 + B (n / V)3 + C( n / V )4.
C in p =( n / V )RT +
A( n/V)2+B(n / V)3 + C( n /
V)4.
([Force] / [Area] ) /
[Velocity]
[Dynamic viscosity] /
[Density]
[Voltage]2 / [Bandwidth]
[Area] [Distance]
[Volume of substance] /
[Total volume]
[Wave velocity] /
[Frequency].
[Number of waves] /
[Distance].
[Energy] needed to remove
an electron.
[Stress]/[Length] /
[Length]).

PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES

Speed of sound=331m/sec=1200km/h=1090 ft/sec


1 mile per hour (mph) =1.47 ft/sec=0.447 m/s
Mass of earth = 5.98x1024 kg
Mean radius of earth = 6.37x106 m = 3960 mil
Mean earthsun distance=1.49x108 km=2.39x 105 mil
Mean earthmoon distance=3.8 x105km=2.39 x105 mil
Speed of light=3.00x108 m/sec=1.86 x105 miles /sec
Charge of electron and proton =1.6x10-19 coulombs
Mass of proton = 1.67x 10 27 kg
Mass of electron = 9.11x 10 31 kg
Electric current: 1 abampere = 10 amperes
Electric charge: 1 abcoulomb = 10 coulombs
Capacitance: 1 abfarad = 109 farads = 1 gigafarad
Inductance: 1 abhenry = 10-9 Henry = 1 annoyer
Resistance: 1 abhor = 10-9 ohm = 1 nano
Conductance: 1 abhor = 109 Siemens
Magnetic flux density: 1 abets =10-4 tesla =1 gauss
Potential: 1 abbot = 10-8 volt = 10 Nan volts
Power: 1 abaft = 10-7 watt = 0.1 microwatt
Erg: 1 erg = 10-7 J
Dyne: 1 dyn = 10-5 N
Poise: 1 P = 1 dyn s/cm2 = 0.1 Pa s
Stokes: 1 St = 1 cm2/s = 10-4 m2/s
Gauss: 1 G = 10-4 T
Oersted: 1 Oe = (1000/(4 )) A/m
Maxwell: 1 Mx = 10-8 Wb
Stilb: 1 sb = 1 cd/cm2 = 104 cd/m2
Magnetic flux: 1 baneberry = 10-8 Weber = 1Maxwell
Atomic mass constant mu =1.660 538 73(13) 10-27 kg
Avogadro constant L, NA = 6.022141 99(47)1023 mol-1
Bohr magneton B = 9.274 008 99(37) 10-24 J T-1
Boltzmann constant k = 1.380 650 3(24) 10-23 J K-1
Electron charge e = 1.602 176 462(63) 10-19 C
Electron mass me = 9.109 381 88(72) 10-31 kg
Faraday constant F = 9.648 534 15(39) 104 C mol-1
Loschmidt's constant NL= 2.686 777 5(47)1025 m-3
Planck constant h = 6.626 068 76(52) 10-34 J s
Proton mass mp =1.672 621 58(13) 10-27 kg
Speed of light c = 2.997 924 58 108 m s-1
Neutron mass mn = 1.674 927 16(13) 10-27 kg
Stefan-Boltzmann constant = 5.670 400(40) 10-8 W m-2 K-4
Newton's gravitational constant G= 6.673(10) 10-11 N m2 kg-2
Permeability of vacuum 0 =410-7NA-2=1.25663706110-6 NA-2
Molar gas constant R= 8.314 472(15) J K-1 mol-1 Permittivity of vacuum
0 =8.854187 817 10-12 F m-1
Molar volume = (ideal gas, 101.325 kPa) Vm 2.241 399 6(39) 10-2 m3
mol-1

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