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4.1 Introduction

Two-dimensional elastic problems were the rst successful examples of the application of the nite element method.1;2 Indeed, we have already used this situation to

illustrate the basis of the nite element formulation in Chapter 2 where the general

relationships were derived. These basic relationships are given in Eqs (2.1)(2.5)

and (2.23) and (2.24), which for quick reference are summarized in Appendix C.

In this chapter the particular relationships for the plane stress and plane strain

problem will be derived in more detail, and illustrated by suitable practical examples,

a procedure that will be followed throughout the remainder of the book.

Only the simplest, triangular, element will be discussed in detail but the basic

approach is general. More elaborate elements to be discussed in Chapters 8 and 9

could be introduced to the same problem in an identical manner.

The reader not familiar with the applicable basic denitions of elasticity is referred

to elementary texts on the subject, in particular to the text by Timoshenko and

Goodier,3 whose notation will be widely used here.

In both problems of plane stress and plane strain the displacement eld is uniquely given

by the u and v displacement in the directions of the cartesian, orthogonal x and y axes.

Again, in both, the only strains and stresses that have to be considered are the three

components in the xy plane. In the case of plane stress, by denition, all other components of stress are zero and therefore give no contribution to internal work. In plane

strain the stress in a direction perpendicular to the xy plane is not zero. However, by

denition, the strain in that direction is zero, and therefore no contribution to internal

work is made by this stress, which can in fact be explicitly evaluated from the three

main stress components, if desired, at the end of all computations.

4.2.1 Displacement functions

Figure 4.1 shows the typical triangular element considered, with nodes i, j, m

y

vi (Vi )

xi

ui (Ui )

j

yi

components

ui

ai

4:1

vi

and the six components of element displacements are listed as a vector

8 9

>

=

< ai >

e

a aj

>

;

: >

am

4:2

values. The simplest representation is clearly given by two linear polynomials

u 1 2 x 3 y

v 4 5 x 6 y

4:3

The six constants can be evaluated easily by solving the two sets of three simultaneous

equations which will arise if the nodal coordinates are inserted and the displacements

equated to the appropriate nodal displacements. Writing, for example,

ui 1 2 xi 3 yi

uj 1 2 xj 3 yj

4:4

um 1 2 xm 3 ym

we can easily solve for 1 , 2 , and 3 in terms of the nodal displacements ui , uj , um and

obtain nally

1

a bi x ci yui aj bj x cj yuj am bm x cm yum

u

4:5a

2 i

Element characteristics

in which

ai xj ym xm yj

bi yj ym

4:5b

ci xm xj

with the other coecients obtained by a cycle permutation of subscripts in the order,

i, j, m, and wherey

1 xi yi

4:5c

2 det 1 xj yj 2 area of triangle ijm

1 xm ym

As the equations for the vertical displacement v are similar we also have

1

a bi x ci yvi aj bj x cj yvj am bm x cm yvm

4:6

2 i

Though not strictly necessary at this stage we can represent the above relations, Eqs

(4.5a) and (4.6), in the standard form of Eq. (2.1):

u

Nae INi ; INj ; INm ae

u

4:7

v

v

ai bi x c i y

;

etc:

4:8

2

The chosen displacement function automatically guarantees continuity of displacement with adjacent elements because the displacements vary linearly along any side

of the triangle and, with identical displacement imposed at the nodes, the same

displacement will clearly exist all along an interface.

Ni

The total strain at any point within the element can be dened by its three components which contribute to internal work. Thus

3

2 @

9 6 @x ; 0 7

8

>

7

= 6

< "x >

6

@ 7 u

7

6

"y

6 0;

Su

4:9

e

@y 7

>

>

; 6

:

7 v

xy

4 @

@ 5

;

@y @x

y Note: If coordinates are taken from the centroid of the element then

xi xj xm yi yj ym 0

and ai 2=3 aj am

89

8 9

>

=

< ai >

e Bae Bi ; Bj ; Bm aj

>

;

: >

am

2 @N

6 @x

6

6

Bi SNi 6

6 0;

6

4 @N

2

7

bi ;

7

@Ni 7

7 1 6

4 0;

@y 7

7 2

ci ;

@Ni 5

i

;

@y

@x

4:10a

3

0

7

ci 5

4:10b

bi

It will be noted that in this case the B matrix is independent of the position within

the element, and hence the strains are constant throughout it. Obviously, the criterion

of constant strain mentioned in Chapter 2 is satised by the shape functions.

The matrix D of Eq. (2.5)

9

9

8

1

08

>

>

=

=

< x >

< "x >

C

B

D@ "y

e0 A

r y

>

>

>

>

;

;

:

:

xy

xy

4:11

can be explicitly stated for any material (excluding here r0 which is simply additive).

To consider the special cases in two dimensions it is convenient to start from the form

e D1 r e0

and impose the conditions of plane stress or plane strain.

For plane stress in an isotropic material we have by denition,

y

"x x

"x0

E

E

y

"y x "y0

E

E

21 xy

xy0

xy

E

Solving the above for the stresses, we obtain the matrix D as

2

3

1

0

E 6

7

D

0

4 1

5

1 2

0 0 1 =2

4:12

4:13

Element characteristics

9

8

>

=

< "x0 >

"x0

e0

>

>

;

:

xy0

4:14

In this case a normal stress z exists in addition to the other three stress components.

Thus we now have

y z

"x x

"x0

E

E

E

y

"y x z "y0

4:15

E

E

E

21 xy

xy

xy0

E

and in addition

"z

x y z

"z0 0

E

E

E

which yields

z x y E"z0

On eliminating z and solving for the three remaining stresses we obtain the matrix D

as

2

3

1

0

E

6

7

1

0

D

4:16

4

5

1 1 2

0

0

1 2=2

and the initial strains

Anisotropic materials

9

8

>

=

< "x0 "z0 >

e0 "y0 "z0

>

>

;

:

xy0

4:17

to dene completely the three-dimensional stressstrain relationship.4;5

If two-dimensional analysis is to be applicable a symmetry of properties must exist,

implying at most six independent constants in the D matrix. Thus, it is always possible

to write

3

2

d11 d12 d13

7

6

d22 d23 5

D4

4:18

sym:

d33

91

y

z

the D matrix follows from the general equivalence of the MaxwellBetti reciprocal

theorem and is a consequence of invariant energy irrespective of the path taken to

reach a given strain state.)

A case of particular interest in practice is that of a `stratied' or transversely isotropic material in which a rotational symmetry of properties exists within the plane

of the strata. Such a material possesses only ve independent elastic constants.

The general stressstrain relations give in this case, following the notation of

Lekhnitskii4 and taking now the y-axis as perpendicular to the strata (neglecting

initial strain) (Fig. 4.2),

2 y 1 z

"x x

E1

E2

E1

y 2 z

"y 2 x

E2

E2

E2

2 y

"z 1 x

z

E1

E2

E1

4:19

21 1

xz

xz

E1

xy

1

G2 xy

yz

1

G2 yz

in which the constants E1 , 1 (G1 is dependent) are associated with the behaviour in

the plane of the strata and E2 , G2 , 2 with a direction normal to the plane.

The D matrix in two dimensions now becomes, taking E1 =E2 n and G2 =E2 m,

2

3

n n2

0

E2 6

7

D

4:20

0

4 n2 1

5

1 n22

2

0

0 m1 n2

Element characteristics

D

E2

1 1 1 1 2n22

2

n1 n22 n2 1 1

6

6

1 12

4 n2 1 1

0

0

0

m1 1 1 1

2n22

7

7

5

4:21

When, as in Fig. 4.3, the direction of the strata is inclined to the x-axis then to

obtain the D matrices in universal coordinates a transformation is necessary.

Taking D0 as relating the stresses and strains in the inclined coordinate system

x0 ; y0 it is easy to show that

D TD0 TT

4:22

where

2

6

T4

cos2

sin2

sin2

cos2

sin cos

sin cos

3

2 sin cos

7

2 sin cos 5

2

4:23

cos sin

If the stress systems r0 and r correspond to e0 and e respectively then by equality

of work

r0T e0 rT e

or

e0T D0 e0 eT De

y

y'

m

x'

i

j

93

e0 TT e

4:24

`Initial' strains, i.e., strains which are independent of stress, may be due to many

causes. Shrinkage, crystal growth, or, most frequently, temperature change will, in

general, result in an initial strain vector:

e0 "x0

"y0

"z0

xy0

yz0

zx0 T

4:25

Although this initial strain may, in general, depend on the position within the

element, it will here be dened by average, constant values to be consistent with

the constant strain conditions imposed by the prescribed displacement function.

For an isotropic material in an element subject to a temperature rise e with a

coecient of thermal expansion we will have

e0 e 1

0 0

0T

4:26

as no shear strains are caused by a thermal dilatation. Thus, for plane stress, Eq.

(4.14) yields the initial strains given by

8 9

>

=

<1>

e

4:27

e0 1 e m

>

;

: >

0

In plane strain the z stress perpendicular to the xy plane will develop due to the

thermal expansion as shown above. Using Eq. (4.17) the initial thermal strains for

this case are given by

e0 1 e m

4:28

expansion may vary with direction. In the general case the thermal strains are

given by

e0 ae

4:29

orthogonal directions for which a is diagonal. If we let x0 and y0 denote the principal

thermal directions of the material, the initial strain due to thermal expansion for a

plane stress state becomes (assuming z0 is a principal direction)

9

8

8 9

>

>

=

=

< "x0 0 >

< 1 >

0

e

e

0

"

2

4:30

e

y0

>

>

;

;

: 00 >

: >

x y 0

0

where 1 and 2 are the expansion coecients referred to the x0 and y0 axes,

respectively.

Element characteristics

transformation

e00 TT e0

4:31

where T is again given by Eq. (4.23). Thus, e0 can be simply evaluated. It will be noted

that the shear component of strain is no longer equal to zero in the x; y coordinates.

The stiness matrix of the element ijm is dened from the general relationship (2.13)

with the coecients

4:32

where t is the thickness of the element and the integration is taken over the area of the

triangle. If the thickness of the element is assumed to be constant, an assumption convergent to the truth as the size of elements decreases, then, as neither of the matrices

contains x or y we have simply

Keij BTi DBj t

4:33

where is the area of the triangle [already dened by Eq. (4.5)]. This form is now

suciently explicit for computation with the actual matrix operations being left to

the computer.

These are given directly by the expression Eq. (2.13b) which, on performing the integration, becomes

fi ee0 BTi De0 t;

etc:

4:34

manner and require precise evaluation. Similar expressions are derived for initial

stress forces.

In the general case of plane stress or strain each element of unit area in the xy plane is

subject to forces

bx

b

by

in the direction of the appropriate axes.

95

Again, by Eq. (2.13b), the contribution of such forces to those at each node is given by

b

f ei Ni x dx dy

by

or by Eq. (4.7),

f ei

b

x

by

Ni dx dy;

etc:

4:35

if the body forces bx and by are constant. As Ni is not constant the integration has to

be carried out explicitly. Some general integration formulae for a triangle are given in

Appendix D.

In this special case the calculation will be simplied if the origin of coordinates is

taken at the centroid of the element. Now

x dx dy y dx dy 0

and on using Eq. (4.8)

f ei

bx ai

b

bx

ai dx dy

x

2

by

by 2

by 3

4:36

Explicitly, for the whole element

8 9

bx >

>

>

>

> >

>

8 e9

>

>

by >

>

>

>

>

f

>

>

>

=

<b >

< i =

x

e

e

f fj

>3

> by >

>

>

;

: e >

>

>

fm

>

>

>

>

>

>

b

>

>

x

>

;

: >

by

4:37

which means simply that the total forces acting in the x and y directions due to the

body forces are distributed to the nodes in three equal parts. This fact corresponds

with physical intuition, and was often assumed implicitly.

In many cases the body forces are dened in terms of a body force potential as

bx

@

@x

by

@

@y

4:38

and this potential, rather than the values of bx and by , is known throughout the region

and is specied at nodal points. If f e lists the three values of the potential associated

with the nodes of the element, i.e.,

9

8

>

=

< i >

4:39

f e j

>

>

;

:

m

and has to correspond with constant values of bx and by , must vary linearly within

the element. The `shape function' of its variation will obviously be given by a procedure identical to that used in deriving Eqs (4.4)(4.6), and yields

Ni ; Nj ; Nm f

fe

4:40

Thus,

bx

@

fe

bi ; bj ; bm

2

@x

by

@

fe

ci ; cj ; cm

@y

2

and

4:41

The vector of nodal forces due to the body force potential will now replace Eq. (4.37)

by

3

2

b i ; bj ; bm

6c ; c ; c 7

j

m7

6 i

7

6

6

1 6 b i ; bj ; bm 7

e

7f e

f 6

4:42

6 6 ci ; cj ; cm 7

7

7

6

4 b i ; bj ; bm 5

ci ;

cj ;

cm

The derived formulae enable the full stiness matrix of the structure to be assembled,

and a solution for displacements to be obtained.

The stress matrix given in general terms in Eq. (2.16) is obtained by the appropriate

substitutions for each element.

The stresses are, by the basic assumption, constant within the element. It is usual to

assign these to the centroid of the element, and in most of the examples in this chapter

this procedure is followed. An alternative consists of obtaining stress values at the

nodes by averaging the values in the adjacent elements. Some `weighting' procedures

have been used in this context on an empirical basis but their advantage appears

small.

It is also usual to calculate the principal stresses and their directions for every

element. In Chapter 14 we shall return to the problem of stress recovery and show

that better procedures of stress recovery exist.6;7

There is no doubt that the solution to plane elasticity problems as formulated in

Sec. 4.2 is, in the limit of subdivision, an exact solution. Indeed at any stage of a

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