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ROBOT KINEMATICS
DYNAMICS AND CONTROL

UNIVERSITAT POLITCNICA DE CATALUNYA

2012

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The term robot


1920 Karel Capek wrote Rossums Universal Robots (R.U.R)
Robot (robota): slave (organic material)

Robot. [checo, robota, compulsory service] 1. In the play of Capek R.U.R.,


one of a large number of artificial persons, mechanically efficient
but without sensibility, thus, person insensitive and efficient; an
automaton. 2. Any automatic device that performs functions
normally assigned to humans, or operating with what appears to be
almost human intelligence, particularly apparatus which is operated
by radiant energy or sound waves (diccionary Webster, 1934).

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The term robotics


1942 Isaac Asimov, introduces the idea of mechanical robots in the
story Runaround, published in the magazine Astounding, and the term
robotics to refer to the study of robots, which is based on three
fundamental laws:

1. A robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a
human being to come to harm.
2. A robot must obey the orders given by human beings, except when
such orders would conflict with the first law.
3. A robot must protect its own existence, as long as such protection
does not conflict with the first or second law.

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Some antecedents XVI century


Automaton: holy figure with music
Museum of Applied Arts, Budapest.
Juanelo Turriano (Italy, 1500? -1585)
originally Giovanni Torriani
He moved to Spain in 1529 claimed by the
Emperor Charles V, and was appointed
Watchmaker.
He excelled as an engineer and watchmaker
besides making mechanical devices.
Philip II appointed him as Mathematician.
At the request of Pope Gregory XIII participated
in the reform of the current calendar

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Monk of south of Germany or Spain (~1560)


National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC. EEUU.

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Lute player (XVI century)


Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna.

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XVIII century
Automata: Vaucanson duck
Jacques de Vaucanson, France
(1709-1782)

The duck could move the wings, eat and digest grain. More than
1000 mobile parts in the body and 400 in the wings.

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Industrial Robot
Industrial robot: "automatically controlled, reprogrammable
multipurpose manipulator programmable in three or more axes
(Definicin norma ISO 8373).

Robot: a reprogrammable multifunctional manipulator designed to


move materials, parts, tools or specialized devices through
variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety of
tasks (Robot Institute of America)
Reprogrammable: can change the movements without physical alterations
Multipurpose: can be addapted and perform different tasks
Axes: degrees of freedom of the system

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Robot PUMA

Instituto de Ciberntica
Universidad Politcnica
de Catalua

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KUKA

KR 500/1
Carga tipo: 6 kg
Alcance max. 1863 mm
Repeatability:< 0.1 mm
Peso: 220 kg

(Alemania)

KR 500/1
Carga tipo: 500 kg
Alcance max. 2826 mm
Repeatability:< 0.3 mm
Peso: 2350 kg

KR 125/1
Carga tipo: 125 kg
Alcance max. 2410 mm
Repeatability:< 0.2 mm
Peso: 975 kg

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ABB
(Suecia)
IRB 940 Tricept
Carga: 1300 kg. vert.
350 Kg. hor.
Rep.:0.02 mm
Pre.: 0.2 mm

IRB 6600
Carga: 225 kg
Alcance: 2m

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ABB
(Suecia)
Familia de robots AAB

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RX-170
Carga tipo: 32 kg
Alcance max. 2185 mm
Repeatability:< 0.05 mm

RX-90
Carga tipo: 6 kg
Alcance max. 985 mm
Repeatability:< 0.02 mm

Stubli
(Suiza)

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Stubli
(Suiza)

Esquema del espacio de trabajo

RX-170-CR
Especialmente pensado
para salas blancas

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FANUC
(EEUU)

Mechanical
structure of robot
manipulators

joints and degrees of freedom

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Cartesian manipulator

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Gantry manipulator
high accuracy,
low dexterity

material handling
and assembly

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Cylindrical manipulator
good mechanical
stiffness

moving objects

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Spherical manipulator
Lower mechanical
stiffness
More complex
mechanical

Machining

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SCARA manipulator
High vertical stiffness
Horizontal compliance

Vertical assembly

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Anthropomorphic manipulator
(serial articulated)
Torso, shoulder, elbow
More dexterous

Very wide range of


applications
(majority of installed robots)

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Manipulator with parallelogram

Variation for heavier loads

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Parallel manipulator

High stiffness
High velocity
Reduced workspace

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Hybrid parallel-serial manipulator

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Spherical wrist

Decouples position
and orientation

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Example of robotized manufacturing line


(Nissan)

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Robots installing windshields

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Robots in machine
loading and unloading

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Robots for tool changing

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Typical applications
material handling
palletizing (placing objects on a pallet in an ordered way),
warehouse loading and unloading,
mill and machine tool tending,
part sorting,
packaging.

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Typical applications (II)


Manufacturing
arc and spot welding,
painting and coating,
gluing and sealing,
laser and water jet cutting,
milling and drilling,
casting and die spraying,
deburring and grinding,
screwing, wiring and fastening,
assembly of mechanical and electrical groups,
assembly of electronic boards.

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Typical applications (III)


Measurement
object inspection,
contour finding,
detection of manufacturing imperfections.

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Stock of robots in Spain

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Robot distribution by applications


in Spain (installed in 2011)

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Robot distribution by applications


in Spain (accumulated)

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Robot distribution by sectors


in Spain (installed in 2011)

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Robot distribution by sectors


in Spain (accumulated)

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Estimated worldwide annual


supply of industrial robots

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Estimated worldwide annual supply of industrial


robots at year-end by industries 2008 - 2010

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Some figures
Operational stock of industrial robots increased in 2010
Total worldwide stock of operational industrial robots at
the end of 2010 was in the range of 1,035,000 and
1,300,000 units.
The average length of service life is from 12 years to 15
years.
Due to the tremendous decrease of robot installations in 2009, for
the first time the minimum stock in 2009 was about 1% lower than
the stock of the year before.
In 2010, the stock increased by 1% to the level of 2008.

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Some figures
Value of the market was up to US$ 5.7 billion in 2010
which is still below the value of 2008 (one of the most
successful years)
figures cited above generally do not include the cost of
software, peripherals and systems engineering.
Including the mentioned costs might result in the actual robotic
systems market value to be about three times as high.

The worldwide market value for robot systems in 2010


is therefore estimated to be $17.5 billion.

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Estimated annual shipments of multipurpose industrial robots

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Estimated operational stock of multipurpose industrial robots

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World Service robots

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World Service robots

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World Service robots

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Other types of robots


Mobile

with wheels
with legs (walking robots) - Humanoids
underwater
flying (planes, helicopters, dirigibles)

Micro and nano robots


Special applications:
entertainment
maintenance
repair
cleaning
surveillance
transport
.......

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Exemples of mobile robots


underwater
flying
(Avatar)

walking(Genghis)
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LU-T

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Walking Robot LU-T


Disigned at IOC-UPC

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Simulation

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LU-T at the beginning...

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... LU-T at the end

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Imitation of
animals

AIBO from SONY

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Imitation of
animals

Dinosaur
MIT Leg Laboratory

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Humanoid Robots

Eagerness to mimic the human being

Very complex and (for now) impractical

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AMI
Korea Institute of Science and Technology

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although being more practical ....

Robot-aspirator Fujitsu

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ARMAR, University of Karlsruhe (Alemania)

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DAV
Michigan State
University, EEUU

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Humanoid Robot "H6"


JSK Laboratory, University of Tokyo

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P3
Honda

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ASIMO, Honda

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Grippers

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Grasping
strategy

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Mano mecnica
desarrollada en el IOC-UPC

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Hand MA-I (IOC-UPC)

4 fingers

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Grasping with predefined contact


points (precision grasp)

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Enveloping grasp (power grasp)

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Commanding a
robotic hand with
a sensorized
globe

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Grasp simulation and real execution


(hand plus robot = 13+6 dof)

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Robotic Arms
Modelling

Programming

Kinematics
Differential kinematics
Dynamics

Control
Position
Force

Robot level
Object level
Task level

Planning
Motion
Task
Grasp

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Actuators

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Actuating system

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Transmissions
Spur gears: change the axis of rotation and may introduce
a reduction factor.
Lead screws: convert rotational motion of the motor into
translational motion (e.g for prismatic joints)
Timing belts and chains: allow a remote location of the
motors (Timing belts for high speeds and low forces requirements, and
chains for low speeds requirements)

Direct drives:
eliminate drawbacks due to transmission elasticity and
backlash
more sophisticated control algorithms are required (nonlinear
coupling terms in the dynamic model can not be neglected)
not yet popular for industrial manipulators (due to cost and size of
the motors and control complexity)

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Servomotors
According to the kind of input power:
Pneumatic motors: utilize the pneumatic energy provided by a
compressor and transform it into mechanical energy by means
of pistons or turbines.
Hydraulic motors: transform the hydraulic energy stored in a
reservoir into mechanical energy by means of suitable pumps.
Electric motors: uses the electric energy available from the
electric distribution system.
permanent-magnet direct-current (DC) servomotors
brushless DC servomotors,

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Sensors

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Sensors
Proprioceptive Sensors
measure the internal state of the manipulator
joint positions
joint velocities
joint torques

Exteroceptive sensors
provide knowledge of the surrounding environment
force sensors
tactile sensors
proximity sensors
range sensors
vision sensors

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Proprioceptive Sensors
Position transducers
Velocity transducers
Force/torque transducers

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Position Transducers
Provide an electric signal proportional to the linear or
angular displacement.
For linear displacements : potentiometers, linear variabledifferential transformers (LVDT)
For angular displacements: potentiometers, encoders, resolvers
and synchros.

Angular displacement transducers are typically


employed in robotics applications
for prismatic joints the servomotor is of a rotary type.

For their precision, robustness and reliability, the most


common transducers are
encoders: absolute and incremental
resolvers

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Absolute Encoders
Consists of an optical-glass disk with concentric circles (tracks)
Each track has an alternating sequence of transparent sectors and
matte sectors obtained by deposit of a metallic film.
A light beam is emitted on each track and
intercepted by a photodiode or a phototransistor
located on the opposite side of the disk.
The arrangement of the transparent
and matte sectors allows the identification
of a finite number of angular positions.
The number of tracks determines the
resolution of the encoder.

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Absolute Encoders (II)


Gray-code is used to minimize changes
between two consecutive states and
give robustness
4 tracks allow 16 angular positions

Typical resolution required for joint


control is a minimum of 12 tracks (bits)
i.e. resolution of 1/4096 per circle.
For gear reductions:
a circle at the joint side corresponds to several circles at the motor side,
thus a simple electronics is used to count and store the number of actual
circles.

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Gray-code

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Incremental Encoders
Wider use than absolute encoders
they are simpler and thus cheaper.

Have two tracks with equal


number of transparent and matte
sectors, but mutually in quadrature.
The two tracks allows allow the
detection of the number of transitions associated with
any angular rotation and the sign of rotation.
Often a third track is present with one single matte sector
which allows the definition of an absolute mechanical
zero as a reference for angular position.

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Incremental Encoders (II)


The absolute positions are generated by a
counting and storing electronic circuits.
The position information is available on
volatile memories, thus it can be corrupted
by disturbances acting on the electronic
circuit.
This is the drawback with respect to absolute
encoders.

The optical encoder has its own signal


processing electronics.
Velocity measurement can be obtained generating a pulse at each
transition:
using a voltage-to-frequency converter (with analog output)
digitally measuring the frequency of the pulse train
digitally measuring the sampling time of the pulse train.

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Resolvers
Compact and robust electromechanical position transducer
Operating principle based on the mutual induction between
two electric circuits
Angular position associated with the magnitude of two
sinusoidal voltages, treated by a resolver-to-digital converter
(RDC) to obtain the digital data corresponding to the position
measurement.
An exciter signal in introduced in R
S1 and S2 are configured at 90
degrees from each other
The output in S1 and S2 depends on
the angle of the rotor, and allows its
identification

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Velocity Transducers
Position transducers can be used (adding a clock)
DC tachometers
DC generator with permanent magnet whose output
voltage depends on the angular velocity
Linearity problems and residual voltages
AC tachometers
Using synchronous generator the frequency of the output
is proportional to velocity
Two windings on the stator mutually in quadrature,
one feed by a sinusoidal voltage,
the other induces a sinusoidal voltage of the same frequency
and amplitude proportional to angular speed.
The residual voltages has twice the input frequency and can be
filtered.

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Force Sensors
Measurement of a force or torque is usually done by
measuring the strain induced by the force (torque)
applied to an extensible element.
Therefore, an indirect measurement of force is
obtained by means of measurements of small
displacements.
The basic component of a force sensor is the strain
gauge which uses the change of electric resistance
of a wire under strain.

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Strain gauges
The strain gauge consists of a wire which is glued to
the element subject to strain under the action of a
stress.
Under stress the dimensions of the wire change and
produce a change of the electric resistance Rs
It is chosen such that Rs changes linearly in the range of
admissible strain for the extensible element.

Totransformchangesof
resistanceintoanelectricsignal,
thestraingaugeisinsertedin
onearmofaWheatstonebridge

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Driving torque measurement


Using strain gauges in a shaft between the motor
and the joint (general)
measuring the current through the motor (in a
permanent magnet DC motors)

Both are subject to several sources of perturbations


e.g.:
inertias
losses in gears and transmissions
friction

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Interaction force measurement


Position of force and torque sensors:
Measurement of the forces exerted on each joint of
the manipulator (sensors on actuators).
Measurement of the forces between the last
segment of the robot and the gripper or hand (sensor
on the wrist).

Measurement of the force exerted by each finger of


the gripper or hand (finger sensors).
Measurement of the force on the basis of the fixed
object (sensors in the working table).

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Wrist measurements

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Force and torque sensors


Use of strain gauges

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Maltese-cross force and torque sensor


Minimum number of measurements: 6
6 variables 6 liniar independent eq.

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Force and torque sensores


Minimum number of measurements: 6
6 variables 6 linear independent eq.

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Force and torque sensors


Comercial sensor

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Force and torque sensors


Optical Sensor plus RRC (instrumented RCC)

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Aplications
Tasks with force requirements

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Aplications
Tasks without force requirements

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Pasive and active compliance


Pasive compliance
A pasive element is deformed under external forces accumulating
energy allowing a movement of the manipulated object
No need of sensors
No need of special control system
Typical device: RCC (Remote Center Compliance)

Active compliance
The robot own actuators change the position of the manipulated
object according to the sensorial information
Need of sensors
Need of special control system
More flexibility
Programmable

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RCC
(Remote Center Compliance)

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Devices RCC

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Device PCD
(Programmable Compliant Device)

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Programming and planning with force


control

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Programming and planning


with force control

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Exteroceptive Sensors
Force/torque transducers
tactile sensors
proximity sensors
range sensors
vision sensors

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Tactile sensors
usually provide an array of tactile information
different technologies
must be robust and resistant since they directly interact
with other surfaces

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Tactile sensors

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Tactile sensors

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Tactile
sensors

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Proximity and range sensors


infra-red
sonar
laser

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Vision sensors
CCD (Charge Coupled Device)
array of photosites

CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor)


array of photodiodes.

Camera
sensitive devices plus lenses and other elements.

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Thats all....