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IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-100, No. 6 June 1981

APPLYING POWER SYSTEM STABILIZERS

3025

PART II: PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES AND TUNING CONCEPTS

E.V. Larsen (Member)

D.A. Swann (Member)

General Electric Company, Schenectady, New York

ABSTRACT

This part of a three-part paper deals first with the performance objectives of power system stabilizers

in terms of the type of oscillations for which they are

intended to provide damping, the operating conditions for which the requirement for stabilization is greatest, the need to accommodate multiple modes of oscillation, and the significance of interplant modes of oscillation.

It next treats stabilizer tuning.

General tuning guide-

lines are developed as well as variations required for different input signals. The operating conditions under

which each type of stabilizer should be tuned are iden-

tified.

The relationship between phase compensation

tuning and root locus analysis is presented.

Finally,

the relative performance characteristics of the three

types of stabilizers are examined for both small per- turbations and large disturbances.

INTRODUCTION

 

Tuning of supplementary excitation controls

for

stabilizing system modes

of oscillation has been the

subject of much research during the past 10 to 15 years.

Two

basic

tuning techniques

have

been

successfully

utilized

with power

system stabilizer applications:

phase compensation and root locus.

Phase compensation

consists of adjusting the stabilizer to compensate for

the phase lags through the generator, excitation system,

and power system such that the stabilizer path provides

torque changes which are in phase with speed changes

[1,2,3,4,5,6].

This

is

the most straightforward ap-

proach, easily understood and implemented in the field,

and the most widely used.

Synthesis by root locus

involves shifting the eigenvalues associated with the

power

system modes

of oscillation

by

adjusting the

stabilizer pole and zero locations in the s-plane [7,8].

This approach gives additional insight to performance by working directly with the closed-loop characteristics of

the system, as opposed to the open-loop nature of the

phase compensation technique, but is more complicated to

apply, particularly in the field.

Independent of the technique utilized in tuning

stabilizer equipment, it

is necessary to recognize the

nonlinear nature of power systems and that the objective

of adding power system stabilizers is to extend power

transfer

limits

by stabilizing

system oscillations;

adding damping is not an end in itself, but a means to

extending power transfer limits.

This part of a three-

part paper addresses the performance characteristics of

power system stabilizers with respect to extending power

transfer stability limits for both remote generation and

intertie situations.

Both small and large disturbance

aspects

of performance

are

included, resulting in a

definition of desired stabilizer performance to ensure a

80 SM 559-5

A paper recommended and approved by the

IEEE Power Generation Committee of the IEEE Power

Engineering Society for presentation at the IEEE PES

Summer MIeeting, Minneapolis, Minnesota, July 13-18,

1980.Manuscript submitted March 14, 1980; made available for printing May 7, 1980.

robust

design meeting

the

system requirements.

In

addition, a relationship is established between desired

performance and the phase compensation characteristics,

laying the groundwork for a fairly straightforward field tuning procedure outlined in Part III.

PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES

"Dynamic" or "Steady-State" Stability Limits

Applying power system stabilizers can extend power

transfer stability limits which are characterized

by

lightly damped or spontaneously growing oscillations in

the 0.2 to 2.5 Hz frequency range.

This is accomplished

via excitation control

to

contribute damping to the

system modes of oscillation.

Consequently,

it is the

stabilizer's ability to enhance damping under the least

stable conditions, i.e., the "performance conditions",

which is

important.

Additional damping is primarily

required under conditions of weak transmission and heavy load as occurs, for example, when attempting to transmit power over long transmission lines from remote generat-

ing plants or over relatively weak ties between systems.

Contingencies, such as line outages or fuel shortages,

often precipitate such conditions. Hence, systems which normally have adequate damping can often benefit from

stabilizers during such abnormal conditions.

It is important to realize that the stabilizer is intended to provide damping for small excursions about a

steady-state operating point, and not to enhance tran-

sient stability, i.e., the ability to recover from a

severe disturbance.

In fact, the stabilizer will often

have

a

deleterious

effect on transient stability by

attempting to pull the generator field out of ceiling

too early in response to a fault.

The stabilizer output

is generally

limited to prevent

serious impact on tran-

sient stability, but stabilizer tuning also has a sig-

nificant impact upon system performance following a

large disturbance, as will be discussed.

System Modes of Oscillation

The power system oscillations of concern to sta-

bility occur

in

the 0.2 to 2.5 Hz frequency range.

These

result when the rotors of machines, behaving as

rigid bodies,

oscillate with respect to one another

using the electrical transmission path between them to

exchange energy.

There

are

many

different modes in

which such oscillations may occur, often simultaneously.

The first widespread use of power system stabi-

lizers

occurred

when the U.S.

West

Coast utilities

discovered that they were unable to fully load their 500

kV transmission lines connecting the Pacific Northwest

and Southwest because of an oscillatory instability [1]. Troublesome oscillations resulted as a consequence of

the aggregate of units at one end of the intertie oscil-

lating against the aggregate of units at the other end.

This has become known as an intertie or interarea mode

of oscillation,

and has

been experienced in several

systems [1,9,10,11].

The natural frequency of oscilla-

tion of intertie modes is typically in the range of 0.20 to 0.5 Hz.

The use of power system stabilizers was extended to

provide damping for oscillations which occur when remote

generating units are connected to a relatively large power system through weak, essentially radial transmis-

sion lines [12,13].

This has become known as a local

3026

mode of oscillation and its natural frequency is typi- cally in the range of 0.8 to 1.8 Hz.

Between the frequency extremes of the intertie and

local modes exist other modes commonly encountered in

weakly connected systems

[14].

These intrasystem modes

result from oscillations between individual units within a system and tend to behave similar to local modes in

that a large portion of the power oscillation is typi-

cally experienced by a few units.

These modes will be

treated as local modes in the discussion which follows.

Finally,

it should be mentioned that if oscilla-

tions occur between units in the same plant it is a consequence of their controls interacting rather than

power transfer stability

limits.

It is generally unde-

a moderate to weak ac system, which fortunately also has

the least phase lag. speed and power

Hence, the "tuning condition" for

input stabilizers is with full load and

the strongest transmission system, but with a moderate

to weak system for frequency input.

The performance

condition occurs with a weak transmission system which is different from the tuning condition for speed and

power input stabilizers.

Since the gain of the plant

decreases as the system becomes weaker, when using speed or power the damping contribution for the strong system should be maximized so as to ensure best performance with a weakened system.

An example will be used to illustrate the combined use of phase compensation and root locus techniques to meet the above objective for a speed input stabilizer.

sirable for a stabilizer to respond to these intraplant

The example is of a large fossil turbine-generator unit

oscillations, typically ranging in frequency from 1.5 to

operated into a very strong system having a total of 20%

2.5 Hz,

as this detracts from its ability to enhance

external reactance', including step-up transformer. This

transfer limits from the power plant.

Some utilities

represents a fairly extreme situation, because of the

have used average speed derived from multiple units in a

strong system and relatively light inertia associated

single plant

as

an input to all stabilizers

in the

with large fossil units.

A high initial response exci-

plant, thereby preventing the stabilizers from respond-

ing to intraplant oscillations power has also been suggested.

[15], and summation of

As described in Part I,

ac bus frequency is inherently less sensitive to these

intraplant modes than speed or power input.

Experience suggests that it is not unusual for a generating unit to participate in both local and inter-

tie modes of oscillation.

Power system stabilizers must

therefore be able to accommodate both modes.

Since a

single unit or power plant is dominant in local modes,

its stabilizer can have a very large impact on damping

the oscillation.

By contrast, a single unit experiences

only a portion of the total magnitude of power oscilla-

tion in the intertie mode.

Therefore, a power system

stabilizer applied to a single unit can only contribute

to the damping of an intertie mode in proportion to the

power generation capacity of the unit relative to the

total capacity of the area of which it is a part.

As a

consequence, a stabilizer should be designed to provide adequate local mode damping under all operating condi- tions, with particular attention to conditions of heavy

load and weak transmission, and simultaneously to pro-

vide

a high contribution to damping of intertie modes.

These criteria ensure good performance for a wide range

of power system contingencies.

TUNING CONCEPTS

Stabilizers must be tuned to provide the desired system performance under the condition which requires stabilization, typically weak systems with heavy power transfer, while at the same time being robust in that

undesirable

conditions.

interactions

are

avoided

for

all

system

As described in Part I, the plant through

which the stabilizer must operate consists of the gener- ator, exciter, and power system:

GEP(s) = AT ep/AEps

(1)

where

GEP(s) =

the plant through which lizer must operate.

the stabi-

T

eP

E pss

=

component

of electrical torque due

solely to stabilizer path.

= stabilizer output signal.

This plant has the highest gain and greatest phase lag

under conditions

of

full

load

on

the

unit

and

the

strongest transmission system. These conditions there-

fore

represent the limiting case

for achievable gain

with a

speed or power input stabilizer.

With ac bus

frequency as an input, the highest loop gain occurs with

tation system is assumed, with a transient gain of 20

p.u.

Efd /p.u.

8t

As described in Part I, the speed

input stabilizer consists of a washout stage, a double

lead/lag stage, and a filter to attenuate high frequency components:

PSS

w

(s) =

K

Ts (l+sT1)(l+sT3)

T

1+T s

s l+Tws

(l+sT2)(1+sT4)FILT(s)

(1+sTQ2

(l+sT4)

(2)

The filter FILT(s) is represented with a second order lag characteristic with complex roots at -17.5+j16 rad/ sec. This representation provides phase lag equivalent

to that of the torsional band reject filter [16] up to

about 3.5 Hz.

To simplify illustration of the basic

concepts, the washout time constant is set at 10 sec-

onds, thereby having virtually no

impact upon the local

mode, and the lead/lag stages are set identically, each

having a

10:1

spread between the lead and lag time

constants.

A parameter defined as

center frequency, i.e.,

the

compensation

c = 1/2nJTVT2 = 410/2rT

(3)

is varied to show the impact of different stabilizer

adjustments.

Phase Compensation.

Figure 1 shows the variation with lead/lag center frequency on the compensated phase, i.e., the phase of the complete stabilizer path from speed to torque:

P(jw) = GEP(jw)PSS (jw) = P(w)/ ¢ (w)

(4)

Key points to observe from this figure are the phase at the local mode frequency of 1.6 Hz, 4 , and the fre- quency at which the phase passes through ¾oo, fo 90.

As

shown in Appendix A of Part I, the initial

direction of eigenvalue migration as stabilizer gain is

increased from zero is local mode frequency.

determined by the phase at the For perfect compensation, i.e.,

L= 0,

L

eigenvalue

pure positive damping

will move

directly

with no change in frequency.

will be

applied

and the

into the left

half plane

If phase lag exists, the

frequency will increase in proportion to the amount of

damping increase, specifically

AWL = - tan

L 'As

(5)

where

WL

aL

A

=

=

local mode

frequency (rad/sfc)

local mode decay rate (sec

)

implies change due to stabilizer

For 0 = -450, frequency will increase at the same rate

as damping, and for 0L = -90°, no change in damping will

take place, but frequency will increase.

This basic

concept is very useful in understanding the root locus.

3027

that an instability will develop at some value of gain. An optimum gain therefore exists at which the damping is

maximum. The eigenvalues corresponding to this optimum condition for the three cases presented are shown on the

root locus curves by squares.

For Figure 2A, the opti-

mum is chosen where the decay rate, i.e., -o = -real part of eigenvalue, of the least damped mode is maxi-

mized.

For Figure 2B, the optimum is chosen where the

damping ratio, i.e., the ratio of decay rate to fre- quency, associated with the so-called "exciter mode" [8], which is becoming less damped as gain increases, and the mode initially associated with local mode, which

is becoming more damped as gain increases, are equal. More or less gain than this optimum would result in one

root having a lower damping

ratio.

In Figure 2C, damp-

ing never increases, and a gain is chosen as the maximum

before

significant degrading of the existing damping

occurs.

0.5

0.7

FREQUENCY (Hz)

FIREI COMPENSATED PHASE FOR VARIOUS LEAD/LAG CENTER FREQUENCIES (fc)

Root Locus

 

Root locus

plots

are shown in

Figure

2 for three

sets of stabilizer lead/lag adjustments.

These plots

represent the migration of the eigenvalues as stabilizer

gain

is

increased

from zero

to

infinity.

Although

several eigenvalues exist for the total system, only the

dominant ones

associated with stabilizer

open-loop

B)

transfer function GH (s) (defined in Part I, Appendix

are

shown.

The

lightly damped eigenvalue

near

10

 

rad/sec represents

the local mode of oscillation (1.6

Hz).

The

eigenvalue which starts at -17.5+j16 rad/sec

results from the filter equivalent in the stabilizer.

In Figure 2A, the double pole at -20 sec

and the

double zero at

-2 sec

represent the lag and lead

breaks, respectively.

Only the

upper

half

of

the

s-plane is shown; the lower half is a mirror image of the upper half.

In root locus theory, the open

loop system poles

will migrate to the open loop system zeros as gain is

increased from zero to infinity.

Since there are six

dominant poles and only two zeros, four of the poles

must tend to infinity as gain is increased which implies

jw(r/s)

Phase Compensation, Root Locus Relationship

Of particular interest

is

the migration of the

eigenvalue which started as the lightly damped local

mode for Figures 2A and 2C.

The phase compensation at

the local

mode frequency for the adjustments of 2A is

for case 2C.

As gain increases, both

-330, but -90

experience an increase in frequency.

The direction of

motion

at any point along the locus is governed approxi-

mately by the phase at the frequency which exists.

This

characteristic is strictly true only for zero damping,

but is approximately correct when the root is signifi- cantly underdamped, i.e., u/w << 1.

In Figure 2C the phase lag is initially 900 and hence frequency increases with no change in damping.

The phase lag increases with increasing frequency which changes the stabilizer contribution to a somewhat nega- tive damping characteristic and hence the eigenvalue towards the right-half plane and eventually be-

moves

comes unstable.

In Figure

2A,

the

locus begins in

primarily a positive damping direction, but eventually

freauency

-90

.

increases to where the phase passes through

The locus then continues with a pure increase in

frequency, which is associated with an increase in the

phase

lag,

thereby eventually causing a decrease in

damping to a point of becoming unstable.

jw(r/s)

a, (sec-')

(A)f I.OHz;T,/T2:T3/T4 .5/.05

FIGURE2 ROOT LOCI FOR TUNING EXAMPLE

-5

0' (sec-1)

  • (B) fc- 3.4 Hz;TI/T2 z T3/T4 -.15/.015

a (sec'1)

(C) fc 10Hz;T1/T2: T3/T4-.05/.005

SPEED INPUT, STRONG SYSTEM, FULL LOAD

3028

Summary of Tuning Example

The significant parameters

associated with each

lead/lag setting are consolidated in Table I.

These

include phase compensation at the local mode frequency,

$

9h

6 the frequency.

,

f

9

o,

the

at which the phase lag passes through

optimum gain,

KOPT'

the decay rate

associated with the most lightly damped system mode with

the optimum stabilizer gain,

GOPT' the gain and fre-

quency at which an instability occurs,

KINS , f NST'

respectively, and the gain of the stabilizer a

a

ypi-

cal intertie frequency of 0.4 Hz with the optimum stabi- lizer gain, KI.

Table I

SUMMARY OF TUNING EXAMPLE

TUNING WITH ALTERNATIVE INPUT SIGNALS

Speed Input Stabilizers

to

The system used in this and the following sections establish the concepts of tuning the three basic

types of stabilizers differs from the previous example

case

in that a four-pole turbine-generator is used.

As

with the previous example, the tuning is examined for the case with a strong transmission system of 20% reac- tance and full load on the generator since this repre-

sents the most restrictive case for speed

inpuit

stabi-

lizers.

The lead/lag

spread

of

the stabilizer time

constants was initially set at 10:1, the same as used in

the previous

analysis with the two-pole machine,

and

the lead time constants at 0.2 seconds (f

= 2.5 Hz).

The locus of dominant roots as a function of stabilizer

gain are shown in Figure 3a.

The local mode eigenvalue

moves to the left and increases in damping while the

fc

(Hz)

OPTP -(

(sec

KOPT KI

KL

(deg)

f-900

(Hz)

KINST fINST

(Hz)

root associated with the filtering in the stabilizer

becomes less stable and eventually goes unstable.

For

this case, the optimum gain is about 30 and the insta-

1.0

-3.5

2.5

3

-330

  • 2.75 7.5

2.9

bility gain is about 90.

2.0

-4.0

8

11

-290

  • 3.30 3.3

25

3.4

5.0

10

-4.8

-3.6

-0.8

20

40

35

23

42

36

-420

-590

-90°

65

  • 3.55 3.7

The wide spread between the loci of the exciter

mode and local mode is indicative of excess stabilizer

  • 3.50 lead.

1.60

120 Since the inertia and reactance of a four-pole

2.6

  • 130 machine are greater than for a two-pole machine, the local mode frequency is lower, other conditions being

3.7

equal.

Consequently, the required phase lead at local

It is seen from this table that very good damping can be obtained with a wide range

local mode

of lead/lag

settings,

but decreases

rapidly as the compensation

center frequency becomes greater than 5 Hz.

For com-

pensation center frequencies up through 5 Hz, the best

local mode damping occurs with a center frequency near

3.4

Hz.

however,

frequency

The

highest gain at intertie

frequencies,

occurs with the higher compensation center

of 5 Hz.

In general, the highest compensation

mode frequency is less than with a two-pole machine, and

the

lead/lag ratio can therefore be reduced.

Figures 3b

and 3c show the resulting root loci for different lead time constants, maintaining 6:1 spreads on both stages.

The

for

reduced phase lead of case 3b is close to optimum

local mode.

Placing the lead time constants at

higher frequencies results in even less phase lead and

the local mode goes unstable rather than the exciter

mode

as shown in Figure

3c.

center

frequency which provides

adequate

local mode

damping will yield the greatest contribution to intertie

It is instructive to compare the selected gains for

modes of oscillation.

The last four parameters of Table

the three cases shown in Figure 3.

Tabulated in Table

I

suggest

the following guidelines

for setting the

lead/lag stages

to achieve adequate local mode damping

with maximum contribution to intertie modes of oscilla-

tion.

Two basic criteria in terms of phase compensation

are:

PT' K

OKPTTlT3/

and K

I

gain at 'high

treqdencies,

NST

KH

T2T4

the

representing the

gain

at

0.4 Hz

frequency.

The

\-OCAL'

representing the gain

table also shows the corresponding to KOPT.'

at an intertie

local mode eigenvalues,

1.

It

is

most

important

to maximize the bandwidth

within which the phase lag remains less than 900.

This is true even though less than perfect phase

compensation results at the local mode frequency.

  • 2. The phase lag at the local mode frequency should be

less than about 45 .

This can be improved somewhat

by decreasing the washout time constant, but too

low of a washout time constant will add phase lead

and an associated desynchronizing effect to the

intertie oscillations.

In general, it is best to

keep the washout time constant greater than one second.

The gain and frequency at which an instability

also provide

settings.

The

an

indication of appropriate

relationship of

occurs

lead/lag

to

these parameters

performance are useful in root locus analysis field testing.

and in

  • 3. The frequency

at which an instability occurs is

This is

highest for the best lead/lag settings.

related

to maximizing the bandwidth within which

the phase lag remains less than 900.

4.

The optimum gain for a particular lead/lag setting

is consistently about one-third of the

instability

gain.

Table II

COMPARISON OF SPEED INPUT STABILIZER TUNING

Fig T1/T2,T3/T4

"LOCAL

OPT KINST KH

KI

3a .2/.02,.2/.02

-3.0+j 8.0

  • 30 90

3000

37

3b

.2/.033,.3/.05 -3.5+j 8.5

60

  • 20 720

28

3c .12/.02,.3/.033 -3.5+jll.5

  • 50 58

150

1800

All designs give good damping for local mode, but the

6:1

lead/lag

spread yields

larger gain at

intertie

frequency

per gain at high frequency, i.e., K /KH is

larger.

Optimum tuning might lie between cases Mb, and

3c with a trade-off required between high frequency gain

and intertie damping contributions.

Case 3b will be

used for subsequent comparison with the performance of

other types of stabilizers.

Note that for all cases the

optimum gain is about one-third of the instability gain, comparable to the previous example with a two-pole unit.

Power Input Stabilizer

 

As

indicated

in Part

I,

the

interest in using

accelerating power as a stabilizer input signal results from the inherently low level of torsional interaction

due

to

its non-minimum phase characteristic.

As

a

(a) T1/T2

l7

T3/T4

jw(r/s)

j20

j'5

(-17.5+16)

(b)T1 /T2 :.2/.033 T3/T4 :.3/05

[-/

jw(

(r/s)

j20

K INST

5jl

3029

IlO

7-

-/l

\ KOPT-20

LL

uLJ U)

C)

T-

j5

LJ i,

U

C-) :

C/'

c

Ic

(

Z* \~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~N

j5

-kgr -5

-2.5

a(sec

)

0

2.5

-5

-2.5

c(sec -I )

0

2.5

a(sec l )

FIGURE 3

ROOT LOCI WITH SPEED INPUT, VARIOUS SETTINGS

consequence, a single time constant lag at 0.06 second is assumed to provide sufficient torsional attenuation for this example. The general frequency characteristics of a practical power input stabilizer are developed in

Part

I.

Appropriate settings

for

this example were

determined to be:

 

PSSp = K (1+.25s)(l+.15s) (1+.06s)

(6)

UNIT LOAD P :.95, Q: O

Xe : 0.2 p.u.

Figure 4a shows the root locus plot when

varying

stabilizer gain while operating at the tuning condition

of full load into a strong transmission sys-tem.

These

root locus curves are similar to the ones

input stabilizer, with two exceptions.

input stabilizer,

for a speed