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Types of test

1. True or False Test in this type of test, the examinees determine whether the statement
presented true or false.
Types of True or False Tests:

Simple True or False

Modified True and False-underlining the word(s) that make the statement wrong.
True or False with Correction (e.g. 5x3=8 Answer: False 5+3=8 or 5x3=15)
Cluster True or False (e.g. T if TRUE, F if FALSE)
True or False with Options (e.g. write A if only the first statement is TRUE. Write B if only
the second statement is TRUE.)
Fact or Opinion-identifying if the statement is a FACT or OPINION.
Identifying Inconsistencies in a Paragraph

Advantages of True or False Test

It covers a lot content in a short span of time.
It is easier to prepare compared to multiple-choice and matching-type of test.
It is easier to score because it can be scored objectively compared to a test that depends on
the judgment of the rater(s).
It is useful when there are two alternatives only.
The score is easy to check and is more reliable than essay test.
Easy to construct.
Disadvantages of True or False Test

Limited only to low level of thinking skills such as knowledge and comprehension, or
recognition or recall information.
Dependence of absolute judgment at the teachers criteria for the evaluation of the truth or
falsity of any statement.
High probability of guessing (50%).

Guidelines in Constructing True or False Test

Avoid writing a very long statement.
Avoid trivial questions.
It should contain only one idea in each item except for showing the relationship between
cause and effect.
It can be used for establishing cause and effect relationship.
Avoid using negative or double negatives.
Avoid specific determiner such as Never, always, all, none, some, may, etc.
Avoid grammatical clues that could lead to a correct answer such as the article (a,an,the)
Avoid statement directly taken from the textbook.
Avoid arranging the statements in a logical order such as (TTTT,FFTT,FTFT)
Directions should indicate where or how the students should mark their answer.
The number of true items must be the same with the number of false items.
Construct items that measure important objectives.
Avoid using trick questions.
Approximately half of the statements should be false (if the answer is false).

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2. Supply Type or Subjective Type of Test Items this type of test requires students to create
and supply their own answer or perform a certain task to show mastery of knowledge or skills. It is
also known as constructed response test.
Kinds of Subjective Type or Short Answer Test Items:

Completion Type or Short Answer Test an alternative form of assessment because

the examinee needs to supply or create the appropriate word(s), symbol(s) or number(s)
to answer the question or complete a statement rather than selecting the answer from the
given options. Two ways of constructing completion type or short answer type of test:
question form or complete the statement form.
Advantages of a Completion or Short Answer Test

It covers a broad range of topic in a short span of time.

It is easier to prepare and less time consuming.
It can assess effectively the lower level of Blooms Taxonomy.
It reduces the possibility of guessing the correct answer because it requires recall.
It covers greater amount of contents than matching type test.
Disadvantages of a Completion or Short Answer Test

It is only appropriate for questions that can be answered with short responses.
There is a difficulty in scoring when the questions are not prepared properly and clearly.
It can assess only knowledge, comprehension and application levels in Blooms Taxonomy of
Cognitive domain.
It is not adaptable in measuring complex learning outcomes.
Scoring is tedious and time consuming.

Guidelines in Constructing Completion Type or Short Answer Test

The item should require a single word answer or brief and definite statement.
Be sure that the language used in the statement is precise and accurate in relation to the
subject matter being tested.
Be sure to omit only key words.
Do not leave the blank at the beginning or within the statement. It should be at the end of the
Use direct question rather than incomplete statement.
Be sure to indicate the units in which to be expressed when the statement requires numerical
Be sure that the answer the student is requires to produce is factually correct.

Essay Items it consists of a few number of questions wherein the examinee is expected
to demonstrate the ability to recall factual knowledge, and organize and present his
knowledge in logical and integrated answer.
Types of Essay Items:
a) Extended Response Essays An essay test that allows students to determine
the length and complexity of the response.
b) Restricted Response Essays An essay item that places strict limits on both
content and the response given by the students.

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Advantages of Essay Test


It is easier to prepare and less time consuming compared to other paper and pencil tests.
It measures higher-order thinking skills (analysis, synthesis, and evaluation)
It allows students freedom to express individuality in answering the given question.
It reduces guessing answer compared to any objective type of test.
It presents more realistic task to the students.
It emphasizes on the integration and application of ideas.
Disadvantages of Essay Test

It cannot provide and objective measure of the achievement of the students.

It needs so much time to grade and prepare scoring criteria.
The scores are usually not reliable most especially without scoring criteria
It measures limited amount of contents and objectives.
Low variation of scores.
It usually encourages bluffing.

Guidelines in Constructing Essay Test Items

Construct essay question used to measure complex learning outcomes only.
Essay questions should relate directly to the learning outcomes to be measured.
Formulate essay questions that present a clear task to be performed.
An item should be stated precisely and it must clearly focus on the desired answer.
All students should be required to answer the same question.
Number of points and time spent in answering the question must be indicated in each item.
Specify the words, paragraphs or number of sentences for the answer.
The scoring system must be discussed or presented to the students.
Suggestions for Grading Essay Test

Decide on a policy for dealing with incorrect, irrelevant, or illegal responses.

Keep scores of the previously read items out of sight.
The students identity should remain anonymous while his/her paper is being graded.
Read and evaluate each students answer to the same question before grading the next
Provide students with general grading criteria by which they will be evaluated prior to
Use analytic scoring or holistic scoring.
Answer the test yourself by writing the ideal answer to it so that you can develop the scoring
criteria from your answer.
Write your comments on their papers.

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3. Matching-Type Test is similar to the multiple-choice test. In this kind of test, the examinee
associates an item in one column with a choice in the second column.
Types of Matching-Type Tests:

Perfect Matching- an option is the only answer to one of the items in column A.
Imperfect Matching- an option is the answer to more than one item in the column.
Sequencing Matching- requires the examinees to arrange things, steps, or events in
chronological order.
Multiple Matching- requires the examinees to match the items in column A to B, then
match the answers from column B to column C and further match answers from column C
to column D.

Advantages of the Matching-Type Test

The matching-type test is simple to construct and score.

It reduces the effects of guessing, although the chance of guessing increases as the student
progresses in answering items.

Disadvantages of the Matching-Type Test

It tends to ask students to associate trivial information.

Guidelines in Constructing Matching-Type Tests

If possible, the response list should consist of short phrases, single words, or numbers.
Use homogeneous options and items.
Have more options than the given items.
Arrange the options and items alphabetically, numerically or magnitudinally.
Limit the number of items within each set.
Place the shorter responses in column B.
Provide complete directions.
Place the list of options on the same page as the list of items.
Avoid specific determiners and trivial information that can help the students find the correct
response without any effort on their part.
Clearly explain the basis on which the match is to be made.
Suggestions for Measuring Complex Objectives with Matching-Type Tests

Match examples with terminologies.

Use novel pictorial materials.

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