Anda di halaman 1dari 21

INTRODUCTION

IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE


ENGINEERING I

A. IRRIGATION vs. DRAINAGE


IRRIGATION
application

of water into the soil

A. IRRIGATION vs. DRAINAGE

DRAINAGE

removal of

excess water
within or on
the soil
can be
natural or
artificial

B. OBJECTIVE OF IRRIGATION AND


DRAINAGE

To create an

environment
favorable to
plant growth by
maintaining
Water balance
Salt balance

B. OBJECTIVE OF IRRIGATION AND


DRAINAGE

ADVANTAGES
increase

cropping
efficiency
increase crop
productivity
and yield
increase
cropping
intensity

C. DEVELOPMENT OF IRRIGATION
IN THE PHILIPPINES

1.

Pre-Spanish and Spanish Period

small gravity irrigation system


communal

C. DEVELOPMENT OF IRRIGATION
IN THE PHILIPPINES

2. American Regime (1900-1936)


First Irrigation Law BPW
Irrigation facilities

Construction and repair

12 small & medium scale for rice

irrigation

91,000 ha

C. DEVELOPMENT OF IRRIGATION
IN THE PHILIPPINES

3. Commonwealth and Japanese Regimes


(1937-1946)
Little irrigation development

4. Early Independence Period (19471965)


Rehabilitation projects
NIA creation

51 small & med scale project


122,000 ha

C. DEVELOPMENT OF IRRIGATION
IN THE PHILIPPINES

5. Expansion Period
(1966-1984)
Pantabangan Dam
(1969)
NIA policy making
Medium & Large
Scale Projects

D. ROLE OF IRRIGATION AND


DRAINAGE ENGINEERS

FINITE FRESH

WATER SOURCE

Source: WEPA, 2012

Irrigation represents the largest portion


of the total water consumption in
agriculture.

Irrigated rice accounts for about half


the total harvested rice area and 70%
of the total rice production.
irrigation
72%

fishery
27%
others
1%

Philippine Irrigation
Systems
Since 1960s,
irrigation systems,
dams and concrete
canals have been
constructed to
provide regular water
service especially
during the dry season.

Irrigation is an important strategy of the government


towards agricultural productivity and food selfsufficiency. Almost 50% of the total annual expenditure
of the government is allocated to improve the Philippine
agricultural water resources (UN Water, 2013).

About 9.7 million ha or 32


% of the total land area of
the country is devoted for
agriculture, of which 3.02
million ha is potentially
irrigable but only 1.68
million ha is actually
irrigated (BAS, 2015)

National Irrigation System


(NIS)
the largest irrigation
scheme, servicing
about 44 % of the
total irrigated land
Five principal river basins
in the country provide
water for the NIS
Cagayan River basin
Agno River basin
Mindanao River basin
Agusan River basin
Pampanga River basin

The service area of the NIS increased rapidly


from 200,000 ha in the mid-1960 to 420,000 ha
in 1990s. But its ability to deliver sufficient
irrigation water over the whole service area
during the wet season has declined over time
from almost 100% in 1960s to 70% in the recent
years.

The actual irrigated area of the NIS during the


dry seasons increased from 30% in 1960s, 60%
in 1980s and 70% in the recent years, attributed
to the completion of the largest NIS - the UPRIIS
and the MARIIS.

Poor Performance of Irrigation


Systems
deficient water supply
low water-use efficiency of the irrigation subsector
siltation and losses in the irrigation canals due to the
degradation of watershed and severe erosion during
typhoons
poor maintenance and management of the irrigation
facilities
underestimation of the field water requirements and
water losses through diversion
the overestimation of the service areas

D. ROLE OF IRRIGATION AND


DRAINAGE ENGINEERS

Development of New Irrigation Systems


Rehabilitation of National and Communal
Irrigation Systems
Improving the Performance of Irrigated
Agriculture
Farming Systems Diversification and
Intensification
Research and Extension

Sustaining or expanding the


irrigation base is the key to food
security and poverty alleviation in
many developing countries