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FCB 20603

HEATING & COOLING


LOAD

FCB 20603 Heating & Cooling 1


Load
COOLING LOAD
• PURPOSE OF DESIGN LOAD CALCULATIONS
 Outside weather conditions and the sun
combine to produce a cooling or heating load
through the building envelope.
 The load depends on :
o The thermal characteristics of the walls, roof,
fenestrations (an opening in a surface of a structure),
floor, interior building furnishings, and construction,
and
o The driving force resulting from the difference
between the outside conditions (including solar) and
the inside conditions.

FCB 20603 Heating & Cooling 2


Load
COOLING LOAD
• For example, the heat transferred through
a roof depends on the temperature of the
top surface of the roofing, the temperature
of the inside surface of the ceiling, how
these temperatures vary with time, and the
energy storage characteristics of the roof
construction.

FCB 20603 Heating & Cooling 3


Load
COOLING LOAD
• The temperature of the outside surface depends
on the ever-changing solar radiation absorbed
by the surface.
• A similar analysis of the inside surface shows
that the surface temperature depends on the
amount of heat conducted from above and
convection occurred to the inside air, the
radiation exchange between the surface and
room furnishings, and internal sources.

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Load
COOLING LOAD
• Therefore, the heat flow through the roof
construction will not be constant.
• This same phenomenon occurs for all
other surfaces subjected to radiation
effects and variable temperature
environments.

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Load
COOLING LOAD
• Under the conditions described above, the
amount of insulation and the thermal mass of the
roof, wall, or partition are critical in the heat
transfer analysis.
• The heat transferred through transparent
surfaces such as glass is more a function of the
thermal radiation characteristics of the glass and
less dependent on the thermal storage capacity
of such materials due to very low mass and
absorptance of the material.
FCB 20603 Heating & Cooling 6
Load
COOLING LOAD
• The heat gain due to lights, people, and
equipment is independent of the outdoor
environment and is a function of
occupancy and operating schedule.
• Again, radiation effects are involved, and
the thermal storage characteristics of the
space are important in estimating the
cooling load.

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Load
COOLING LOAD
• Design load calculations provide the basic data
for selecting an HVAC system and equipment
and also provide the basic for sizing the
associated ducts and piping.
• These data should be computed from times of
peak load as well as partial load.
• Analysis and study of these conditions may then
indicate possibilities for load reduction or other
refinements of the system.

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Load
COOLING LOAD
• It is usually desirable to carry out extensive load
calculations (several different hours of the day or
all 24 hours) if the system is to be complex, such
as a large variable air volume (VAV) system.
Further, it may be necessary to make
calculations for two or more months.
• On the other hand, a small building using unitary
equipment may require load calculations for only
the peak time of day.

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Load
Infiltration : When outdoor air enterFCB
a space
20603 through
Heating & cracks
Cooling on floors, walls, ceilings partition.
10
Load
FCB 20603 Heating & Cooling 11
Load
COOLING LOAD

RULE OF THUMB

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Load
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Load
Unit measurement :meter

752.00

Sale
292.00

137.85

22.95 Office
Shop 1 Food Court
9.45 Surau

95.15 Shop 2

22.95 590.55

Calculation :
1. Sale 4. Food court
Area = Area =
= =
= =
2. Shop1 5. Office
Area = Area =
= =
= =
3. Shop2 6. Surau
Area = Area =
= =
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= Load =
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Load
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Load
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Load
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Load
COOLING LOAD

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Load
COOLING LOAD

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Load
COOLING LOAD

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Load
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Load
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Load
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Load
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Load
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Load
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Load
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Load < calculation Cooling Load>
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Load
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Load
We set below experiment at room temperature and room pressure. Which one will
will become heavier after 3 hrs?

t=0 Water + bottle = 200 grm ice + bottle = 200 grm

t=3 Water + bottle = 200 grm Water + bottle + condesation =


hrs 200 + grm

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Load
Assuming below are 3 container place at room temperature and room pressure,
which represent the vapor (gas), liquid and solid of water?

represent water molecules

represent water
FCB 20603 molecules
Heating & Coolingspeed 32
Load
Assuming below are 3 container place at room temperature and room pressure,
which represent the vapor (gas), liquid and solid of water?

Gas Liquid Solid

Ice Liquid water Water vapor

represent water molecules

represent water
FCB 20603 molecules
Heating & Coolingspeed 33
Load
Assuming that the ice in the bottle is been heated, what can we say interm of the
molecules and pressure and the density inside the bottle as time goes by?

t=0 t=10Heating & Cooling


FCB 20603 t=20 34
Load
FCB 20603 Heating & Cooling 35
Load
Example 1:
18 m
N < calculation Cooling Load>
2nd Floor

Passage
window window
Door Door
1.6m x 2.5m
1.5m x 3 m
Ceiling height : 3.0 m
7.5 m

Window with blind Next


Room

window window window window

• Find the cooling load of a double-storey house based on the following conditions.
– Specifications of construction
• Building: Five-storey building
• Outside wall: Medium construction
• Window glass: Normal (6mm thickness) with blind
• Floor: Concrete with linoleum (a type of strong material with a hardy shiny
surface, used for covering floor)
• Ceiling: Only concrete
• Lights: Fluorescent light (40W x 20)
• Persons: 15 (working)
• Area: Standard temperature area
FCB 20603 Heating & Cooling 36
*** Adjoined upper and lower rooms are not cooled
Load
COOLING LOAD
• Example 2. Find the cooling load of a double-storey house based on the
following conditions.
– Specifications of construction
• Building: Double-storey house
• Outside wall: Light construction
• Window glass: Normal (6mm thickness) with blind
• Floor: Concrete with linoleum (a type of strong material with a hardy shiny
surface, used for covering floor)
• Ceiling: Only concrete
• Lights: Fluorescent light (60W x 17)
• Persons: 7
• Area: Standard temperature area
• Roof: Light construction with ceiling

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Load
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Load
6096 mm 6096 mm N
3000 mm 3000 mm

Bilik
3000 mm
Mandi
Dapur Utility Bilik tidur 2 Bilik tidur 3

Bilik
Mandi

13715 mm
21336 mm

13715 mm

Ruang makan

13715 mm
Bilik Ruang Tamu
Mandi

Ruang Tamu

4300 mm
2000 mm

Bilik tidur utama


Balkoni

FCB 20603 Heating & Cooling 39


Ceiling Height = 3000mm
Load < calculation Cooling Load>
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Load
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Load