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A seaport will be built near Port Ancient.

The primary function of this port is the


transhipment of containers. Moreover, the
harbour will be accommodated with a LNG
jetty, while area for dry bulk facilities
should be reserved for future activity.

Port Planning
Assignment
Coastal Engineering and
Port Development
Lecturer: Ali Dastgheib PhD, MSc

Pratama Rizqi Ariawan


Student number
45794
Study number
1357985
Locker number
196

Table of Contents
Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 1
Data and Boundary Conditions .............................................................................................................. 2
Throughput and Traffic Volumes ....................................................................................................... 2
Design Vessels .................................................................................................................................... 3
Water Level......................................................................................................................................... 4
Currents .............................................................................................................................................. 4
Waves ................................................................................................................................................. 4
Sand Transport ................................................................................................................................... 5
Wind.................................................................................................................................................... 5
Design Wet Areas ................................................................................................................................... 6
Orientation of the Approach Channel ............................................................................................... 6
Dimension of Approach Channel ....................................................................................................... 6
Dredging Work ................................................................................................................................. 10
Tidal Window.................................................................................................................................... 10
Design Dry Areas .................................................................................................................................. 11
Container Storage Yard .................................................................................................................... 11
LNG Storage Area ............................................................................................................................. 14
Dry Bulk Storage Area ...................................................................................................................... 15
New Port Development........................................................................................................................ 16
References ............................................................................................................................................ 18

Introduction

Introduction
A seaport will be built near Port Ancient. A fictitious port at a fictitious location. The primary function
of this port is the transhipment of containers. Moreover, the harbour will be accommodated with a
LNG jetty, while area for dry bulk facilities will be reserved for future activity.
The location is characterised by a few small islands, of which Rum Island is the closest as it is shown
by following figure.

Figure 1 New port location


The purpose of this case study is to develop the layout of the port based on the available boundary
conditions and the prognosis of the cargo throughput for the year 2015.

Pratama Rizqi Ariawan


WSE-CEPD 2014/2016

Study Number 1357985

Data and Boundary Conditions

Data and Boundary Conditions


All data are based on given study number that is 1357985.

Throughput and Traffic Volumes


The throughput and traffic volumes expected in 2015 are shown in the following table. It is assumed
that a year consists of 8400 operational hours and required time for mooring is 2 hours.

Table 1 Traffic volumes


Commodity Throughput

Calls/year Transhipment
()
/call

Transhipment
rate

Queuing
system

Container

500

2800 TEU

E2/E2/n

80

125.000 m3

M/D/n

15%

275

100.000
tonnes

100
(moves/hour)
12.500
(m3/hour)
3.500 (t/hour)

Acceptable
waiting
time
10%

M/E2/n

20%

LNG
Dry Bulk

1.400.000
(TEU)
10.000.000
(m3)
27.500.000
(tonnes)

Determination the number of berths based on queuing theory.


For Container transhipment
Arrival rate ()
Service time
Total service time
Service rate ()
Utilization ()

:
:
:
:

500 calls/year
2800/100 = 28 hours/ship
28 + 2 = 30 hours/ship
8400/30
= 280 ships/year
: /(*n) (n = number of berth)
= 500/(280*n)

From chart E2/E2/n, it is obtained


Number of
berths
Utilization
Waiting time

0.595
0.1103

Max. acceptable
waiting time

>0.1

0.446
0.0085
0.0532
<0.1

From above calculation, number of berth for container terminal is 4 berths

From chart M/D/n, it is obtained

For LNG transhipment


Arrival rate ()
Service time
Total service time
Service rate ()
Utilization ()

:
:
:
:

80 calls/year
125.000/12.500 = 10 hours/ship
10 + 2 = 12 hours/ship
8400/12
= 700 ships/year
: /(*n) (n = number of berth)
= 80/(700*n)

Number of
berths
Utilization
Waiting time
Max. acceptable
waiting time

1
0.114
0.0556 0.125
>0.15

From above calculation, number of berth for container terminal is 1 berth

Pratama Rizqi Ariawan


WSE-CEPD 2014/2016

Study Number 1357985

Data and Boundary Conditions

From chart M/E2/n, it is obtained

For Dry bulk transhipment


Arrival rate ()
Service time
Total service time
Service rate ()
Utilization ()

:
:
:
:

275 calls/year
100.000/3.500 = 29 hours/ship
29 + 2 = 31 hours/ship
8400/31
= 271 ships/year
: /(*n) (n = number of berth)
= 275/(271*n)

Number of berths
Utilization
Waiting time

2
0.507
0.26

Max. acceptable
waiting time

>0.2

3
0.338
0.03
0.04
<0.2

From above calculation, number of berth for container terminal is 3 berths

Design Vessels
The cargo capacity of design vessels are given as follow. Based on PIANC report 121 2014, ship
dimension can also be estimated.
Study number
5th figure of study
number
3rd figure of study
number
6th figure of study
number

Type of vessel
Container
vessel
LNG vessel
Dry bulk vessel

Capacity
4500
TEU
125.000
m3
175.000
DWT

DWT
55.000

LOA (m)
278

Draught (m)
12.8

Beam (m)
32.2

58.000

274

11.3

42

175.000

290

18

46

Determination of quay length


For Container vessel
Lq

= (1.1 * n * (Ls + 15)) + 15

for n>1, Ls = 80% LOA

= (1.1 * 4 * (80% * 278 + 15)) + 15


= 1059.56 m ~ 1100 m

For LNG vessel


Lq

= Ls + 2*15

Ls = 80% LOA

= (80% * 274) + 30
= 249.2 m ~ 250 m

For Dry bulk vessel


Lq

= (1.1 * n * (Ls + 15)) + 15

Ls = 80% LOA

= (1.1 * 3 * (80% * 290 + 15)) + 15


= 830.1 m ~ 840 m

Pratama Rizqi Ariawan


WSE-CEPD 2014/2016

Study Number 1357985

Data and Boundary Conditions

Water Level
Water level data are based on tidal data below.

Table 2 Tidal data


HAT
MHWS
MHW
MSL
MLW
MLWS
LAT
Datum

2.13 m
1.86 m
1.60 m
1.04 m
0.46 m
0.21 m
0.00 m
-1.026 m

Currents
Two normative current directions are north-east (NE) and south-west (SW). The maximum current
velocity is 0.3 m/s. The data of current velocities for different water depths are shown below.

Table 3 Current velocities


3m water depth
total 15m
velocity
NE
SW

12m water depth


total 13m
velocity
NE
SW

15m water depth


total 16.5m
velocity
NE
SW

(m/s )

(%)

(%)

(m/s )

(%)

(%)

(m/s)

(%)

(%)

0.00 - 0.10
0.10 - 0.15
0.15 - 0.20
0.20 - 0.25

10
14
6
2

11
6
-

0.00 - 0.08
0.09 - 0.15
0.16 - 0.23
0.24 - 0.30

25
1.3
0.5
0.3

36
1.8
0.5
0.3

0.00 - 0.10
0.10 - 0.15
0.15 - 0.20
0.20 - 0.25

27
4.7
0.8
0.1

28.9
2.3
-

Waves
The dominant wave is 2.5 m which is situated around 140. This is also the maximum permitted for
pilots boarding a vessel. The extreme wave condition has two dominant directions; west-south-west
(WSW) and some less from east direction. Completely, the wave height exceedance and extreme
frequency are given by table below.

Table 4 Wave height exceedance and extreme condition


Hs

probability
of exceedance

(m)

(%)

(hours)

0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5

99.96
97.93
43.02
12.44
2.88
0.54
0.16
0.02

8756
8579
3769
1090
252
47
14
2

exceedance
frequency
1/10 per year
1/50 per year
1/100 per year

NE
Hs

ENE
Hs

E
Hs

ESE
Hs

SE
Hs

SSE
Hs

S
Hs

SSW
Hs

SW
Hs

WSW
Hs

W
Hs

(m)

(m)

(m)

(m)

(m)

(m)

(m)

(m)

(m)

(m)

(m)

5.9
7.3
7.9

6.9
8.3
8.9

8
9.4
10

7.3
8.6
9.2

7.2
8.6
9.2

7
8.3
8.9

7.9
9.3
9.9

8.5
9.9
10.5

9.4
10.8
11.4

9.7
11.1
11.6

8.2
9.5
10.1

The significant wave period is 12 s for the waves between 2,5 and 3,5. Moreover, long waves with
small wave heights and periods between the 30 and maximum 80 s are registered.

Pratama Rizqi Ariawan


WSE-CEPD 2014/2016

Study Number 1357985

Data and Boundary Conditions

Figure 2 Probability of exceedance (%) for wave

Sand Transport
The wave conditions cause littoral sand transport in both directions. This sand transport takes place
for 95% between 0 and -13 m depth lines.

Wind
The wind data have been monitored on Rum Island. The normative wind directions are west-southwest and east.

Table 5 Wind conditions

This leads to the next graph.

Figure 3 Probability of exceedance (%) for wind


Pratama Rizqi Ariawan
WSE-CEPD 2014/2016

Study Number 1357985

Design Wet Areas

Design Wet Areas


Orientation of the Approach Channel
The orientation of the approach channel should be preferably in line with the dominant direction of
wind, currents and waves. At the same time the configuration of the entrance proper should limit
wave penetration. These two requirements are combined and lead to a small angle between wave
direction and the axis of the approach channel. According to bathymetry and it is assumed that there
is no obstacle, the approach channel is designed straight line to the port.

Dimension of Approach Channel


1. Channel Length
Length of the channel depends on the vessel stopping distance which determined by some
components as follow:
a) Vessel dimension (LOA)
No Type of vessels
1
Container vessel
2
LNG Carrier
3
Dry Bulk Carrier
Design vessel

LOA (m)
278
274
290
290

Draught (m)
12.8
11.3
18
18

Beam (m)
32.2
42
46
46

b) Vessel speed at arrival (Vs)


In the condition when there is a cross current near entrance (1 knot = 0.514 m/s), the
minimum speed allowable for ship should be 8 knots at outer channel and 6 knots at
inner channel. However, the vessels are not permitted to stop by its power selves. So
they need tug boats to help for manoeuver and stop. The stopping length can be
calculated by formula:
L1

= (Vs 2) * 0.75 * Ls
= (8 * 0.514 2) * 0.75 * 290
= 459.36 ~ 460 m (speed reduction)

L2

= 600 * 2
= 1200 m (2 tug boats)

L3

= 1.5 * Ls
= 1.5 * 290
= 435 m (final stop)

Total stopping length is L1 + L2 + L3 = 460 + 1200 + 435 = 2095 m.


From above calculation, it is planned that length of inner channel is 2 * LOA = 580 m
Pratama Rizqi Ariawan
WSE-CEPD 2014/2016

Study Number 1357985

Design Wet Areas

2. Channel Depth
Depth of the channel can be estimated by using following approximation

Table 6 Channel depth components extracted from PIANC 121-2014

Table 7 Estimated value of Hst extracted from PIANC 121-2014

From the table above the Hst is estimated for cargo ship (including bulk carrier). The value of
J is 1 is used for fully loaded condition, and 0.5 weight carriers. For a 175.000 DWT vessel (the
biggest vessel), it is assumed that the Hst value is around 41.5
Pratama Rizqi Ariawan
WSE-CEPD 2014/2016

Study Number 1357985

Design Wet Areas

Table 8 Estimated channel depth


Components
10 knots
Ship related
factors
Heavy swell (Hs > 2 m)
Channel bottom (assumed sand/clay)
Air draught clearance

Inner channel
1.1 T = 1.1 * 18 = 19.8 m
0.4 m
0.05 Hst = 0.05 * 41.5 = 2.1 m

Total channel depth

22.3 ~ 23 m

Outer channel
1.4 T = 1.4 * 18 = 25.2 m
0.5 m
0.05 Hst + 0.4 T
= 2.1 + 0.4 * 18 = 9.3 m
35 m

3. Channel Width
Based on the total number of calls/year (500 calls/year) to the port terminal, by consideration
350 operational days per year, the average numbers of the vessels will pass through the
approach channel is approximately 2 vessels/day. So that, one way approach channel is more
preferable for the approach channel.

Table 9 Channel width calculation

4. Turning Circle
The principle of turning circle is safety nautical and applicable. In this way we assume ship
manoeuver is normal tug assistance due to the longest ship length 290 m. The diameter of
turning circle is 2*Loa = 2*290 = 580 m. The depth of turning circle is same with inner channel
= 23 m.

Pratama Rizqi Ariawan


WSE-CEPD 2014/2016

Study Number 1357985

Design Wet Areas

Figure 4 Channel layout

5. Breakwater
The port area is planned to have breakwater in order to reduce penetration from the wave.
The presence of longshore currents is also another consideration to build breakwater. The
breakwater is located inside the own area both at land side and sea side. It should
accommodate a good connection to the approach channel direction. Due to the dominant
direction of sediment transport (from southwest to north east), the breakwater is designed at
the south west in longer arm/trunk than the north east side so that sediment transport do not
enter to the port.
The breakwater needs to be constructed until it reaches 20 m depth for south-west side, and
shorter for the north-east side. The approach channel is considered to be almost
perpendicular to the entrance so that the vessels can manoeuver easily as well as preventing
littoral drift from the north east currents.
Pratama Rizqi Ariawan
WSE-CEPD 2014/2016

Study Number 1357985

Design Wet Areas

Dredging Work
1. Port Layout
Since the dry bulk vessels require more depth than the existed bathymetry, so dredging work
is required to accommodate the vessels. Meanwhile, the other type of vessels seem do not
require special dredging work. Therefore, the terminal for dry bulk cargo is planned to be
located further from the coast (near the entrance of the breakwater).
2. Construction
Dredging is designed both in the channel and in the basin (in front of the quay), includes
turning circle. According to the calculation of the channel depth, the required channel depth
is 23 m depth for inner channel, and 35 m depth for outer channel without tidal restriction or
tidal window. This means that no downtime of ship arrival due to the channel depth based on
tidal data. So in this channel, dredging work should be done until 23 m depth. This dredging
budget will be taken into account to overall cost.
3. Maintenance
From the data given, sand and littoral transport is 95% from 0 to 13m depth. For this situation
we need to start dredging to maintain the 20 m depth for channel and basin in periodic time.

Tidal Window
A tidal window is a time window in which a ship is allowed to enter the channel due to difference in
the highest and the lowest tide. Since the traffic of the biggest ship (dry bulk carrier) is quiet high, it is
decided that there will be no tidal restriction or tidal window although it will often be more economic
to restrict the navigability of the channel, at least for the biggest ships, to limited period of the tide,
known as tidal window.
Two types of tidal window that commonly used in port are vertical tidal window and horizontal tidal
window. Generally, the port authority usually applies the vertical tidal window to limit the period of
the navigability of the channel.
The main reason why tidal restriction is not applied is that because the traffic rate the port is quite
high both for ship which enter or leaves the port. The other reason is that by not applying tidal
restriction, there will be more depth available hence the safety factor is high. Flexibility for future
development is also better for deeper channel.

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WSE-CEPD 2014/2016

Study Number 1357985

10

Design Dry Areas

Design Dry Areas


Dry area of the port consists of berths and storage areas include buildings and other facilities. After
calculating number of berth, this chapter will discuss the storage areas of each commodity. Since there
is three different cargo that are container, dry bulk cargo and liquid cargo (LNG), they have to be
planned separately.

Container Storage Yard


The key performance of port/ terminal is determined by productivity on berth. It means that in the
container terminal, container crane (CC) should have the best productivity. The best productivity of
crane is reliable if there is good supporting from container yard operation system. Container should
be (un) loaded by crane without any waiting/idle time due to yard activity. Therefore, storage
management becomes important things that must be taken into account. There are three important
points in yard management; used equipment, required area and configuration in between. Together
these parameters are taken into terminal layout.
According to the data given, container terminal has characteristic of transshipment which be shown
by proportion of the container. Its proportions are represented by percentage number from total
throughput of import, export, empty containers and CFS.
The total transhipment is characterised as follows:

Import
Export
Empties
CFS
Reefers
Import dwell time
Export dwell time
Empties dwell time
CFS dwell time

: 50% of the total throughput


: 40% of the total throughput
: 10% of the total throughput
: 30% of the import cargo
: Not required
: 6 days
: 2 days
: 12 days
: 4 days

= 700.000 TEU
= 560.000 TEU
= 140.000 TEU
= 210.000 TEU

The calculation of storage area required for container yard (A) is as follows

A=
In which:
Nc
:
td
:
ATEU
:
rst
:
mc
:

Nc * td * ATEU
rst * 365 * mc

number of container movements per year (TEU)


average dwelling time (days)
required area per TEU depends on equipment (m2/TEU)
nominal stacking height (0.6 0.9)
acceptable occupancy rate (0.65 0.7)

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WSE-CEPD 2014/2016

= 8.5 m2/TEU
= 0.9
= 0.7
Study Number 1357985

11

Design Dry Areas

Table 10 Storage area per TEU for different equipment


System
Chassis
Straddle Carrier
Gantry Crane (RMG/RTG)

Forklift Truck (FLT)


Reach Stacker

ATEU (m2/TEU)
50 - 65
15 - 20
10 - 13
15 - 20
10 - 13
7.5 - 10
6-8
35 - 40
25 - 30

Nominal Stacking Height


1
2
3
2
3
4
5
2
3

Therefore, the required areas for import, export and empties containers can be calculated as
follow:
Aimport =
Aexport =

Aempties =

= 155251 ~ 156.000 m2
= 82800 ~ 83.000 m2

.
.

= 62100 ~ 63.000 m2

The surface area of the CFS does not follow above equation, but it is calculated as follows:

ACFS =

Nc * V * td * f area * f bulk
hs * 365 * mc

In which.
Nc
V
farea

:
:
:

number of TEU moved through CFS


volume of cargo in 1 TEU container
ratio gross area over net area

(TEU/year)
29 m3
= 1.4

fbulk

bulking factor

= 1.1

hs

average height of cargo in the CFS

2m

mc

acceptable occupancy rate (0.6 0.7)

0.7

ACFS =

. .
.

= 73413 ~ 74.000 m2

The overall calculation of required areas is shown in this following table

Table 11 Required yard areas


Transhipment
import
export
empties
CFS

number of container movement


percentage
TEU
50%
700.000
40%
560.000
10%
140.000
30%
210.000

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WSE-CEPD 2014/2016

dwelling time (days)


6
2
12
4

yard areas
m2
156.000
83.000
63.000
74.000

Study Number 1357985

12

Design Dry Areas

Based on above calculation, the planned storage and quay length should be covered by the available
areas. As it is calculated above, the quay length for container terminal is 1100 m for 4 berth. To cope
with the required berth, 2 piers should be constructed near the storage areas. However, based on
container characteristic, some logical thinking must be considered.

Loading activity will be more effective if the storage area is located near the berth so that the
movement of container crane and the chassis server is faster.

Unloading activity will be more effective by using buffer area near the crane to locate
containers for temporary. There containers will be taken by RTG/RMB to the chassis and
brought into import yard area. So import area can be placed behind export area.

Empty containers can be put in the behind area but close to CFS for stuffing and stripping
activities.

Office building and workshop for equipment are located near the gate to give chance for
expansion area. As we know that the growth of container is very fast. So, we prepare spare
area to the next extension of container yard.

Good access road is needed inside the container yard for good traffic management.

Figure 5 Layout of container yard


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Study Number 1357985

13

Design Dry Areas

LNG Storage Area


The storage area of liquid commodity/LNG consists of tanks farm. This area depends on the number
and dimension of the tank and the distance between tanks. The dimension of the tank is determined
by the size of vessels, interval of ship arrivals and diversity of the product. According to given vessels
data, the maximum cargo capacity of vessel is 125,000 m3 and required area is 250.000 m2. The tank
farm capacity should be able to accommodate for the biggest vessel so that no downtime due to
insufficient of storage area. The throughput capacity of tank farm is given by formula below:

Cs

365
* SOR
td
: throughput capacity of tank farm (m3/year)

: effective volume of tank farm (m3)

td

: dwelling time (day)

SOR

: storage occupancy ratio (70% for liquid bulk based on best practice)

Cs = V *

, in which:

Table 12 Calculation of tank farm capacity


No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Parameter
diameter of tank
height
operational height
volume of tank
dwelling time
storage occupancy ratio
tank storage capacity
throughput

9 number of tank

Symbol
Formula
dia
h
heff
2
V
V=0.25*D *heff
td
SOR
Cs
Cs=V*365/td*SOR
C
n

n=C/Cs

Unit
m
m
m
m3

Qty

day
%
m3/year
m3/year

7
70
1,825,000
10,000,000

120
5
4
50,000

unit

From the calculation minimum number of tanks farm needed are 6 tanks farm.

Figure 6 Tank farm for LNG


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WSE-CEPD 2014/2016

Study Number 1357985

14

Design Dry Areas

Dry Bulk Storage Area


Dry bulk commodity can be divided into 2 varieties. The first is major bulk consists of coal, iron ore,
etc. The second is minor bulk consists of grain product such as sugar, rice, corn, salt, etc. The stockpile
area depends on the material due to weather impact. If the cargo is sensitive with weather condition,
it should be taken place in building such as rice, corn, etc. On the other hand, for instance coal and
iron ore can be located in open area. The stockpile capacity can be calculated by following formula:

1
V = A * * h * SOR
2

, in which:

: maximum volume of cargo in storage (m3)

: required area (m2)

: height of stockpile (m)

SOR

: storage occupancy ratio (assumed 60 %)

From the data given, the required area for dry bulk is 680,000 m2. For the major commodities we use
open yard for stockpile due to not resistance to the weather but in case that the commodities which
need good condition of stock area such grain product, 2 storage buildings is provided near the berth
to accommodate the (un) loading process that will be actuating by conveyor belt connected from this
storage to the crane at berth.

Figure 7 Layout of dry bulk area

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WSE-CEPD 2014/2016

Study Number 1357985

15

New Port Development

In overall, design of dry area is planned based on available areas

Figure 8 Overall design of dry areas

New Port Development


In general, the development of the new port should accommodate required throughput and design
vessel with also taking into account the need of dredging area and construction of other marine
facilities (such as jetty for dry bulk carrier and LNG carrier).
The storage areas are planned by order from south-west to north-east that are container terminal,
dry bulk terminal, and LNG terminal. The storage for the container terminal is placed further from LNG
terminal due to the high risk of LNG terminal. The areas for each commodity is designed proportionally
based on minimum requirement.
Pier is used for container berth to accommodate high throughput in which 4 berths are needed based
on the calculation. Jetty is used for dry bulk terminal because it requires 3 berth. Jetty is also used for
LNG terminal to minimize high risk of accident by keeping some distance from loading platform and
tank farms.
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WSE-CEPD 2014/2016

Study Number 1357985

16

New Port Development

The direction of approach channel is considered to be at optimum direction, since it is planned straight
forward so it will ease ship navigation. The outer channel is deeper than the inner channel due to
higher significant wave high which in turn can be dangerous for the biggest ship. Tidal restriction is
not applied in this system because the traffic of the port is relatively high.
The function of the breakwater is to protect the port terminal from long cross current and dominant
wave and wind from the sea towards to the port terminal.
The possibility the high cost for develop this port terminal is during the dredging stages because the
inner part of breakwater need to dredging until minimum depth requirement as the vessels may
access at the port terminal without limitation of tidal window

The port layout is designed to be flexible for further development, especially for LNG terminal
and dry bulk terminal since there will be enough space to add more berthing facilities.

Figure 9 New port development

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Study Number 1357985

17

References

References
Lecture Notes
H. Ligteringen, and H. Velsink, 2012. Ports and Terminals. VSSD; the Netherlands.
PIANC Report 121, 2014. Harbour Approach Channels Design Guidelines. The World Association for
Waterborne Transport Infrastructure

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Study Number 1357985

18