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NAME Shashank Jain

SUBJECT - Physics
TOPIC Ray Optics
SCHOOL City Montessori School
BRANCH Aliganj, Campus-I



Thank you would be an understatement for those people who
have helped me through this project but since I dont have any other
word in my vocabulary, so for them its a big Thank You. I dont
know how much I can thank them but I can just put some of my words
for them.
Starting with my institution, I would like to thank my school,
City Montessori School, which provides us with not only facilities but
also an environment and inspiring guides, helping us to be a better
human and a better pursuer of science. Through my years in this
school I have not only been enlightened to the world of science and
discoveries but also to their applications in our daily life making it
Of course, our Physics teacher Mukta maam has been an ever
helping and inspiring figure for us, leading to an increment in the
hunger of our knowledge. Dynamic during the classes, she has been
actively involved in the clearance of our concepts and understanding
of the topic. The best fact being that she never lets us lose the interest
that keeps us bound to this subject, in fact she takes care that it is our
first priority to keep ourselves interested and very much involved in
In any of my tasks, my familys support has to be compulsive
condition as without them I am hardly anything, so forgetting them
would be a sin. I dont need to say anything more.
I once again thank everyone who has made a contribution to
my project.

Yours Sincerely,
Shashank Jain

Lenses and there types
Types of Simple Lenses
Focal Length and Focus

Finding focal length using various method

Lens Displacement and formula method
Boys Method



Optical Benches







A lens is an optical device which transmits and refracts light,
converging or diverging the beam. A simple lens consists of a single
optical element. A compound lens is an array of simple lenses
(elements) with a common axis; the use of multiple elements allows
more optical aberrations to be corrected glass or transparent
plastic. Elements which refract electromagnetic radiation outside
the visual spectrum are also called lenses: for instance, a
microwave lens cap be made from paraffin wax.

A biconvex lens


Types of Simple Lenses:

Lenses are classified by the curvature of the two optical surfaces.
A lens is biconvex (or double convex, or just convex) if both surfaces
are convex. If both surfaces have the same radius of curvature, the lens
is equiconvex. A lens with two concave surfaces is biconcave (or
just concave). If one of the surfaces is flat, the lens is planoconvex or plano-concave depending on the curvature of the other
surface. A lens with one convex and one concave side is convexconcave or meniscus. It is this type of lens that is most commonly used in
corrective lenses.

If the lens is biconvex or plano-convex, a collimated beam of

light passing through the lens converges to a spot (a focus) behind
the lens. In this case, the lens is called a positive or converging lens.
The distance from the lens to the spot is the focal length of the lens,
which is commonly abbreviated f in diagrams and equations.

If the lens is biconcave or plano-concave, a collimated beam

of light passing through the lens is diverged (spread); the lens is thus

called a negative or diverging lens. The beam, after passing

through the lens, appears to emanate from a particular point on
the axis in front of the lens. The distance from this point to the lens
is also known as the focal length, though it is negative with respect
to the focal length of a converging lens.

Convex-concave (meniscus) lenses can be either positive or

negative, depending on the relative curvatures of the two surfaces.
A negative meniscus lens has a steeper concave surface and is
thinner at the centre than at the periphery. Conversely, a positive
meniscus lens has a steeper convex surface and is thicker at the
centre than at the periphery. An ideal thin lens with two surfaces
of equal curvature would have zero optical power, meaning that it
would neither converge nor diverge light. All real lenses have
nonzero thickness, however, which makes a real lens with identical
curved surfaces slightly positive. To obtain exactly zero optical
power, a meniscus lens must have slightly unequal curvatures to
account for the effect of the lens' thickness.


Focal Length and Focus:

The focal length of an optical system is a measure of how
strongly the system converges or diverges light. For an optical
system in air, it is the distance over which initially collimated rays
are brought to a focus. A system with a shorter focal length has
greater optical power than one with a long focal length; that is, it
bends the rays more strongly, bringing them to a focus in a shorter
In most photography and all telescopies, where the subject is
essentially infinitely far away, longer focal length (lower optical
power) leads to higher magnification and a narrower angle of
view; conversely, shorter focal length or higher optical power is
associated with a wider angle of view. On the other hand, in
applications such as microscopy in which magnification is
achieved by bringing the object close to the lens, a shorter focal
length (higher optical power) leads to higher magnification because
the subject can be brought closer to the center of projection.

The focal point F and focal length f of a positive (convex) lens and a negative
(concave) lens

In geometrical optics, a focus, also called an image point, is

the point where light rays originating from a point on the object
converge.[1]Although the focus is conceptually a point, physically
the focus has a spatial extent, called the blur circle. This non-ideal
focusing may be caused by aberrations of the imaging optics. In the
absence of significant aberrations, the smallest possible blur circle
is the Airy disc, which is caused by diffraction from the optical
system's aperture. Aberrations tend to get worse as the aperture

diameter increases, while the Airy circle is smallest for large

An image, or image point or region, is in focus if light from
object points is converged almost as much as possible in the image,
and out of focus if light is not well converged. The border between
these is sometimes defined using a circle of confusion criterion.
A principal focus or focal point is a special focus:

For a lens, or a spherical or parabolic mirror, it is a point onto

which collimated parallel to the axis is focused. Since light can
pass through a lens in either direction, a lens has two focal
pointsone on each side. The distance in air from the lens or
mirror's plane to the focus is called the focal length.
Elliptical mirrors have two focal points: light that passes
through one of these before striking the mirror is reflected such
that it passes through the other.
The focus of a hyperbolic mirror is either of two points which
have the property that light from one is reflected as if it came
from the other.

Focal blur is simulated in this computer generated image of glasses, which was
rendered in POV-Ray.

Diverging (negative) lenses and convex mirrors do not focus

a collimated beam to a point. Instead, the focus is the point from
which the light appears to be emanating, after it travels through

the lens or reflects from the mirror. A convex parabolic mirror

will reflect a beam of collimated light to make it appear as if it
were radiating from the focal point, or conversely, reflect rays
directed toward the focus as a collimated beam. A convex elliptical
mirror will reflect light directed towards one focus as if it were
radiating from the other focus, both of which are behind the
mirror. A convex hyperbolic mirror will reflect rays emanating
from the focal point in front of the mirror as if they were
emanating from the focal point behind the mirror. Conversely, it
can focus rays directed at the focal point that is behind the mirror
towards the focal point that is in front of the mirror as in a Cass
grain telescope.





In this experiment, we have chosen two methods to find out
the focal length of a spherical lens. They are Lens formula method
and Lens replacement method.
Firstly, we talk about the theory of the first method. It is
known that there is a formula called lens formula

+ object

distance u, image distance v and the focal length of a spherical lens.

Therefore we record a few pairs of data of object and image
distance in order to make use the formula to determine the focal
length of the lens given.
Secondly, we talk about the "lens replacement method. If
we separate a lamp housing and a screen to s cm, there must be
two position between s which can form the image on the screen by
the lens according to the reversibility of the light.

Therefore we can find out the focal length by the formula


where d is the distance between the two lens



Object distance

Image distance


Focal length of lens

Separation of lamp housing and the screen


1st lens position


2nd lens position

Distance between 1st and 2nd lens positions


The aim of this experiment is to determine the focal length (f)
of a convex lens and its refractive index.





Note: Diagrams not to scale relative to each other


A 10 cm focal length bi-convex lens, an optical pin (or long
(8 cm) thin nail), ruler, plane mirror, sheet of matt black paper,
light source for illuminating the apparatus (an adjustable desk
lamp is ideal), retort stand, boss, clamp, cork.

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Setup the apparatus as shown in diagram (a) with the lens
on the mirror and with the pinhead vertically above the center of
the lens. Move the pin up and down until there is no parallax
between the pin and its inverted virtual image formed by
reflection from the plane mirror and refraction by the lens.
Measure the distance between the pin and the center of the lens.
This is the focal length of the lens (f).
Note: traditionally the point of the pin has been used to locate the image
but this means that it could be near the experimenters eye. For safety
stick the point of the pin in the cork and locate the image using the head.
It is still possible to obtain an accurate reading using this method.


Record the value of the focal length. Repeat the experiment
three times, moving the pin form the final position between each

Set up the apparatus as shown in diagram (b) with the lens
resting on the piece of matt black paper. Place the pin so that it is
roughly half the focal length from the lens. Use the lamp to make
sure that the pin is well illuminated.
Move the pin up and down until there is no parallax
between the pin and its inverted virtual image formed by
reflection from the lower face of the lens (A).
Record the distance (d) of the pin from the centre of the lens.
Repeat the readings.
Turn the lens over and make a similar set of measurements
using face B as the lower face.

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Use your results to calculate the refractive index of the
glass of the lens.
When the pin has no parallax with its image the virtual
object distance is -rA and the image distance is d.
These quantities are related by the equation for a lens:

+ =

+ =

From this equation rA may be found since d has been

measured and f is known from part (a).
The equation for the focal length (f) of the lens involving its
refractive index (n) and the radii of curvature of its two faces (rA
and rB) is:

= ( )

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Optical Benches
The optical bench is commonly used in physics labs today,
and consists of a long, rigid member with a linear scale applied to
it. Holders for light sources, lenses and screens are placed on the
apparatus so that image formation can be observed. A typical
nineteenth century optical bench is shown below. This was made
by the Geneva Society for the Construction of Instruments of
Physics and was in the collection of Bowdoin College in Brunswick,
Maine when I photographed it in 1979.

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Parallax is a displacement or difference in the apparent
position of an object viewed along two different lines of sight, and
is measured by the angle or semi-angle of inclination between those
two lines. The term is derived from the Greek word
(parallaxis), meaning "alteration". Nearby objects have a
larger parallax than more distant objects when observed from
different positions, so parallax can be used to determine distances.
Astronomers use the principle of parallax to measure
distances to the closer stars. Here, the term "parallax" is the semiangle of inclination between two sight-lines to the star, as observed
when the Earth is on opposite sides of the Sun in its orbit. These
distances form the lowest rung of what is called "the cosmic
distance ladder", the first in a succession of methods by which
astronomers determine the distances to celestial objects, serving as
a basis for other distance measurements in astronomy forming the
higher rungs of the ladder.
Parallax also affects optical instruments such as rifle
scopes, binoculars, microscopes, and twin-lens reflex cameras that
view objects from slightly different angles. Many animals,
including humans, have two eyes with overlapping visual
fields that use parallax to gain depth perception; this process is
known as stereopsis. In computer vision the effect is used
for computer stereo vision, and there is a device called a parallax
rangefinder that uses it to find range, and in some variations also
altitude to a target.
A simple everyday example of parallax can be seen in the
dashboard of motor vehicles that use a needle-style speedometer
gauge. When viewed from directly in front, the speed may show
exactly 60; but when viewed from the passenger seat the needle
may appear to show a slightly different speed, due to the angle of

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NCERT Physics (part I & II) Textbook for Class XII