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2008 U. S.

NATIONAL
CHEMISTRY OLYMPIAD
LOCAL SECTION EXAM
Prepared by the American Chemical Society Olympiad Examinations Task Force

OLYMPIAD EXAMINATIONS TASK FORCE


Arden P. Zipp, State University of New York, Cortland
Chair

Sherry Berman-Robinson, Consolidated HS, Orland Park, IL (retired) Paul Groves, South Pasadena HS, Pasadena, CA

William Bond, Snohomish HS, Snohomish, WA David Hostage, Taft School, Watertown, CT

Peter Demmin, Amherst HS, Amherst, NY (retired) Adele Mouakad, St. John’s School, San Juan, PR

Marian Dewane, Centennial HS, Boise, ID Jane Nagurney, Scranton Preparatory School, Scranton, PA

Valerie Ferguson, Moore HS, Moore, OK Ronald Ragsdale, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT
Kimberly Gardner, US Air Force Academy, Colorado Springs, CO

DIRECTIONS TO THE EXAMINER

This test is designed to be taken with an answer sheet on which the student records his or her responses. All answers are to be marked
on that sheet, not written in the booklet. Each student should be provided with an answer sheet and scratch paper, both of which must
be turned in with the test booklet at the end of the examination. Local Sections may use an answer sheet of their own choice.

The full examination consists of 60 multiple-choice questions representing a fairly wide range of difficulty. Students should be
permitted to use non-programmable calculators. A periodic table and other useful information are provided on page two of this exam
booklet for student reference.

Suggested Time: 60 questions—110 minutes

DIRECTIONS TO THE EXAMINEE

DO NOT TURN THE PAGE UNTIL DIRECTED TO DO SO.

This is a multiple-choice examination with four choices for each question. There is only one correct or best answer to each question.
When you select your choice, blacken the corresponding space on the answer sheet with your pencil. Make a heavy full mark, but no
stray marks. If you decide to change your answer, be certain to erase your original answer completely.

Not valid for use as an ACS Olympiad Local Section Exam after March 29, 2008. STOCK CODE OL08
Distributed by the ACS DivCHED Examinations Institute, University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI.
All rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A.
ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS CONSTANTS
ampere A Faraday constant F molal m
atmosphere atm formula molar mass M molar M R = 8.314 J·mol–1·K–1
atomic mass unit u free energy G molar mass M R = 0.0821 L·atm·mol–1·K–1
atomic molar mass A frequency ν mole mol 1 F = 96,500 C·mol–1
Avogadro constant NA gas constant R Planck’s constant h
1 F = 96,500 J·V–1·mol–1
Celsius temperature °C gram g pressure P
centi– prefix c heat capacity Cp rate constant k NA = 6.022 × 1023 mol–1
coulomb C hour h retention factor Rf h = 6.626 × 10–34 J·s
electromotive force E joule J second s c = 2.998 × 108 m·s–1
energy of activation Ea kelvin K temperature, K T
enthalpy H kilo– prefix k time t 0 °C = 273.15 K
entropy S liter L volt V 1 atm = 760 mmHg
equilibrium constant K milli– prefix m

EQUATIONS

RT $ "#H '$ 1 ' "k % E " 1 1 %


E = Eo ! ln Q ln K = & )& ) + constant ln$$ 2 '' = a $$ ( ''
nF % R (% T ( # k1 & R # T1 T2 &

1 PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS 18


1A 8A
1 2
H 2 13 14 15 16 17 He
1.008 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 4.003

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Li Be B C N O F Ne
6.941 9.012 10.81 12.01 14.01 16.00 19.00 20.18
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Na Mg 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Al Si P S Cl Ar
22.99 24.31 3B 4B 5B 6B 7B 8B 8B 8B 1B 2B 26.98 28.09 30.97 32.07 35.45 39.95

19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36
K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
39.10 40.08 44.96 47.88 50.94 52.00 54.94 55.85 58.93 58.69 63.55 65.39 69.72 72.61 74.92 78.96 79.90 83.80
37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54
Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
85.47 87.62 88.91 91.22 92.91 95.94 (98) 101.1 102.9 106.4 107.9 112.4 114.8 118.7 121.8 127.6 126.9 131.3
55 56 57 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86
Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
132.9 137.3 138.9 178.5 180.9 183.8 186.2 190.2 192.2 195.1 197.0 200.6 204.4 207.2 209.0 (209) (210) (222)
87 88 89 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 114 116 118
Fr Ra Ac Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Uub Uuq Uuh Uuo
(223) (226) (227) ! (261) (262) (263) (262) (265) (266) (269) (272) (277) (2??) (2??) (2??)

58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71
Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu
140.1 140.9 144.2 (145) 150.4 152.0 157.3 158.9 162.5 164.9 167.3 168.9 173.0 175.0
90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103
Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr
232.0 231.0 238.0 (237) (244) (243) (247) (247) (251) (252) (257) (258) (259) (262)

Page 2 Not for use as a USNCO Local Section Exam after March 29, 2008
DIRECTIONS
 When you have selected your answer to each question, blacken the corresponding space on the answer sheet using a soft, #2
pencil. Make a heavy, full mark, but no stray marks. If you decide to change an answer, erase the unwanted mark very carefully.
 There is only one correct answer to each question. Any questions for which more than one response has been blackened will not
be counted.
 Your score is based solely on the number of questions you answer correctly. It is to your advantage to answer every question.

1. Which element is a liquid at 25 ˚C and 1.0 atm? 6. Which procedure is recommended for reading the level of
an aqueous solution in a buret or graduated cylinder?
(A) bromine (B) krypton
(A) Keep the eye level with the bottom of the meniscus
(C) phosphorus (D) xenon
and record that reading.
2. Which pair of aqueous solutions produce a yellow (B) Keep the eye level with the top of the meniscus and
precipitate upon mixing? record that reading.
(A) AlCl3 and KOH (B) Ba(NO3)2 and Na2SO4 (C) Look down at the meniscus at an angle to obtain the
average reading directly.
(C) Cu(NO3)2 and NaClO4 (D) Pb(C2H3O2)2 and KI
(D) Read both the bottom and top of the meniscus and
3. A student wishes to determine the thickness of a average those readings.
rectangular piece of aluminum foil but cannot measure it
directly. She can measure its density (d), length (l), mass 7. A 1.0 gram sample of which substance contains the
(m) and width (w). Which relationship will give the largest number of molecules?
thickness?
(A) COCl2 (B) CS2 (C) CH3Cl (D) C2H2F2
(A) m (B) m . l . w
d. l . w d 8. How many moles of ions are present in 250 mL of a
4.4 M solution of sodium sulfate?
(C) d . l .w (D) d . m
m l.w (A) 1.1 (B) 2.2 (C) 3.3 (D) 13

4. The apparatus shown would be used to 9. How many moles of oxygen Molar Mass / g·mol–1
gas are produced by the KClO3 122.6
decomposition of 245 g of potassium chlorate?
2KClO3(s) r 2KCl(s) + 3O2(g)
(A) distill a liquid.
(A) 1.50 (B) 2.00 (C) 2.50 (D) 3.00

(B) reflux a solution. 10. A 50.0 mL solution of 0.150 M HCl is mixed with 25.0
mL of 0.400 M HCl. What is the HCl concentration in
the final solution? (Assume volumes are additive.)
(C) filter a precipitate. (A) 0.0175 (B) 0.233 (C) 0.275 (D) 0.550

11. For the reaction: 2X + 3Y r 3Z, the combination of 2.00


(D) chromatograph a mixture. moles of X with 2.00 moles of Y produces 1.75 moles of
Z. What is the percent yield of this reaction?
(A) 43.8% (B) 58.3% (C) 66.7% (D) 87.5%
5. Which element is the major component in solar cells?
12. For which property is the value greater for a solution of a
(A) As (B) Ge (C) P (D) Si nonvolatile solute than for the pure solvent?
(A) boiling point (B) freezing point
(C) triple point (D) vapor pressure

Not for use as a USNCO Local Section Exam after March 29, 2008 Page 3
13. Liquids exhibit all these properties except 20. For which reaction is ∆Hrxn˚ equal to ∆H f˚ for CuSO4(s)?
(A) definite volume. (B) definite shape. (A) Cu2+(aq) + SO42–(aq) r CuSO4(s)
(C) incompressibility. (D) slow diffusion. (B) CuO(s) + SO3(g) r CuSO4(s)

14. Which statement is true about a substance that is (C) CuS(s) + 2O2(g) r CuSO4(s)
subjected to a lower external pressure at a constant (D) Cu(s) + S(s) + 2O2(g) r CuSO4(s)
temperature?
(A) A liquid will boil at a lower temperature. 21. What is the value of ∆H˚ ∆Hf˚ / kJ·mol–1
(in kJ) for this reaction? CuO –156.1
(B) A liquid will exhibit a lower vapor pressure.
2CuO(s) r Cu2O(s) + ½O2(g) Cu2O –170.7
(C) A gas in an insulated container will change into a
liquid. (A) 141.5 (B) 14.6 (C) –14.6 (D) –141.5

(D) A gas in a nonrigid container will exhibit a smaller 22. When the substances Na(s), Br2(g), Br2(l), NaBr(s) are
volume arranged in order of increasing molar entropy at 25 oC,
which order is correct?
15. A flask contains a mixture of Ne(g) and Ar(g). There are
0.250 mol of Ne(g) which exerts a pressure of (A) Br2(g), Br2(l), Na(s), NaBr(s)
205 mmHg. If the Ar(g) exerts a pressure of 492 mmHg, (B) Na(s), Br2(g), Br2(l), NaBr(s)
what mass of Ar(g) is in the flask?
(C) Na(s), NaBr(s), Br2(l), Br2(g)
(A) 4.16 g (B) 12.1 g
(D) NaBr(s), Br2(g), Br2(l), Na(s)
(C) 24.0 g (D) 95.9 g
23. The reaction; 4Ag(s) + O2(g) r 2Ag2O(s), is exothermic.
16. A gas in a closed, flexible container is slowly cooled Which statement about the reaction is correct?
from 50 ˚C to 25 ˚C. What is the ratio of the final volume
of the gas to its initial volume? Assume ideal behavior. (A) It is spontaneous at all temperatures.

(A) 2/1 (B) 1.08/1 (C) 0.923/1 (D) 0.5/1 (B) It is spontaneous only at low temperatures.
(C) It is spontaneous only at high temperatures.
17. The value of which property decreases with an increase
in the strength of intermolecular forces? (D) It is non-spontaneous at all temperatures.

(A) viscosity (B) boiling point 24. For a reaction at 25 ˚C, ∆G˚ = –33.3 kJ and
(C) surface tension (D) vapor pressure ∆S˚ = –198 J·K–1. What is the value of ∆H˚?
(A) –92.3 kJ (B) –38.3 kJ
18. A white solid dissolves in water to form a solution that
does not conduct electricity. What type of bonding is (C) –28.8 kJ (D) 25.7 kJ
most likely present in the solid?
25. According to the
(A) ionic (B) metallic graph what is the rate
(C) network covalent (D) polar covalent of disappearance of
the reactant at 10
19. Which statement is always true for an exothermic seconds?
reaction?
(A) The enthalpy change is negative.
(B) The entropy change is negative.
(C) The reaction absorbs heat from the surroundings.
(D) The reaction is spontaneous. (A) 0.025 mol·L–1·sec–1 (B) 0.050 mol·L–1·sec–1
(C) 0.40 mol·L–1·sec–1 (D) 0.80 mol·L–1·sec–1

Page 4 Not for use as a USNCO Local Section Exam after March 29, 2008
26. For the reaction, C3H8 + 5O2 r 3CO2 + 4H2O, how does 32. For which reaction at equilibrium will an decrease in
the rate of disappearance of O2 compare to the rate of volume at constant temperature cause a decrease in the
production of CO2? The rate of disappearance of O2 is amount of product?
(A) the same as the rate of production of CO2. (A) N2(g) + 3H2(g) s 2NH3(g)
(B) 1/5 the rate of production of CO2. (B) HCl(g) + H2O(l) s H3O+(aq) + Cl–(aq)
(C) 3/5 the rate of production of CO2. (C) Fe3O4(s) + 4H2(g) s 3Fe(s) + 4H2O(g)
(D) 5/3 the rate of production of CO2. (D) CaCO3(s) s CaO(s) + CO2(g)

27. When the concentration of a particular reactant is tripled 33. What is the conjugate base of HSO4–?
and the initial rate of the reaction increases by a factor of
nine, what is the order of the reaction with respect to this (A) H+ (B) H2SO4 (C) OH– (D) SO42–
reactant?
34. The Ka of hydrocyanic acid, HCN, is 5.0×10–10. What is
(A) zero (B) one (C) two (D) three the pH of 0.050 M HCN(aq)?

28. A substance, X, undergoes a first order reaction X r Y (A) between 3.5 and 4.5 (B) between 5.0 and 5.5
with a half life of 20 minutes. If the initial concentration (C) between 9.0 and 9.5 (D) between 10.5 and 11.0
of X is 2.0 M, what will its concentration be after 40
minutes? 35. Which pair of solutions forms a buffer solution when
(A) 0.25 M (B) 0.50 M (C) 1.0 M (D) 1.4 M equal volumes of each are mixed?
(A) 0.20 M HCl and 0.20 M NaOH
29. The chemicals in a lightstick give off light as they react.
When the lightstick is placed in warm water the glow (B) 0.40 M HC2H3O2 and 0.20 M NaOH
increases. This is because the (C) 0.20 M HCl and 0.20 M NH3
(A) activation energy for the process is lowered. (D) 0.40 M HCl an 0.20 M NH3
(B) average kinetic energy of the reactants increases.
36. Which statement is correct about Ksp
(C) higher temperature catalyzes the reaction. the initial precipitate that forms CaF2 4.0×10–11
(D) higher temperature changes the wavelength of light when a 0.10 M NaF solution is MgF2 6.4×10–9
emitted. added slowly to a solution that is 0.10 M with respect to
both Ca(NO3)2 and Mg(NO3)2?
30. Under certain conditions the reaction of CO with NO2 to
(A) The initial precipitate will contain CaF2 only.
give CO2 and NO results in the rate law;
rate = k[CO][NO2]. (B) The initial precipitate will contain MgF2 only.
What are the units for the rate constant, k?
(C) The initial precipitate will contain both CaF2 and
(A) mol.L–1.min–1 (B) mol2.L–2.min–1 MgF2 with more CaF2.
(C) L.mol–1.min–1 (D) L2.mol–2.min–1 (D) The initial precipitate will contain both CaF2 and
MgF2 with more MgF2.
31. Which statement is correct about a system at
equilibrium? 37. Which range includes the average oxidation state of S in
Na2S4O6?
(A) The forward and reverse reactions occur at identical
rates. (A) less than 0 (B) 0 to +2
(B) The concentrations of reactants must equal the (C) +2 to +4 (D) greater than +4
concentrations of the products.
(C) The concentrations of reactants and products can
be changed by adding a catalyst.
(D) The concentrations of reactants and products are not
affected by a change in temperature.

Not for use as a USNCO Local Section Exam after March 29, 2008 Page 5
38. For a stoichiometric mixture of reactants, which 45. What is the ground state electron configuration of a 27Co
statement best describes the changes that occur when this atom in the gas phase?
reaction goes to completion?
(A) 1s22s22p63s23p63d7
Zn + 4HNO3 r Zn(NO3)2 + 2NO2 + 2H2O
(B) 1s22s22p63s23p63d9
(A) All of the zinc is oxidized and some of the nitrogen
is reduced. (C) 1s22s22p63s23p63d84s1
(B) All of the zinc is oxidized and all of the nitrogen is (D) 1s22s22p63s23p63d74s2
reduced.
46. Which equation represents the first ionization of
(C) Some of the zinc is oxidized and all of the nitrogen
calcium?
is reduced.
(A) Ca(s) r Ca+(g) + e–
(D) Some of the zinc is oxidized and some of the
nitrogen is reduced. (B) Ca(g) r Ca+(g) + e–

39. Which occurs at the anode of any voltaic cell? (C) Ca+(g) r Ca2+(g) + e–
I. A metal electrode dissolves. (D) Ca2+(g) + e– r Ca+(g)
II. A substance undergoes oxidation.
III. Positive ions are deposited from the solution. 47. Electronegativities change both down a group and across
(A) I only (B) II only a period. In general these changes are to:

(C) I and II only (D) I and III only across a period from
down a group left to right
40. What is the coefficient for O2 when the equation (A) increase increase
NH3 + O2 r NO + H2O
is balanced with smallest whole number coefficients? (B) increase decrease

(A) 2 (B) 3 (C) 4 (D) 5 (C) decrease increase


(D) decrease decrease
41. What is the standard cell E˚red / V
potential for the voltaic cell: Pb2+ + 2e– r Pb –0.13 48. When the atoms: Ba, Cs, Mg, Na are arranged in order of
Cr | Cr3+ || Pb2+ | Pb ? Cr3+ + 3e– r Cr –0.74 increasing size, what is the correct order?
(A) 1.09 (B) 0.61 (C) –0.61 (D) –1.09 (A) Cs < Na < Mg < Ba (B) Mg < Na < Ba < Cs
(C) Mg < Ba < Na < Cs (D) Ba < Mg < Na < Cs
42. During the electrolysis of an aqueous solution of AgNO3,
what would happen to the mass of silver metal deposited
49. What is the total number of valence electrons in the
if the current is doubled and the electrolysis time is
thiosulfate ion, S2O32–?
decreased to ½ of its initial value?
(A) 28 (B) 30 (C) 32 (D) 34
(A) It would stay the same.
(B) It would increase to twice its initial value. 50. For which species is the electron pair geometry around
the central atom of the Lewis dot structure the same as
(C) It would decrease to ¼ of its initial value.
the geometry of the atoms?
(D) It would decrease to ½ of its initial value. (A) CO2 (B) SO2 (C) BrO2– (D) NO2–
43. Which type of radiation has the highest frequency? 51. Which molecule is least stable?
(A) infrared (B) microwave (A) OF2 (B) OF4 (C) SF2 (D) SF4
(C) ultraviolet (D) X-ray
52. In which choice are the molecules listed in order of
44. How many orbitals have the quantum numbers: increasing bond angle?
n = 4, l = 3, ml = 0
(A) H2O, CH4, NH3 (B) CH4, NH3, H2O
(A) 7 (B) 3 (C) 1 (D) 0 (C) H2O, NH3, CH4 (D) NH3, CH4, H2O

Page 6 Not for use as a USNCO Local Section Exam after March 29, 2008
53. What is the shape of the ClF3 molecule?
(A) trigonal planar (B) trigonal pyramidal
(C) T-shaped (D) tetrahedral

54. In which choice are the sodium halides listed in order of


increasing lattice energy?
(A) NaF, NaCl, NaBr (B) NaBr, NaCl, NaF
(C) NaCl, NaF, NaBr (D) NaCl, NaBr, NaF

55. How many sigma bonds are in a molecule of diethyl


ether, C2H5OC2H5?
(A) 14 (B) 12 (C) 8 (D) 4

56. Which term describes the formation of acetic acid from


ethyl alcohol?
(A) addition (B) esterification
(C) neutralization (D) oxidation

57. How many structural isomers have the formula C5H12?


(A) 2 (B) 3 (C) 4 (D) 5

58. Which class of compounds does not include C=O double


bonds in its molecules?
(A) esters (B) amides
(C) alcohols (D) acids

59. What is the hybridization of the carbon atoms of C2H4


(ethene)?
(A) sp (B) sp2 (C) sp3 (D) s2p2

60. Which structure represents a peptide bond?


(A) (B)

(C) (D)

END OF TEST

Not for use as a USNCO Local Section Exam after March 29, 2008 Page 7
Olympiad 2008 Local Section

KEY

Number Answer Number Answer


1. A 31. A
2. D 32. D
3. A 33. D
4. B 34. B
5. D 35. B
6. A 36. A
7. C 37. C
8. C 38. A
9. D 39. B
10. B 40. D
11. D 41. B
12. A 42. A
13. B 43. D
14. A 44. C
15. C 45. D
16. C 46. B
17. D 47. C
18. D 48. B
19. A 49. C
20. D 50. A
21. A 51. B
22. C 52. C
23. B 53. C
24. A 54. B
25. A 55. A
26. D 56. D
27. C 57. B
28. B 58. C
29. B 59. B
30. C 60. A

Not for use as a USNCO Local Section Exam after March 29, 2008