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Time

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Monday

Tuesdey

School schedule
Wednesday
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Friday

Saturday

Break
9:45
10:35
Provas e Trabalhos

Data

Nota

Faltas

January
February
March
April
May
June
July
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October
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Notes:____________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
_

INTRODUO

In order to succeed, your desire


for success should be greater than
your fear of failure.
Bill Cosby
Car@s alun@s, esta apostila foi desenvolvida especialmente para vocs por mim,
Prof. Aline Midori Takahara. Para tanto, contei com a ajuda de livros e gramticas da lngua
inglesa e, claro, como no poderia deixar de ser, do Google. Os contedos (dispostos logo
aps essa introduo) seguem os Referenciais Curriculares da Rede Estadual de Ensino de
Mato Grosso do Sul, disponveis no site da Secretaria de Educao do Estado de MS e
tambm na escola.
Leiam, agora, alguns avisos e lembretes importantes:
Copiem os horrios de aula na tabela da folha anterior e nunca se esqueam de
trazer a apostila para as aulas de ingls;
Cuidem bem da apostila. Lembrem-se: ela deve durar o ano todo;
Mantenham o registro das datas de provas, trabalhos e tarefas para no se
esquecerem de faz-los;
Procurem manter o registro de notas e faltas para o caso de eventuais erros no
boletim;
Os vistos so importantes e ajudam na composio da nota bimestral, portanto,
faam suas atividades em tempo e no se esqueam de exigi-los na sua apostila;
Vocs no devolvero os livros. Eles sero utilizados como material de apoio para as
aulas. Eu avisarei quando vocs tiverem que traz-los;
Vocs ainda tero que copiar algumas coisas do quadro (poucas, no se
preocupem), por isso mantenham seus cadernos de ingls entre seus materiais. Eu
continuarei entregando exerccios impressos para que vocs faam e colem nos
cadernos com os vistos;
Eventualmente, em virtude do tempo e do grau de dificuldade, alguns contedos
podem ter sido deixados de lado na elaborao desta apostila e outros podem no
vir a ser abordados em sala de aula.

Thats all folks!

With my best wishes,

Teacher

Aline Midori Takahara

SEGUNDO ANO
1 BIMESTRE
CONTEDOS
LINGUISTIC ASPECTS
Immediate Future (going to)
- affirmative, negative and interrogative forms
Prepositions of place, time and frequency
Possessive Case (to belong to)
COMUNICATIVE FUNCTION
Write/Present short texts using the Grammar focus above
COMPETNCIAS/HABILIDADES

Perceber a importncia da Lngua Inglesa em situaes reais que propiciem a


interao na comunicao ao interpretar textos orais e escritos e reproduz-los
usando as formas gramaticais apropriadas.
Apreender as ideias principais de um determinado texto.
Reconhecer caractersticas prprias do tipo textual - sequncias lingusticas ou do
gnero a que pertence.
Reconhecer o nvel semntico por intermdio do contexto e do conhecimento
morfossinttico e lexical.
Identificar as funes dos conectores dentro da estrutura global do texto.
Estabelecer relaes entre as partes de um texto, identificando repeties,
substituies ou associaes que contribuem para coeso e coerncia.
Fazer analogias e inferncias.
Utilizar a Lngua Inglesa na interpretao e na interveno em situaes reais ao
traduzir e ao exprimir-se com clareza.
Produzir textos escritos ou orais tendo como ponto de partida um texto, um tema,
uma discusso etc.
2 BIMESTRE

CONTEDOS
LINGUISTIC ASPECTS
Present Perfect Tense
- affirmative, negative and interrogative forms
Present Perfect Tense with just, already, yet, since and for
Degrees of Adjectives: The Comparative
Degrees of Adjectives: The Superlative
COMUNICATIVE FUNCTION
Write/Present short texts using the Grammar focus above
COMPETNCIAS/HABILIDADES

Perceber a importncia da Lngua Inglesa em situaes reais que propiciem a


interao na comunicao ao interpretar textos orais e escritos e reproduz-los
usando as formas gramaticais apropriadas.
Apreender as ideias principais de um determinado texto.
Reconhecer caractersticas prprias do tipo textual - sequncias lingusticas ou do
gnero a que pertence.
Reconhecer o nvel semntico por intermdio do contexto e do conhecimento
morfossinttico e lexical.
Identificar as funes dos conectores dentro da estrutura global do texto.
Estabelecer relaes entre as partes de um texto, identificando repeties,
substituies ou associaes que contribuem para coeso e coerncia.
Fazer analogias e inferncias.
Utilizar a Lngua Inglesa na interpretao e na interveno em situaes reais ao
traduzir e ao exprimir-se com clareza.
Produzir textos escritos ou orais tendo como ponto de partida um texto, um tema,
uma discusso etc.
3 BIMESTRE

CONTEDOS
LINGUISTIC ASPECTS
Modal Verbs
- can, may, must, might, should and ought to
Time Clauses
- when, as soon as, until, by the time, until, while & before
The causative form of have
COMUNICATIVE FUNCTION
Write/Present short texts using the Grammar focus above
COMPETNCIAS/HABILIDADES

Perceber a importncia da Lngua Inglesa em situaes reais que propiciem a


interao na comunicao ao interpretar textos orais e escritos e reproduz-los
usando as formas gramaticais apropriadas.
Apreender as ideias principais de um determinado texto.
Reconhecer caractersticas prprias do tipo textual - sequncias lingusticas ou do
gnero a que pertence.
Reconhecer o nvel semntico por intermdio do contexto e do conhecimento
morfossinttico e lexical.
Identificar as funes dos conectores dentro da estrutura global do texto.
Estabelecer relaes entre as partes de um texto, identificando repeties,
substituies ou associaes que contribuem para coeso e coerncia.
Fazer analogias e inferncias.
Utilizar a Lngua Inglesa na interpretao e na interveno em situaes reais ao
traduzir e ao exprimir-se com clareza.
Produzir textos escritos ou orais tendo como ponto de partida um texto, um tema,
uma discusso etc.

4 BIMESTRE
CONTEDOS
LINGUISTIC ASPECTS
Simple Conditional - would +infinitive without to
Conditionals - First Conditional (possible situations)
Conditionals - Second Conditional(unreal present situations)
Conditionals - Third Conditional (unreal past situations)
Using If and Unless
Prepositions of movement
- into, onto, towards, around, along etc.
COMUNICATIVE FUNCTION
Write/Present short texts using the Grammar focus above
COMPETNCIAS/HABILIDADES

Perceber a importncia da Lngua Inglesa em situaes reais que propiciem a


interao na comunicao ao interpretar textos orais e escritos e reproduz-los
usando as formas gramaticais apropriadas.
Apreender as ideias principais de um determinado texto.
Reconhecer caractersticas prprias do tipo textual - sequncias lingusticas ou do
gnero a que pertence.
Reconhecer o nvel semntico por intermdio do contexto e do conhecimento
morfossinttico e lexical.
Identificar as funes dos conectores dentro da estrutura global do texto.
Estabelecer relaes entre as partes de um texto, identificando repeties,
substituies ou associaes que contribuem para coeso e coerncia.
Fazer analogias e inferncias.
Utilizar a Lngua Inglesa na interpretao e na interveno em situaes reais ao
traduzir e ao exprimir-se com clareza.
Produzir textos escritos ou orais tendo como ponto de partida um texto, um tema,
uma discusso etc.

1 BIMESTRE
Immediate Future (going to)
- affirmative, negative and interrogative forms
O futuro imediato indica uma ao que vai ser realizada imediatamente,
logo ou num tempo prximo. O futuro imediato formado de:

Sujeito

am
are
Is

going

infinitiv
o

Sujeito

To be + going

infinitivo

My friends

are going

to play

Meus amigos

vo

jogar

complemento
Soccer
tomorrow
Futebol
amanh

Exemplos:
Immediate future
Verb to read verbo ler
I am going to work................. eu vou trabalhar
You are going to work............voc vai trabalhar
He is going to work ...............ele vai trabalhar
She is going to work ..............ela vai trabalhar
* It is going to work .............. ele/ela vai trabalhar
We are going to work ............ns vamos trabalhar
You are going to work ...........vocs vo trabalhar
They are going to work .......... eles/elas vo trabalhar
Uso:
O futuro imediato um tempo que utilizado quando queremos enfatizar
que tal fato que ocorrer no futuro est de fato previsto e temos inteno de
realiz-lo. Em outras palavras, o Futuro Simples (I will go...) utilizado em todas
as situaes de uma forma geral, mas quando queremos ser enfticos, mostrar
que de fato h o planejamento e a inteno de fazer determinada coisa, essa
idia expressa atravs do futuro imediato (Im going to ...)
Expressa:
a) aes que vo ocorrer no futuro prximo.
Ex: It is going to rain. The sky is dark. (Vai chover. O cu est escuro).
b) planos ou intenes.
Ex: I am going to visit her tonight. (Eu vou visit-la hoje noite).
c) probabilidade.
Ex: She is probably going to buy a car next month. (Ela provavelmente ir
comprar um carro no prximo ms).
Forma Afirmativa
O Immediate Future formado pelo presente simples do verbo to
be (am / is / are), pelo gerndio do verbo to go (going) e pelo verbo principal
no infinitivo, com a partcula to. Observe a conjugao de dois verbos
no Immediate Future na tabela a seguir:
To work = trabalhar
Forma Afirmativa

Forma negativa

I am going to work
You are going to work
He is going to work

I am not going to work


You are not going to
work

Forma negativa
(contrada)
Im not going to work
You arent going to
work

She is going to work


*It is going to work
We are going to work
You are going to work
They are going to work

He is not going to work


She is not going to
work
*It is not going to work
We are not going to
work
You are not going to
work
They are not going to
work

He isnt going to work


She isnt going to work
*It isnt going to work
We arent going to
work
You arent going to
work
They arent going to
work

Short Answers (Respostas curtas)

- Verb to work (verbo

trabalhar)

Perguntas
Am I going to work?
Are you going to work?
Is he going to work?
Is she going to work?
*Is it going to work?
Are we going to work?
Are you going to work?
Are they going to work?

Respostas curtas (sim)


Yes, I am
Yes, you are
Yes, he is
Yes, she is
Yes, it is
Yes, we are
Yes, you are
Yes, they are

Respostas curtas (no)


No, Im not
No, you arent
No, he isnt
No, she isnt
No, it isnt
No, we arent
No, you arent
No, they arent

Expresses usadas no Immediate Future


As expresses de tempo usadas no Immediate Future so as mesmas usadas no
Simple Future. As mais comuns so:
soon logo.......tomorrow amanh.........tonight hoje noite.......next
prximo(a)

Prepositions of place, time and frequency


As
preposies
de
tempo
no ingls so: at, in, on, until, after, around, before, between, entre muitas
outras. Elas tm um grau de especificidade, enquanto o IN sugere uma
informao mais vaga, genrica, o AT mais preciso. O ON fica em meio termo.
O IN usado quando queremos dizer que uma coisa est contida em outra
(dentro de, em):
- She is studying in England, at Cambridge High School (Ela est estudando na
Inglaterra, na Universidade de Cambridge).
- The car is in the garage (o carro est [dentro] da garagem)
- The book is on the table (o livro est na [em cima] da mesa)

Note no primeiro exemplo, que o IN d uma informao mais genrica (um pas),
enquanto o AT especifica mais o local (uma universidade).
O At tambm pode significar que se est EM, no necessariamente dentro:
- I'm at home (estou em casa)
- The dog jumped at my face (o cachorro pulou em meu rosto)
O ON significa "em cima de", "sobre":
- He left the wallet on the table (ele deixou a carteira na [em cima da] mesa)
Until significa "at que", "at":
- I'll not go home until she arrive (Eu no vou pra casa at ela chegar)
After: depois, aps:
- I'll go home after the party (eu vou pra casa depois da festa)

Possessive Case (to belong to)


O Possessive Case utilizado para demonstrar posse, ou seja, para
declarar que um sujeito possui algo. Para isso, faz-se necessrio o acrscimo
de apstrofo + s (s) ao substantivo.
Ex.:
This is Marys book. (Este o livro da Mary).
That is Susans car. (Aquele o carro da Susan).
Those are Teds boots. (Aquelas so as botas do Ted).
importante notar que quando o substantivo termina em s no
necessrio acrescentar s, acrescenta-se apenas o apstrofo.
Ex.:
Chris apartment is very huge. (O apartamento do Chris imenso).
Charles father is so strict. (O pai do Charles to severo).
The girls backpacks are pink. (As mochilas das garotas so rosa).
Quando h dois ou mais possuidores de um mesmo objeto, deve-se
acrescentar o apstrofo + s (s) apenas no ltimo possuidor.

Ex.:
Mary and Toms daughter, Susan, is really smart. (A filha da Mary e do Tom,
Susan, muito esperta).
Bob and Jacks bedroom is a mess. (O quarto do Bob e do Jack est uma
baguna). Obs.: Nesse caso, o Bob e o Jack dividem o mesmo quarto.
Jack and Jills video game is on the floor. (O jogo de videogame do Jack e do Jill
est no cho). Obs.: Nesse caso, s h um jogo no cho e ele tem dois donos,
que so o Jack e o Jill.
Quando houver dois possuidores e duas ou mais coisas possudas, usa-se
apstrofo + s (s) para todos os possuidores.
Ex.:
Carols and Susans daughters study at the same college. (As filhas da Carol e da
Susan estudam na mesma universidade). Obs.: Nesse caso, tanto Carol quanto
Susan
tm
filhas.
Toms and Sams offices are on that building. (Os escritrios do Tom e do Sam so
naquele prdio). Obs.: Tom e Sam no dividem um escritrio no prdio, cada um
tem o seu.

2 BIMESTRE
Present Perfect Tense
- affirmative, negative and interrogative forms
O
Present
perfect Tense comumente
traduzido em
Portugus
pelo Presente Perfeito um dos tempos verbais compostos mais difceis de ser
compreendido e aprendido por alunos brasileiros. Isso se da apenas pelo fato de
no termos um tempo gramatical correspondente em Portugus.
USO DO PRESENT PERFECT TENSE
Como formamos o presente Perfect Tense?
SUJEITO +

O VERBO HAVE +

have

O PARTICPIO
PASSADO DO
VERBO
spoken

They
He

have
has

sung
been

To me
many songs
to England

No
caso
dos
verbos Irregulares,
quase
sempre
o particpio
passado desses verbos irregular, ou seja, seu particpio passado diferente
da forma do passado. Como o prprio nome j diz, eles so irregulares, apesar
de existirem verbos com formas iguais para o presente, passado e particpio
passado.
To speak

spoke

spoken

falar, conversar

To sing

sang

sung

cantar

To be
To come
To cut

was/were
Came
Cut

been
Come
Cut

Ser,estar
Vir, ir
cortar

Quanto aos verbos denominados Verbos Regulares, o passado e


o particpio passado desses verbos so os mesmos. E so formados com a
adio de ed.

I have played a lot.

Eu joguei muito.

She has danced very much.

Ela danou muito.

They have started the English


course.

Eles comearam o curso de ingls.

To play

played

Played

Jogar, brincar

To dance

danced

Danced

dancar

To start

Started

Started

Iniciar, comecar

USO DO PRESENTE PERFECT


1.

O Present Perfect usado para descrever uma ao que ocorreu em


um tempo vago, indefinido no passado.

O que um tempo indefinido no passado?


No caso do estudo desse tempo gramatical denominado Present Perfect, um
tempo indefinido no passado significa dizer que quando usamos o Present Perfect
Tense, no adicionamos a ele um advrbio de tempo mencionando determinado
quando a ao ocorreu.
Por exemplo, temos:
a) I have been to Caldas Novas= Eu estive (fui ) em Caldas Novas.
b) Marta has travelled to Rio de Janeiro. Marta viajou para o Rio de Janeiro.
c) They have won five golden medals= Eles ganharam cinco medalhas de ouro.
Na orao: I have been to Caldas Novas. Quando ocorreu a ao de ir a Caldas
Novas? No foi mencionado, a hora, o dia, ms, ou o ano em que ela foi a
Caldas Novas, portanto no se sabe quando ocorreu a ao. Ou seja, a ao
ocorreu em um tempo indefinido no passado.

Na orao: Marta has travelled to Rio de Janeiro. Quando ela viajou para Rio
de Janeiro? No foi mencionado quando,o dia, o ms ou ano em que ela
viajou, portanto a ao ocorreu em um tempo indefinido no passado.
Na orao: They have won five golden medals. Quando eles ganharam as
medalhas? No foi mencionado o ano, o ms ou o dia em que eles
ganharam as medalhas, portanto, a ao ocorreu em um tempo indefinido no
passado.
CONCLUSO: se quisermos expressar uma ao, idia que ocorreu em um
tempo indefinido, o tempo verbal correto a ser usado e o Present Perfect Tense.

O Present Perfect tambm para indicar uma ao no passado que vem se


repetindo at o presente. Este aspecto , freqentemente enfatizado por
advrbios como: always, often, frequently, ever, lately, recently.
I have had a lot of trouble recently.
Eu tenho tido vrios problemas recentemente.
She has always stayed at Castro`s Hotel.
Ela sempre tem hospedado no Castro`s Hotel.

O Present Perfect expressa, tambm, uma ao que comeou no passado


que ainda continua no presente.
Nesse caso, o Present Perfect geralmente traduzido em Portugus pelo
Presente Simples.
I have studied English since 1988. Eu estudo ingls desde 1998 (eu ainda estou
estudando ingls). Ao que inicia no passado e continua at o presente.
- FORMA NEGATIVA:
A forma negativa do Present Perfect Continuous feita acrescentandose not entre o Presente Simples do verbo to have (have / has) e o Presente
Perfeito do verbo to be. O verbo principal permanece no gerndio:
* FORMA CONTRADA: haven't / hasn't
I have not been sleeping well since last week because
my husband snores a lot.
(No estou dormindo bem desde a semana passada porque
meu marido ronca muito.)
They have not been using the blender for months. (Eles
no usam o liquidificador h meses.)
She hasn't been living in San Diego since 1995. She has
been living there since 1997.
(Ela no est morando em San Diego desde 1995. Ela mora
l desde 1997.)
They haven't been working since nine o'clock. (Eles no esto trabalhando
desde s nove horas.)
Susan has not been reading any book for one year! (Susan no l livro algum
h um ano!)

NEGATIVE FORM: SUJEITO + PRESENTE SIMPLES DO VERBO TO


HAVE + NOT + PRESENTE PERFEITO DO VERBO TO
BE + GERNDIO DO VERBO PRINCIPAL

- FORMA INTERROGATIVA:
A forma interrogativa do Present Perfect Continuous feita com o
Presente Simples do verbo to have (have / has) posicionado antes do
sujeito. O verbo to be permanece no Presente Perfeito e o verbo principal
no gerndio:
Has he been washing his car for two hours?
(Ele est lavando o carro dele h duas horas?)
Have you been working since eight o' clock?
(Voc est trabalhando desde as oito horas?)
What have you been doing since I last saw you?
(O que voc fez/tem feito desde a ltima vez que lhe vi?)
How long have you been living here?
(H quanto tempo voc mora aqui?)

INTERROGATIVE FORM: PRESENTE SIMPLES DO VERBO TO HAVE +


SUJEITO + PRESENTE PERFEITO DO VERBO TO BE + GERNDIO DO
VERBO PRINCIPAL

Complete the sentences.


Use the present perfect form of the verbs in brackets.
1.
(the coach / arrive) yet?
2. Martin

(not bought) the train tickets.

3. I
4.

(not make) dinner yet.


(you / hear) this song before?

5. We

(not see) this film. Is it good?

6. Max and Jill


7.
8.

(not decide) where to go for their holiday.


(your sister / find) a new job yet?

(they / send) a text to Jerry?

THE SIMPLE PAST TENSE X THE SIMPLE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE

O passado simples descreve uma ao que ocorreu em um tempo


determinado no passado. OBSERVE OS EXEMPLOS.

I have been to Caldas Novas

I went to Caldas Novas last week.


I went to Caldas Novas last month.

a) I have been to Caldas Novas. (Eu


estive em Caldas Novas)
b) I went to Caldas Novas last
week.
(Eu fui Caldas Novas na semana
passada)

I went to Caldas Novas last year.


I went to Caldas Novas last Saturday.
I went to Caldas Novas in 2001.
I went ot Caldas Novas three
months ago.

No quadro acima os advrbios: last week, last month, last year, last
Saturday, in 2001 e ago so usados com o passado simples para expressar
quando a ao ocorreu. Ou seja, em um tempo determinado. J no caso do
Present Perfect, no usamos tais advrbios porque esse tempo verbal ocorreu em
um tempo indeterminado.

1. Complete as frases a seguir com o tempo verbal correto (Simple Past OU


Present Perfect Simple):
A: (you / taste / ever) ______________ sushi?
B: Yes, I (eat) _____________ sushi at least five times so far.
A: When (you / eat) ___________ sushi for the first time?
B: I (eat) ________ sushi for the first time on my dads 50th birthday. He (invite)
___________ the whole family to a Japanese restaurant.
A: (you / like) ____________ it?
B: Absolutely. In fact, it (be) _________ so good that we (be) _____________ to that
restaurant three times yet. And on my mums birthday, we (order) ____________
some sushi and (have) ___________ it at home.

Present Perfect Tense with just, already, yet, since and for

1. O Present Perfect pode ser usado para referir-se a um tempo


indefinido do passado com os seguintes advrbios:

a) just - para indicar que as aes que ocorreram num passado bem
recente. Just tem o sentido de agora a pouco, agora mesmo.
We have just known each other. (Acabamos de nos conhecer.)
I have just seen your sister. (Acabei de ver sua irm.)
They have just arrived from Belfast. (Eles acabaram de chegar de Belfast.)

b) already (j) - para indicar que a ao j ocorreu. usado apenas em


frases afirmativas e interrogativas e posicionado sempre antes do
verbo principal. Tambm expressa surpresa pela ao j ter sido
concluda e, nas perguntas, tende a ter respostas positivas: Have

you already finished the exercises? I haven`t explained them yet! (voc j terminou os
exerccios? Eu ainda nem os expliquei).
She has already arrived home. (Eles j chegaram em casa.)
They have already gone to the birthday's party. (Eles j foram para a festa de
aniversrio.)
I have already seen this movie. (Eu j vi este filme.)
Have you already read this book? (Voc j leu este livro?)

c) yet (j; ainda) - Usado em frases interrogativas significa j, e em


frases negativas usado com sentido de ainda. Posiciona-se sempre
no final da frase, nas oraes negativas ele empregado para dizer que
a ao ainda no ocorreu.
Na forma negativa, yet significa ainda no, at agora no.
Exemplo: I havent finished the exercises yet. (Eu ainda no terminei os
exerccios)
We have not decided our topic yet. (Ainda no decidimos o nosso tpico.)
She has not came from lunch yet. (Ela ainda no voltou do almoo.)

Na forma interrogativa, yet significa j.


Exemplo: Have you finished the exercises yet? Voc j terminou os exerccios?
Have you talked to your teacher yet? (Voc j falou com a sua professora?)

d) never (nunca) - usado para indicar que algo no aconteceu:


He has never forgotten you. (Ele nunca esqueceu voc.)

They have never been here. (Eles nunca estiveram aqui.)


I have never seen this movie. (Eu nunca vi este filme.)
e) ever (j; alguma vez) - usado para saber se aquela ao j
aconteceu alguma vez. Geralmente usado em perguntas:
Have you ever travelled abroad? (Voc j viajou para o exterior?)
Has she ever been in Salvador? (Ela j esteve em Salvador alguma vez?)
Have you ever flown Air France? (Voc j viajou com a empresa Air France?)
* Ever tambm usado com o superlativo para indicar que algo o maior, o
melhor, o mais interessante que algum j viu, leu, fez, trabalhou, etc.:
He is the busiest man I have ever known. (Ele o homem mais ocupado que
j conheci.)

2. Para expressar aes que comearam no passado e se prolongam at


o presente muito comum aparecer since (desde) e for(h):
I have been here since 8 o'clock a.m. (Estou aqui desde as oito da manh.)
They have lived here since 1998. (Eles moram aqui desde 1998.)
We have lived here for 12 years. (Moramos aqui h doze anos.)
She has worked here for 5 years. (Ela trabalha aqui h cinco anos.)
Many things have changed since last summer. (Muitas coisas mudaram desde o
vero passado.)

Exercise: Uncrable the words.


1. he / meet / his friend. (just)
2. you / not drink / your glass of Coke. (yet)
3. I / make / my bed. (already)
4. We / not arrive. (yet) We / leave / the motorway. (just)
5. The director / talk / to him. (already)
6. I / write / the e-mail you asked me. (just)

7. She / not buy / the flat. (yet) But she wants to buy it soon.

But she wants to

buy it soon.
8. He / be / really lucky. (just) He / win / the lottery. (just)
9. We / hear / the news. (already) It's horrible.

It's horrible.

10. Paul / not pay / for the dinner. (yet)


Exercise: Complete with the Present Perfect and then choose since or
for.
1. She (be) __________ in Beijing _____ a month.
2. They (live) ____________ in this village ______ their daughter was born.
3. He stinks. He (wear) _____________this sweater ______one or two weeks.
4. Mark (have) _________________this motorbike _____ 1999.
5. I (not ski) _______________

______ last winter.

6. He (not drive) ___________________ he had an accident _____last month.


7. Rose (be) ______________________my teacher ______four years. She teaches
English.
8. They (know) _________________each other ______ three weeks.
9. She (keep) __________________the secret ______ I told her.
10. The river (be) ________________frozen ______a month.

Degrees of Adjectives: The Comparative


Um adjetivo uma palavra que d nome a uma qualidade, ou que define
ou limita um substantivo". Em ingls os adjetivos so invariveis. Eles no tem
masculino, feminino, singular ou plural. So sempre usados com a mesma forma

em qualquer situao e sempre antecede o substantivo.


Alguns adjetivos. (Opposites). Aprenda alguns antnimos.
Tall alto.......Short baixo
Big grande......Small pequeno
Rich rico.......Poor pobre
Long longo......Short curto
Fat gordo.......Thin magro
Old velho.......New novo(coisas)
Old velho.......Young jovens (pessoas)
Good bom .......Bad mau
Dirty sujo......Clean limpo
Beautifulbonito..Ugly feio
Wrong - errado....Right certo
Cheap - barato....Expensive - caro
Beautiful house = casa bonita........ Beautiful houses = casas bonitas
Good boy = menino bom . ..............Good boys = meninos bons
Bad man = homem mau ................. Bad men = homens maus
Note:1 man (singular) 2 men (plural) (irregular plural).
COMPARATIVE DEGREE OF THE ADJECTIVES
Grau comparativo dos adjetivos
1) Comparativo de Igualdade (equality)
As = to/quanto
Examples:
Monica is as pretty as Roberta ---- Monica to linda quanto Roberta.
Carol is as beautiful as Jane ------- Carol to bonita quanto Jane
John is as tall as Fred (John to alto quanto Fred )
That plane is as fast as this one (Aquele avio to rpido quanto este )
Sharon is as atractive as Julia (Sharon to atraente quanto Julia )
ACTIVITIES.
1- Write the sentences in the comparative of equality:
Ex. I ___ strong ___ you ...... I am as strong as you.
a) She ________________ beautiful ________ you.
b) My house ___________ comfortable ______ yours.
c) Today ______________ cold _____________ yesterday.
d) My school __________ good _____________ yours.
e) The train __________ fast _____________ the bus.
f) My father __________ intelligent ______ yours.
2- Comparativo de superioridade (superiority)
Com adjetivos curtos (at duas slabas)
1) Adj. + er + than (mais que..)
Peter is stronger than me............. (Peter mais forte do que eu )
Adjetivo (strong) - forte
A horse is taller than a donkey.....(Um cavalo mais alto do que um burro )
Adjetivo (tall) alto

2) Quando o adjetivo for monosslabo e terminar em


(consoante/vogal/consoante), dobra a ltima consoante e acrescenta-se (er).
Observao: sempre conta de trs para frente.
Big - grande ............. bigger than - maior do que
Hot - quente ............. hotter than - mais quente do que
Thin - magro ............. thinner than - mais magro do que
EXAMPLES
My car is bigger than yours. (Meu carro maior do que o seu).
The weather today is hotter than yesterday. (O tempo hoje est mais quente do
que ontem).
3) Quando o adjetivo terminar em (y) precedido de consoante, mudamos o (y)
por (i) e acrescentamos (er).
Pretty - linda .......... prettier than - mais linda do que
Easy - fcil ............. easier than - mais fcil do que.
EXAMPLES
Luma is prettier than Jane . Luma mais linda do que Jane.
English is easier than Portuguese. O ingls mais fcil do que o portugus.
4) Alguns adjetivos tm comparativo irregular.
Good - bom ............... better than - melhor do que
Bad - mau ................ worse than - pior do que.
A Mercedes is better than a Gol - uma mercedes melhor do que um gol.
A Gol is worse than a Mercedes - Um gol pior do que uma mercedes.
ACTIVITIES.
1) Use the comparative of superiority: (short adjectives).
a) Mr. Goldman rich Mr Pauper.
_________________________________________
b) My pencil long yours.
_________________________________________
c) I strong you.
_________________________________________
d) Paul old Mary.
_________________________________________
e) Mary young Paul.
_________________________________________
f) My course easy yours.
_________________________________________
g) Your city dirty mine.
_________________________________________
h) Lucy pretty Monica.
_________________________________________
i) Gordon fat Mr Finn.
_________________________________________
j) Today hot yesterday.

_________________________________________
k) My country big yours.
_________________________________________
l) Today the weather bad yesterday.
_________________________________________
m) A car good a moto.
_________________________________________
3) Comparativo de superioridade com adjetivos longos (mais de duas slabas).
1) Para fazermos o comparativo dos adjetivos longos, colocamos a palavra
(more + adjetivo + than).
You are more intelligent than Dave.
(Voce mais inteligente do que Dave ).
Speaking English is more difficult than reading it.
(Falar Ingls mais difcil do que ler).

ACTIVITIES.
1) Use the comparative of superiority: (long adjectives).
a) Your house comfortable mine.
__________________________________________
b) A Mercedes-Bens expensive a Gol.
__________________________________________
c) Rio de Janeiro beautiful my city.
__________________________________________
d) Portuguese difficult English.
__________________________________________
e) This book interesting that one.
__________________________________________
2) Siga o modelo:
Long adjectives comparative
Modern - moderna more modern than mais morderna do que
Boring chato ______________________________________
Dangerous perigoso ______________________________________
Interesting interessante ______________________________________
Comfortable confortvel ______________________________________
Expensive caro ______________________________________
Short adjectives comparative
Old velho older than mais velho do que
Bad mau _________________________________
Good bom _________________________________
Pretty linda _________________________________
Tall alto _________________________________
Big grande _________________________________
Fat gordo _________________________________
Thin magro _________________________________
Clean limpo _________________________________

Rich rico _________________________________


Easy fcil _________________________________

Degrees of Adjectives: The Superlative


The most... (o/a mais ...) e the least ... (o/a menos ...) tambm so
usados para fazer o superlativo de adjetivos com mais de uma slaba. Veja os
exemplos abaixo:
Julia is the most intelligent girl of my classroom.
Julia a menina mais inteligente da minha sala de aula.
This is the most beautiful picture I've ever seen.
Este o quadro mais bonito que j vi.
This is the place least attractive I've ever been.
Este lugar menos atraente que j estive.

- Os Adjetivos que possuem uma slaba e os que


so disslabos terminados em -le, -ow e -erformam o comparativo com o
acrscimo de -er ao grau normal e de -est para formar o superlativo.
Veja os exemplos abaixo:

Adjetivo

Comparativo
de
Superiorida
de

Superlativo

tall

taller (than)

(the) tallest

narrow

narrower (tha
(the) narrowest
n)

large

larger (than)

(the) largest

great

greater (than
)

(the) greatest

light

lighter (than)

(the) lightest

small

smaller (than
(the) smallest
)

long

longer (than)

(the) longest

old

older (than)

(the) oldest

easy

easier (than)

(the) easiest

sunny

sunnier (than
(the) sunniest
)

rainy

rainier (than)

(the) rainiest

poor

poorer (than)

(the) poorest

rich

richer (than)

(the) richest

low

lower (than)

(the) lowest

high

higher (than)

(the) highest

funny

funnier (than
)

(the) funniest

busy

busier (than)

(the) busiest

weak

weaker (than
)

(the) weakest

Complete the sentences.


Use the superlative form of the adjectives in brackets.
1. Who is the
2. My mum is the
3. December is the
4. What's the
5. Ethan is the
6. Where are the
7. She bought the
8. Who is the

(tall) person in your family?


(good) cook in the world.
(cold) month of the year in my country.
(dangerous) animal in the world?
(happy) boy that I know.
(nice) beaches in your country?
(big) cake in the shop.
(famous) singer in your country?

3 BIMESTRE
Modal Verbs
- can, may, must, might, should and ought to
Caractersticas:
No admitem o uso de auxiliares (do, did, will, would)
No admitem o uso de to junto a outros verbos
Ex: Can you speak English?
Os verbos modais (modal verbs) so um tipo especial de verbos auxiliares
que alteram ou completam o sentido do verbo principal. De um modo geral, estes
verbos
expressam
ideias
como capacidade,possibilidade, obrigao, permisso, proibio, deduo
, suposio, pedido, vontade, desejoou,
ainda,
indicam
o tom
da
conversa (formal / informal). Os verbos modais (modal verbs) podem ser
chamados tambm de modal auxiliaries ou apenas modals. So eles:

CAN

COULD

MAY / MIGHT

Poder (habilidade)
Can you speak English? (Voc sabe falar Ingls?)

Poder (permisso informal)


Can I go with you? (posso ir com voc?)

Possibilidade
It can be right (isso pode estar certo)

Poder (condicional)
Could you help me? (voc poderia me ajudar?)

Poder (passado)
I could understand (eu consegui/pude entender)

Poder (Permisso)
May I help you? (Posso ajud-lo?)

Poder (Probabilidade)
He may be busy today (Ele pode estar ocupado hoje)
OBS: might pode ser usado no lugar de may, mas
menos utilizado

Deveria (conselho)
You should go there (voc deveria ir l)

Deveria (mais formal)


You ought to go there tomorrow (voc deveria ir l
amanh)

MUST

Dever (Obrigao)
You must study more (Voc deve estudar mais)

SHALL

Poder (sugesto, oferecimento)


Shall I close the window? (Posso fechar a janela?

SHOULD

OUGHT TO

OBS: O verbo CAN no possui nem forma de futuro nem no Present Perfect,
portanto, devemos substitui-lo pelo verbo TO BE ABLE TO (ser capaz de)
Ex: Voc vai poder vir aqui amanh?
Eu no tenho conseguido dormir

Will you be able to come here tomorrow?


I havent been able to sleep

Formas negativas

Can
May
Must
Shall
Could
Might
Ought
Should

Cannot
May not
Must not
Shall not
Could not
Might not
Ought not
Should not

Cant
------Mustnt
Shant
Couldnt
Mightnt
Oughtnt
Shouldnt

Frases de Fixao
Voc consegue falar alguma lngua
estrangeira?

Can You speak any foreign


languages?

Eu no consigo dormir

I cant sleep

Eu no tenho conseguido dormir


recentemente

I havent been able to sleep recently

Eu no pude entender o que ela disse


Ns podamos fazer o que quisssemos

I couldnt understand what she said


We could do what we wanted

Eu nunca fui capaz de entend-la

Ive never been able to understand


her

Eu estou to cansado que eu poderia


dormir uma semana

Im so tired that I could sleep for a


week

Voc sabe ( capaz de) nadar?

Can (are you able to) you swim?

Voc seria capaz de fazer este trabalho?

Would you be able to do this work?

Voc poderia abrir a porta, por favor?

Could you open the door, please?

Eu estava cansado a noite passada, mas


no pude dormir

I was tired last night, but I couldnt


sleep

Isto pode no ser verdadeiro

It may (might) not be true

Leve uma sombrinha com voc. Pode


chover

Take an umbrella with you. It may


(might) rain

Ns podemos Ter que esperar alguns


minutos

We may (might) have to wait a few


minutes

Ela pode no vir festa esta noite

She may (might) not come to the


party tonight

Ela no pode vir festa esta noite


Ela no poder vir festa esta noite
Ela no pde vir festa ontem
Posso fumar aqui?

She can't come to the party tonight


She won't be able to come to the
party tonight

Voc pode ir agora

She couldn't come to the party


yesterday

Eu no posso ter dormido tanto!

May (might) I smoke here?

Ele no poderia ter sido to tolo!

You may (might) go now

Voc est viajando o dia todo. Voc deve


estar cansado

I can't have slept so much!

Ela uma pessoa simptica. Voc deve

He couldn't have been so foolish!

Youve been travelling all day. You


must be tired

conhec-la
Voc no deve contar a ningum
Eu promet que chegaria a tempo. Eu no
devo me atrasar
Voc parece cansado. Voc deveria ir para
a cama

Shes a nice person. You must know


her
You mustnt tell anyone
I promised I would arrive on time. I
mustnt be late

Ns devamos convidar Susan para a festa? You look tired. You should (ought to)
go to bed
O que voc sugere que eu deveria fazer?
Should we invite Suzan to the party?
Jane sugeriu que eu deveria comprar um
What do you suggest I should do?
carro
Jane suggested that I should buy a
Voc acha que eu deveria comprar este
car
carro?
Do you think I should buy this car?
Voc no deveria fumar tanto
You shouldnt smoke so much

um bom livro. Voc deveria l-lo

Its a good book. You should read it

Fill in the gaps with "Could , can , may , must , might , should"

1. He
2.

walk thirty miles a day.


When she was young, she

3.
4.

you please tell me how to get to Almond Street?


You

try asking the bus driver to help you.

5. He wished he
6.

I wish I

visit France.
have helped you.

7. If he were stronger, he
8. She
9.

swim across the lake.

help us push the car out of the snow.

have caught the bus if she had left right away.

I would be glad if I

help you.

10.

If he

have solved the problem, he would have felt happier.

11.He says I
12.

take the day off.


I have some more soup?

13.The members of the organization agree that I


14.The members of the organization agreed that I
15.You

join it.
join it.

provide proper identification in order to cash a check.

16. They

work harder if they are to succeed.

17. You

take an umbrella with you, in case it starts to rain.

18. I

answer his letter as soon as possible.

A - Leiam o texto / read the text


Xavier is an intelligent guy and he plans to go to medical school. He thinks
he may get a better job when he graduates. At the moment, Xavier is
working at a supermarket and he can't pay for his studies or buy books, so
he shouldtry to get into a public college. Xavier is the oldest child and he
feels he mustdo something to help his younger brothers and sisters as he
already noticed they will need his support. Xavier is brave, determined
and doesn't complain about life because he knows that things could be
worse than they are now.
1. Answer the questions / respondam as perguntas
a. What does Xavier plan to do?
_____________________________________________
b. Why does he want to graduate?
_____________________________________________
c. Is Xavier a bad guy?
_____________________________________________
d. Why doesn't Xavier complain about life?
_____________________________________________

3. Escolha um dos verbos modais em negrito e escreva uma frase


com ele.
_____________________________________________________________

Time Clauses
- when, as soon as, until, by the time, until, while & before
Trabalho de pesquisa em grupo.
The causative form of have
Observe as seguintes frases:
Ana cut her hair.
Ana had her hair cut.
Ambas tm o mesmo significado: Ana cortou o cabelo. Porm, a primeira
frase indica que a prpria Ana cortou o seu cabelo; j a segunda frase indica que
a ao de cortar o cabelo foi feita por outra pessoa.
Subject + have + object + Past Participle
Exs.:
Ana had her hair cut.
John will have his car washed.
Quando mencionamos a pessoa que executou a ao, h uma mudana na
construo, com have.
Subject + have + person + base form
Exs.:
Ana had her hairdresser cut her hair.
John will have his brother wash the car.

4 BIMESTRE
Condicionais so aquelas estruturas de Ingls, nas quais, se uma
determinada condio, situao ou circunstncia ocorrer, obter-se- um resultado
especfico, muitas vezes hipottico. Aqui vemos vrios tipos usuais de
condicionais.

Simple Conditional - would +infinitive without to


Usamos para constatar fatos/algo que verdade e tambm para
dar conselhos

If clause + simple present simple present


Exemplos: If you heat snow, it melts. / If it doesnt rain, life finishes. / If you mix
blue and yellow, you get green. / If you lie in the sun too long, your skin turns red.

Conditionals - First Conditional (possible situations)


Usamos para nos referir a algo que seja verdade que possa
acontecer no presente ou no futuro
If clause + simple present future (will + infinitive, going to, modal verbs, etc.)
Exemplos: If we go by train, it will be cheaper. / If he doesnt hurry, he will be
late. / If the weather is rainy, we will stay at home. / Who will you invite if you
give a party? / You can go out if you dont have to study. / I may come late if I
have more work.
NOTA: WILL, CAN, MAY - FUTURO

Conditionals - Second Conditional (unreal present situations)


Usamos para descrever
presente ou no futuro

ou

indicar

situaes

hipotticas

no

If clause + simple past conditional (modal verbs, etc.)


Exemplos: If I had a car, I would take you home. (realidade: no tens um carro) /
If I lived near my office Id be in time for work. (realidade: no vives perto do
escritrio) / If I dyed my hair blue (realidade: no pintas o cabelo de azul),
everyone would laugh. / I would lower taxes If I were president. (realidade: no s
presidente) / If I were you, I wouldnt drive so fast. (realidade: no tens um carro)
NOTA: WOULD, COULD, MIGHT CONDICIONAL
DIFERENA ENTRE O TIPO 1 E O TIPO 2
Tipo 1 possibilidade
Tipo 2 imaginao
o
o

If I have enough Money, I can buy that car. ( possvel)


If I had enough money, I could buy that car. (imaginao)

If he studies hard, he will pass the exam. ( possvel)


If he studied hard, we wouldnt pass the exam. (imaginao/ no
real)

What would do if you were the president? (imaginao)


If hes late again, Ill be very angry. ( possvel).

Conditionals - Third Conditional (unreal past situations)


impossvel que a condio seja cumprida visto que pertence ao
passado
If clause + past perfect conditional perfect (would + have + past participle)
Exemplos: If Lily hadnt moved to Leeds, she wouldnt have studied Chinese. /
She wouldnt have met so many foreign friends if she hadnt been a member of
the Students Union. / She wouldnt have felt so secure if she had decided to live
in a bedsit.
NOTA: CONDITIONAL PERFECT PODE SER USADO COM WOULD, COULD E
MIGHT
Alguns exemplos:
Clausula IF
Present Simple If the shirt fits me,

Present
Continuous

Present
Perfect

should +
Infinitive

If he has a bad
dream,

If he has moved to
Paris

If he should get the


job,

Clausula do resultado
Future I

I will buy it.

Imperative

buy it.

Modal
Auxiliary

I can buy it.

Future
Simple

I will wake him up.

Imperative

wake him up.

Modal
Auxiliary

you should wake


him up.

Future
Simple

we will visit him.

Imperative

visit him.

Modal
Auxiliary

we can visit him.

Future
Simple

I will call him.

Imperative

call him

Modal
Auxiliary

we can call him.

....I might buy it

Clausula IF

Clausula do resultado

Present Simple If I have money,

Present
Simple

I usually spend it.

Exercises
1. Complete the sentences:
a) If I had more time
b) They wouldnt have told her if
c) If she studies English harder
d) I wouldnt have left so early if
e) We would have had dinner there if
f) If Brazil had won the World cup
g) She will call you if
h) If there was snow on Christmas
i) If he wasnt my friend,
j) I would have locked the door if
k) If you drive,
l) Palmeiras wouldnt have won the football match last Sunday if
m) If she hadnt told me,
n) If they had paid more attention,
o) If their car hadnt broken down,
p) I cant come to work if
2. Complete as sentenas condicionais a seguir adequadamente.
a. If it rains, we________stay at home. (are, will, would)
b. If you study hard, you_________pass the test. (are, will, would)
c. If you drink too much, you__________have problems. (are, will, would)
d. People_________help you if you help them. (are, will, would)
e. If you see him, _________him to come back. (are tell, will tell, tell)
f. If you don't stop, you________ improve. (will have, will not, are)

g. Call me if you________any problems. (will have, have, has)


h. I________ talk to you on MSN if you do this. (are, will not, have)

3. Rewrite the following sentences in 3rd conditional


a. Ronald didnt buy the car because he didnt have enough money.

b. Mary didnt go to school because she was sick.

c. Tom might have gone on vacation but he had to work.

d. We got to the cinema late so the film had already started.

e. I went to the supermarket because we were all out of food.

f.

They didnt open the store today because of the holiday.

g. The airplane took off without us because we arrived at the airport too late for
check-in.

Using If and Unless


Unless = except if (exceto se, a menos que) or only if (apenas se)
You can't go in unless you have a ticket.
Significa:

You can't go in except if you have a ticket.

You can't go in only if you have a ticket.


Usamos unless para avisarmos:

We will be late unless we hurry. (except if we hurry)


No lugar de unless podemos usar if....not:
We will be late if we don't hurry.

A. Complete the exercise with If (se) or Unless.


1.

you drive more carefully, you will have an accident.

2.

you prune these trees, they wont grow well.

3. Hell get lost

someone shows him the way.

4.

you practice your Russian, you can improve it quickly.

5.

you dont hurry, youll be late for school again.

6.

there is oxygen, fire cannot burn.

7.

you go to bed late, youll feel tired in the morning.

8. My parents will be angry

9. You cant travel abroad

10. You cant watch TV

11.

I pass my exams.

you dont have a passport.

you finish your homework.

they lower the price, I wont buy that computer.

Prepositions of movement
- into, onto, towards, around, along etc.

Across / through
Across is movement from one side of an area, surface, or line to the other side.

I drew a line ACROSS the paper.


Through is movement from one side of an enclosed space to the other side.

The baseball went THROUGH the window.


Sometimes, either ACROSS or THROUGH can be used for areas:
We walked across the park.
= We walked through the park.
They drove across the city.
= They drove through the city.

Along / around
Along is to follow a line.

Around is to go in a circular direction around some obstacle.

Difference between ALONG and AROUND

Into / out of
Into is to go from outside a space to inside a space.
Out of is to go from inside a space to outside a space.

The cat went into the box.

The cat jumped out of the box.

Onto / of
Onto and off refer to surfaces, differently from into / out of (which refer to
enclosed spaces):
The dog jumped onto the table.
The dog jumped into the table.
I took the picture off the wall.
I took the picture out of the wall.

Up / down

Going up the stairs / Going down the stairs


Go up and go down can also be used for increase and decrease, in addition to
physical movement.
The price of food has gone up in the past two years.
The number of children per family has gone down.

Over / under
To go over is to pass above something.
To go under is to pass below something.

Prepositions in English Over and Under

Towards / away from


If you go towards something, you get closer to it.
If you go away from something, you get farther away from it.

The dog is running towards me.

Back to
Back to is movement of return to a
place you have been before:

The boy is running away from me.

He went to Italy.
(maybe for the first time)
He went back to Italy.
(it is the second time, or he is from
Italy)

He went back Italy.


(this form is incorrect)

10. In
climb

PE

classes we have to
a
rope
in
20

seconds.
A. Choose the correct
preposition:
1. We walked

11. He was skiing

to the top of

the
mountain
cycled

and
then
we
to the bottom

again.
2.

We

the hill

when he had the accident.


12. I would never do base jumping. I
think it's really dangerous to
jump
a building even if
you have a parachute.

both

jumped

the

13. Stunt motorcyclists sometimes


jump
cars or even buses.

swimming pool at the same time.


3. When I finished high school I
drove
Europe in a caravan

the

river up to the sea.

with two of my friends.


4. In some countries it's considered
unlucky to walk
a ladder.

5. The athletes ran

14. The boat sailed

the

15. Get

of the car now! I

have to take you to school.


16. Drivers
drive

in the Paris-Dakar
the Sahara desert.

track for 1 hour.


6. You must always wear a helmet
when you cycle in case you
fall
the bike.

7.
The
swim

first
person
to
the English Channel

was Mathew Webb, in 1875.


8. He broke his ankle when he was
trying to jump
a hump in
his street.
9. Ferdinand
Portuguese
sailed
16th Century.

Magellan
was a
sailor
who
the world in the

17. Our class walked

beautiful forest during our last school


trip.
18. If you are afraid of heights don't
look
when
you
are
climbing the mountain.
19. The teacher walked
the class, so we stopped talking and
sat down.
20. If I walk
will never come back.

that door, I

The end

Tabela de tempos verbais

Lista de Verbos Regulares


1

INFINITIVE

PAST

PORTUGUS

TO ASK

ASKED

PERGUNTAR

TO CARRY

CARRIED

TRANSPORTAR

TO CHANGE

CHANGED

TRANSFORMAR

TO CLEAN

CLEANED

LIMPAR

TO CLIMB

CLIMBED

SUBIR

TO CHANGE

CHANGED

TRANSFORMAR

TO CONTINUE

CONTINUED

CONTINUAR

TO DROP

DROPPED

DEIXAR CAIR

TO DRY

DRIED

SECAR

TO ENJOY

ENJOYED

APRECIAR/GOSTAR DE

TO HELP

HELPED

AJUDAR

TO HURRY

HURRIED

APRESSAR

TO IRON

IRONED

PASSAR ROUPA

TO LISTEN

LISTENED

OUVIR

TO LOVE

LOVED

AMAR

TO LOOK

LOOKED

OLHAR PARA

TO OPEN

OPENED

ABRIR

TO OCCUR

OCCURRED

OCORRER

TO PAINT

PAINTED

PINTAR

TO PERMIT

PERMITTED

PERMITIR

TO PLAY

PLAYED

TO STAY

STAYED

BRINCAR/JOGAR/TOCA
R
FICAR/PERMANECER

TO STOP

STOPPED

PARAR

TO STUDY

STUDIED

ESTUDAR

TO TALK

TALKED

FALAR

TO WASH

WASHED

LAVAR

TO WACTCH

WATCHED

OLHAR/OBSERVAR

TO WATER

WATERED

AGUAR

TO WORK

WORKED

TRABALHAR

Verbos Irregulares - Irregular Verbs

INFINITIVO

PASSADO
SIMPLES

PARTICPIO
PASSADO TRADUO

TO ARISE
TO AWAKE

AROSE
AWOKE

ARISEN
AWOKEN

ERGUER, LEVANTAR
ACORDAR, DESPERTAR-SE

TO BE
TO BEAR

WAS / WERE
BORE

BEEN
BORNE

SER, ESTAR, FICAR


SUPORTAR, AGUENTAR
BATER, SUPERAR, VENCER,
DERROTAR, ESPANCAR

TO BEAT

BEAT

BEATEN

TO BECOME
TO BEGIN

BECAME
BEGAN

BECOME
BEGUN

TORNAR-SE
COMEAR, INICIAR

TO BET

BET

BET

APOSTAR

TO BITE

BIT

BITTEN

MORDER

TO BLEED
TO BREAK

BLED
BROKE

BLED
BROKEN

SANGRAR
QUEBRAR

TO BRING

BROUGHT

BROUGHT

TRAZER

TO BUILD

BUILT

BUILT

CONSTRUIR

TO BURN

BURNT/BURNE BURNT/BURNE QUEIMAR

TO BUY
TO CAST

BOUGHT
CAST

BOUGHT
CAST

COMPRAR
LANAR

TO CATCH
TO CHOOSE

CAUGHT
CHOSE

CAUGHT
CHOSEN

PEGAR, AGARRAR
ESCOLHER

TO COME
TO COST

CAME
COST

COME
COST

VIR
CUSTAR

TO CUT
TO DEAL

CUT
DEALT

CUT
DEALT

CORTAR
TRATAR, LIDAR

TO DIG

DUG

DUG

CAVAR, ESCAVAR

TO DO

DID

DONE

FAZER

TO DRAW

DREW

DRAWN

DESENHAR, TRAAR, PUXAR,

TO DREAM
TO DRINK

DREAMT /
DREAMED
DRANK

DREAMT /
DREAMED
DRUNK

SONHAR
BEBER

TO DRIVE

DROVE

DRIVEN

DIRIGIR, GUIAR

TO EAT

ATE

EATEN

COMER

TO FALL

FELL

FALLEN

TO FEED
TO FEEL

FED
FELT

FED
FELT

ALIMENTAR, NUTRIR
SENTIR, NOTAR

TO FIGHT

FOUGHT

FOUGHT

LUTAR, BRIGAR

TO FIND
TO FLY

FOUND
FLEW

FOUND
FLOWN

ACHAR, ENCONTRAR
VOAR

TO FORBID
TO FORGET

FORBADE
FORGOT

FORBIDDEN
FORGOTTEN

PROIBIR
ESQUECER(-SE)

TO
TO
TO
TO

FORGAVE
FROZE
GOT
GAVE

FORGIVEN
PERDOAR
FROZEN
CONGELAR, GELAR
GOT / GOTTEN OBTER, CONSEGUIR
GIVEN
DAR

TO GO

WENT

GONE

IR

TO GROW

GREW

GROWN

CRESCER, FLORESCER, GERMINAR

TO HANG

HUNG

HUNG

PENDURAR, SUSPENDER

TO HAVE
TO HEAR

HAD
HEARD

HAD
HEARD

TER, POSSUIR
OUVIR, ESCUTAR, TER NOTCIAS

TO HIDE
TO HIT

HID
HIT

HIDDEN
HIT

ESCONDER(-SE), OCULTAR
BATER, CHOCAR-SE

TO HOLD
TO HURT

HELD
HURT

HELD
HURT

SEGURAR, AGARRAR
FERIR(-SE), MACHUCAR

TO KEEP
TO KNOW

KEPT
KNEW

KEPT
KNOWN

MANTER, CONSERVAR,
SABER, CONHECER

TO LAY

LAID

LAID

PR, COLOCAR, DERRUBAR,

FORGIVE
FREEZE
GET
GIVE

TO LEAD
TO LEARN

LED
LEARNT /
LEARNED

LED
LEARNT /
LEARNED

CAIR, DESAGUAR, ABATER-SE,


DECRESCER, DIMINUIR

CONDUZIR, LIDERAR, DIRIGIR,


COMANDAR
APRENDER, FICAR SABENDO

TO LEAVE

LEFT

LEFT

PARTIR, DEIXAR, SAIR

TO LEND
TO LET

LENT
LET

LENT
LET

EMPRESTAR
PERMITIR, DEIXAR

TO LIE

LAY

LAIN

DEITAR, JAZER

TO LOSE

LOST

LOST

PERDER

TO LIGHT
TO MAKE

LIT
MADE

LIT
MADE

ACENDER, ILUMINAR
FAZER, CRIAR, ELABORAR

TO MEAN

MEANT

MEANT

SIGNIFICAR, QUERER DIZER

TO MEET

MET

MET

ENCONTRAR(-SE), REUNIR(-SE)

TO
MISUNDERSTA MISUNDERST
ND
OOD
TO PAY
PAID

MISUNDERST
OOD
PAID

ENTENDER MAL, INTERPRETAR


MAL
PAGAR

TO PARTAKE

PARTOOK

PARTAKEN

PARTICIPAR

TO PROVE

PROVED

PROVAR, COMPROVAR

TO PUT

PUT

PROVED,
PROVEN
PUT

TO QUIT

QUIT /
QUITTED
READ

DESISTIR, ABANDONAR

TO READ

QUIT /
QUITTED
READ

TO RIDE

RODE

RIDDEN

LER, INTERPRETAR
CAVALGAR, ANDAR DE BIBICLETA,
CARRO, ETC.

TO RING
TO RISE

RANG
ROSE

RUNG
RISEN

SOAR, TOCAR (CAMPAINHA,


TELEFONE)
ERGUER-SE, LEVANTAR-SE

TO RUN

RAN

RUN

CORRER, APRESSAR-SE

TO SAW

SAWED

SAWN

SERRAR

TO SAY

SAID

SAID

DIZER, AFIRMAR, DECLARAR

TO SEE

SAW

SEEN

VER, PERCEBER

TO SELL

SOLD

SOLD

VENDER

TO SEND
TO SET
TO SEW

SENT
SET
SEWED

SENT
ENVIAR, MANDAR
SET
PR, DISPOR, AJUSTAR
SEWN, SEWED COSTURAR, COSER

TO SHAKE

SHOOK

SHAKEN

TO SHAVE

SHAVED

SHAVEN /
SHAVED

BARBEAR-SE

TO SHINE
TO SHOOT

SHONE
SHOT

SHONE
SHOT

BRILHAR
ATIRAR, FERIR COM TIRO

TO SHOW

SHOWED

SHOWN

MOSTRAR, APRESENTAR

TO SING

SANG

SUNG

CANTAR

TO SINK

SANK

SUNK

AFUNDAR

TO SIT

SAT

SAT

SENTAR(-SE)

TO SLEEP

SLEPT

SLEPT

DORMIR

TO SLIDE

SLID

SLID

ESCORREGAR, DESLIZAR

TO SMELL

SMELT /
SMELLED

SMELT /
SMELLED

CHEIRAR

PR, COLOCAR

SACUDIR, AGITAR, APERTAR A


MO (EM CUMPRIMENTO)

TO SOW

SOWED

SEMEAR

SPOKE

SOWN /
SOWED
SPOKEN

TO SPEAK
TO SPEED
TO SPEND

SPED /
SPENT

SPED /
SPENT

APRESSAR(-SE)
GASTAR (DINHEIRO), PASSAR
(TEMPO)
ESTRAGAR, DESTRUIR, MIMAR

TO SPOIL

SPOILED /
SPOILT
SPREAD

SPOILED /
SPOILT
SPREAD

STOOD

STOOD

ESPALHAR, ESTENDER
FICAR OU PR-SE DE P

TO STEAL

STOLE

STOLEN

ROUBAR, FURTAR

TO STICK

STUCK

STUCK

CRAVAR, FINCAR

TO STRIKE

STRUCK

STRUCK

BATER, GOLPEAR

TO SWEAR

SWORE

SWORN

JURAR

TO SWEEP

SWEPT

SWEPT

VARRER

TO SWIM
TO SWING

SWAM
SWUNG

SWUM
SWUNG

NADAR
BALANAR

TO TAKE

TOOK

TAKEN

TOMAR, PEGAR, LEVAR

TO TEACH

TAUGHT

TAUGHT

ENSINAR

TO TELL

TOLD

TOLD

DIZER, CONTAR

TO THINK

THOUGHT

THOUGHT

PENSAR, ACHAR

TO THROW

THREW

THROWN

LANAR, ATIRAR

TO SPREAD
TO STAND

FALAR

(CRIANAS)

TO
UNDERSTOOD UNDERSTOOD ENTENDER, COMPREENDER
UNDERSTAND
TO WAKE
WOKE
WOKEN
ACORDAR
TO WEAR
WORE
WORN
VESTIR, USAR, TRAJAR
TO WET

WET /
WETTED
WON

MOLHAR, UMEDECER

TO WIN

WET /
WETTED
WON

TO WRING

WRUNG

WRUNG

ESPREMER, TORCER

TO WRITE

WROTE

WRITTEN

ESCREVER

GANHAR, VENCER