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Q No 1.

What is meant by computer software? Differentiate between system software

and application software?
Computer Software
Software refers to the programs and data that instruct a computer's
hardware (or physical parts) how to work together and how to allow the
computer's user to interact with the computer.
Association with hardware
Software essentially is programming code that allows hardware to interface
with other hardware and the user to interface with the hardware. Without
software, hardware would not be able to communicate with or utilize other
hardware and the user would not be able to use the device.
Operating Systems and Hardware Drivers
Operating systems are technically software because they are made up of
programming code, but operating systems are so large in scope that they are
their own class of software. Hardware drivers are software that tells the
operating system how to use the computer's hardware devices.
Utilities of operating system
A utility is a software program that accomplishes a task. For example, an
anti-virus program is a utility that protects your computer from viruses, while
the Windows Calculator is a utility that performs basic math operations.
Other common computer utilities include Web browsers, email clients,
registry cleaners, virtual machines, computer back-up programs and the
Windows Update utility.
Business software
Most business software deals with creating and editing documents. The
Microsoft Office suite is one of the best-known products in the business
software category. It includes Word for word processing, Excel for
spreadsheets and PowerPoint for creating presentations. Other business
software types include programs for databases, customer relationship
management, accounting and taxes.
Resides in Read/Write Memory
Software usually resides in ROM (read only memory) or RAM (random access
memory) or on media such as a hard drive, CD or USB device. In most cases
software is initially transferred to a hard drive and then used from the hard
drive from then on.
Firmware Blurs the Lines

Some software resides in what is called "firmware," which is a cross between

hardware and software. Firmware is basically software encoded somehow
onto hardware. It can in some cases be changed or upgraded.
System software
System software is the term used to describe the programs and files that
constitute the operating system- such as Microsoft Windows, Mac OSX or
Linuxof a computer. System software is responsible for the management
and control of computer hardware and basic system operation.
How System Software Works
System software is essential for human beings to interact with computers.
System software operates at the most basic level of a computer, creating the
user interface and relaying any command given to the computer to the CPU
(Central Processing Unit.)
Operating System Tasks
An operating system is the most important piece of software that runs on a
computer because without it other programs cannot run. Operating system
tasks include recognizing input from the keyboard, sending output to the
display, and management of peripherals, such as hard disk drives and
Types of System Software
System software includes file management tools, assemblers, compilers and
debuggers, together with driverssmall programs that tell the operating
system and other software applications how to interact with hardwareand
other configuration files.
Application software
Application software is what allows users to store information, create content
and media, access information and communicate. Because most of the
processes of the world now run on computers, there are many types of
software to handle all the functions that are required. All software
applications have specific hardware requirements.
Features Documentation software
This software allows users to document their work. Examples of this would
be Word and PowerPoint. Media Development software allows users to create
various types of media, including visual (Photoshop, Flash), audio (ProTools)
and hard copy (Quark).
Data Management software
Data Management software enables the manipulation of data (FileMaker Pro,
Excel, Quicken), while content access software (iTunes, Real Player) gives

users the ability to uniformly access content created by others.

Type :Word processing software
Type Word processing software makes the creation (along with the
presentation and sharing) of words much easier, while programs designed for
the Internet (browsers and email software) give the ability to email
information and instantly access products and services, while media creation
now shortens the "publication lag" that dogged users in the past.
Shareware and free ware packages
In addition to the commercial software packages (most of what has been
mentioned), there is shareware (a method that allows users to try software
before paying with the'honor system) and freeware (software that designers
create as a hobby).
The Facts (set of software programs)
Where there is a litany of different software packages and programs
designed for the home user, there is a far larger (and more complex) set of
software programs that run most of the world. These include enterprisewide
software, testing and simulation software, business workflow software,
database management software and programming software, among others.
Q No 2.
What is meant by operation system? Discuss it in detail with the help of
different examples.
Operating System
An operating system is a conglomeration of software that controls the
hardware of the computer and ensures that the computer can perform all its
basic functions, which are necessary for all other programs to work.
The operating system helps additional programs integrate with the computer
so that they can run. Because the operating system is so important, it is
usually the First software added to the computer. Operating systems contain
a number of utilities.
Utilities of operating system
"A utility in an operating system is a computer program that performs a
single task, usually very specific and related to only part of the operating
system software.
"These programs work mostly with system resources such as memory and
basic data flow. They often help computers organize their memory and set
apart memory for applications that are added later in the life of the
Operating systems have many different software programs that help them
run basic processes for the computer. Some of this software users can
replace or delete. Other types of software are vital to the operating system

and help it function correctly.

Likewise, some software is highly complex and multi-layered, while other
types are simple and take up only a little space. Utilities tend to be smaller,
more basic types of software. While you are pretty much free to use your
Apple device as you please, there are certain things you can't do due to
Apple's own restrictions. These restrictions are spelled out in. Difference
Operating systems also use software known as applications, and it can
sometimes be difficult to tell what the difference is. In general, utilities are
smaller and more simple than applications.Applications are complex and
perform many functions instead of only one, often functions that are not
directly related to the basic computer structure. Word processors and
datasheet programs are two of the most common applications.
Examples There are utilities for most components of the operating system.
One of the most common types is the disk drive utility, which manages the
disk drives that the computer creates. Other utilities manage printers and
other basic devices that are linked to the computer and need a direct line to
computer memory. Add-Ones Some utilities in operating systems may not
be completely necessary, and some utilities can even be part of applications.
For instance, a simple program within an application that allows it to print to
multiple locations may be considered a utility, as can simple tools within an
operating systems.
These tools can often be added on or taken away from the operating system
as desired. Different functions of an operating system Operating systems
manage user interaction with the physical resources a computer provides.
Through an operating system, users are able to carry out every day
computing activities including running applications, accessing websites,
using email and storing files, such as data and media items.
The main operating systems used on desktop and laptop computers include
various versions of Microsoft Windows and Mac, plus a variety of Linux
distributions, including Ubuntu. Their interfaces and approaches may vary,
but the main functions within an operating system are broadly the same.
Process Management Computing applications and functions are
carried out primarily by one or more processing chips. Operating systems
can appear to run several processes simultaneously, but in fact several tasks
are alternated between by a single processor at a speed faster than users
can detect.
This allows several programs and computing activities to operate at the
same time from the user's point of view. Each application or activity runs
within a single dedicated process, with the operating system scheduling and
managing the processing resources between activities.
Memory Management Operating systems
Memory Management Operating systems use Random Access Memory to
store the short-term data required for applications and other computer
functions to operate. Each computing activity that is ongoing has a certain

amount of memory allocated to it, which the operating system manages.

In cases where an application attempts to do something that there is not
enough memory for, an operating system can sometimes use virtual memory
to carry out the required processing, by utilizing a section of hard disk
memory and using it as though it is RAM.
File Management
Computer devices can store many different types of data, file and document.
This may include personal user files, such as word processing documents,
photographic images and video. Applications installed on the computer may
also be associated with numerous files required when they execute.
The operating system manages the storage and use of these files, including
viewing, editing and deleting. Most operating systems provide a graphical
user interface for user access to the file system, such as Windows Explorer or
Finder on Mac OS X.
Input / Output
Computers use a variety of channels for user interaction.
Computer output includes the monitor and audio speakers or headphones,
while input includes the mouse and keyboard. These are the standard input /
output elements in a desktop or laptop computer, while mobile devices
sometimes offer additional elements.
These hardware components are managed by the operating system through
the use of drivers. Drivers handle communication between the user and the
hardware provided within a given computing system, including capturing and
interpreting userl=j0i6r4l=j0i6r433 input and presenting output in response
to it.
Applications of operating system
The operating system itself is a software application. In most cases,
however, user access to computing resources takes place through other
There are some applications installed on an operating system when it is
initially installed itself, but users can also install additional software either
from disk or by downloading over the Web. The operating system handles
the execution of applications as well as managing the resources they require,
such as memory and input / output.
Common applications include Web browsers, email clients, word processing
programs and media players.
Identify basic elements of a communication system.
Communication system
Effective communication plays a vital role in the success of every
professional and personal relationship. Becoming a skilled communicator
requires you to learn the roles of every element of communication. You can

use these elements in many ways, including public speaking, interpersonal

relationships, media development and business relations.
The basic communication model consists of five elements of
the sender,
the receiver,
the message,
the channel
Maintain Message Clarity
The sender plays the specific role of initiating communication. To
communicate effectively, the sender must use effective verbal as well as
nonverbal techniques. Speaking or writing clearly, organizing your points to
make them easy to follow and understand, maintaining eye contact, using
proper grammar and giving accurate information are all essential in the
effectiveness of your message. You will lose your audience if it becomes
aware of obvious oversights on your part. The sender should have some
understanding of who the receiver is in order to modify the message to make
it more relevant. In the basic communication model, the sender is Point A in
the diagram.
A reciever
A receiver can be one person or an entire audience of people. In the basic
communication model, the receiver, labeled Point B, is directly across from
the speaker. The receiver can also communicate verbally and nonverbally.
The best way to receive a message is to listen carefully, sitting up straight
and making eye contact. Don't get distracted or try to do something else
while you're listening. Nodding and smiling as you listen to the sender speak
demonstrate that you understand the message.
The message may be the most crucial element of effective communication.
A message can come in many different forms, such as an oral
presentation, a written document, an advertisement or just
acomment. In the basic communication model, the arrow from Point A to
Point B represents the sender's message traveling to the receiver. The
message isn't necessarily what the sender intends it to be. Rather, the
message is what the receiver perceives the message to be. As a result, the
sender must not only compose the message carefully, but also evaluate the
ways in which the message can be interpreted.
Assess Your Medium

The message travels from one point to another via a channel of

communication. In the diagram, the channel sits between the sender and
receiver, Points A and B. Many channels, or types, of communication exist,
from the spoken word to radio, television, an Internet site or something
written, like a book, letter or magazine.
Advantages and disadvantages.of channel of communication
Every channel of communication has its advantages and disadvantages. For
example, one disadvantage of the written word, on a computer screen or in a
book, is that the receiver cannot evaluate the tone of the message. For this
reason, effective communicators word written communications clearly so
they don't to rely on a specific tone of voice to convey the message
The advantages of is television as a channel for communication include its
expansive reach to a wide audience and the sender's ability to further
manipulate the message using editing and special effects
The last element of effective communication, feedback, describes the
receiver's response or reaction to the sender's message.
The receiver can transmit feedback through asking questions, making
comments or just supporting the message that was delivered. Feedback
helps the sender to determine how the receiver interpreted the message and
how it can be improved. In the basic communication model, the receiver
transmits feedback from Point B back to the sender at Point A.
As a result the model has a cyclical appearance, as the original receiver
becomes the sender and vice versa.
Network topologies
In computer networking, topology refers to the layout of connected devices.
Here is an introduction of the standard topologies of networking'. Think of a
topology as a network's 'virtual shape or structure.
This shape does not necessarily correspond to the actual physical layout of
the devices on the network. For example, the computers on a home LAN may
be arranged in a circle in a family room, but it would be highly unlikely to find
a ring topology there.
Maximum bandwidth
The maximum bandwidth on these cables does not increase with the
addition of each node the network operates more slowly with each new
computer added. In addition, these coaxial cables are typically slower than
their star topology counterparts.
Coaxial-based technologies

Coaxial-based technologies are rarely found in modern workplaces and

almost never used in homes. As a result, the technology necessary to
operate a bus topology network is generally difficult to find, if it can be found
at all. Network interface cards (expansion cards that plug into the inside of a
computer and provide network access) with a BNC connector are often more
expensive than their RJ-45 counterparts.
Briefly explain the term: Assembler, compiler, linker and interpreter.
An assembler is a type of computer program that interprets software
programs written in assembly language into machine language, code and
instructions that can be executed by a computer. An assembler enables
software and application developers to access, operate and manage a
computer's hardware architecture and components.
An assembler is sometimes referred to as the compiler of assembly
language. It also provides the services of an interpreter.
Assembler and symbolically use codes
An assembler primarily serves as the bridge between symbolically coded
instructions written in assembly language and the computer processor,
memory and other computational components.
An assembler works by assembling and converting the source code of
assembly language into object code or an object file that constitutes a
stream of zeros and ones of machine code, which are directly executable by
the processor.
Assemblers are classified based on the number of times it takes them to read
the source code before translating it; there are both single-pass and multipass assemblers. Moreover, some high-end assemblers provide enhanced
functionality by enabling the use of control statements, data abstraction
services and providing support for object-oriented programming structures.
Generally compiling is a term which is often heard by everyone who is
associated with programming, even if remotely.
"A compiler is a program which converts a high level language
program/code into binary instructions (machine language) that our computer
can interpret, understand and take the appropriate steps to execute the
same. "
Let us take an example to understand what does the above definition means.
If you ask any person who is associated with programming, that what the
first program he/she wrote was, then the obvious answer would be "Hello
World". So let us also start with the same.
This most basic program prints or displays the words "Hello, World!" on the
computer screen. But there is a problem. It is not that simple. Behind the

curtains there is lot of complex things going. Let us peep inside these things.
The hard truth is that our computer cannot understand the
commands/instructions contained in a source file (helloworld.c), because C is
a high-level language which means, it contains various characters, symbols,
and words that represent complex, numbers-based instructions for eg. printf,
main, header files etc. The only instructions a computer can execute are
those written in machine language, consisting entirely of numbers that is the
binary language in terms of 0 and 1.
Before our computer can run our C program, our compiler should convert our
helloworld.c into an object file; then a program called a linker should convert
the object file into an executable file.
Linker and Programming is the process of creating useful computer programs
from human readable code. The code words that are used to create a
computer program are called "source code." This source code needs to be
converted to a format that can be read by a computer to be useful. This
process of conversion is called "compilation." A crucial part of the
compilation process is linking. The compiled binary executable is loaded into
main memory to run. The linker takes various parts of the compiled program
and combines them to form a single executable program. Usually when large
software applications are created they are written in discrete chunks, with
each chunk held in a separate source code file. The job of the linker is to take
each of these chunks, once they have been assembled, and combine them
together into a single executable application.
An Interpreter is a program that implements or simulates a virtual machine
using the base set of instructions of a programming language as its machine
language. You can also think of an Interpreter as a program that implements
a library containing the implementation .of the basic instruction set of a
programming language in machine language.
An Interpreter re^ids the statements of a program, analyzes them and then
executes them on the virtual machine by calling the corresponding
instructions of the library. During an interactive interpreter session the
statements are not only read, analyzed and executed but the result of the
evaluation of an expression is also printed.
This is also called a READ - EVAL - PRINT loop.
Pay attention, the READ - EVAL - PRINT loop is only entered in an interactive
session. If you ask the interpreter to execute code in a file, results of
expression evaluations are not printed. You have to do this by yourself.
Q No 4.
Explain the basic concept of multimedia. Identify ten different
examples of multimedia and also describe five of them in detail.

Through the proliferation of technology In modern-day homes, people
communicate in a variety of ways through multimedia. The term
"multimedia" itself can take many forms, but it always relates to the way
computers present different elements.
Multimedia is common on a variety of kinds of websites and if you use a
computer, you use multimedia communication daily. Communication
technologies in multimedia can take an ordinary lecture or sermon and turn it
into an extraordinary experience the audience will not forget.
Communication technologies in multimedia such as using video, SMART
boards and projector slide programs such as PowerPoint can make your
communication more effective. Every person learns differently and needs
various avenues of communication to receive the message effectively.
Communication technologies in multimedia can cover multiple aspects of
communication types such as audio and visual learning and in one
Text Communication:
Text communication encompasses a variety of forms and is one of the most
common forms of multimedia communication In a computer user's day-today activities. Text communication includes such areas of Internet use as
reading a website, reading and writing email messages and instant
Text communication is also the oldest form of multimedia communication, as
the first computers displayed text only.
Image Communication:
Though images might not seem to be a form of communication in the same
way that text is a form of communication, it is a legitimate form of
multimedia communication that many users enjoy daily. Examples include
browsing an online photo album, opening and viewing images attached to an
email and looking at photos that accompany stories on news websites.
Audio Communication:
A common form of Web-based multimedia communication is audio
communication. This form involves receiving a message through an audio
format, such as listening to an online radio station or playing a music file. If
you use the Internet to stream a radio station broadcast, for example, you
are engaging in a form of audio communication.
Audio communication often combines with other forms of multimedia
communication. A slideshow, for example, can feature text, images and
audio together.
Video Communication:

As its name indicates, video communication is a form of multimedia

communication through video.
It is common on many websites, including YouTube and the websites of
television stations. Since high-speed Internet has become common, video
communication has increased as users are able to access this form of
multimedia communication. Types of video communication include .AVI,
MPEG, WMV and QuickTime files.
Write the notes in your own words on the following
Multimedia kiosk
A multimedia kiosk is any type of large computer terminal, most often
located in a public place, which the general public may use for various
purposes. An ATM is a type of multimedia kiosk, for instance; a user can walk
up to the terminal, insert a debit card, and withdraw money from an account
without needing to interact with a bank teller or other employee.
Multimedia kiosks are often found in places such as supermarkets, shopping
malls, airports, and convenience stores, among others, and most feature
convenient touchscreens. Though an ATM is probably the most common type
of multimedia kiosk, there are many others available as well. A photo
printing kiosk is very common.
These often have different functions; for instance, one may be able to insert
the memory card from a digital camera. The photos will then be loaded onto
the screen, where the user can individually select which photos he or she
wants to print. In addition to selecting the photos to be printed, the user may
be able to make changes to size, change photos from color to black and
white, or add colorful borders to the photos, among other changes.
Some photo printing kiosks can print the pictures immediately, while others
must be printed by a store employee, and may usually be picked up within
one hour to one day. Other types of photo printing kiosks allow one to scan in
a physical photo or multiple photos on a flatbed scanner, and the photo can
then be manipulated, enhanced, or reprinted without damaging or changing
the original. Another type of interactive multimedia kiosk is a DVD rental
kiosk. These allow customers to insert payment, generally through cash or a
credit card, and select a DVD to rent.
The customer may then return the DVD to the kiosk when he or she is
finished watching it. These are just a few of the many different types of
multimedia kiosks available, many of which can oe customized for different
purposes at schools or companies. Some businesses even allow their
employees to clock in and out of work through the use of a multimedia kiosk.
If a business wishes to add a multimedia kiosk to their location, it is up to
them to purchase or rent the machine. The business is typically responsible
for maintaining the kiosk, though the distributor generally offers support
services for a fee as well. Many people enjoy the convenience and ease of
use of a multimedia kiosk, and find that it benefits their business to have
Computer hardware

Computer hardware has advanced drastically since the early days when
computers took up entire rooms and required teams of people to run. Modern
computer systems fit in a small case and can draw power from a standard
wall jack. It is important to learn about the components of your computer so
that you can diagnose problems or replace equipment as it becomes
Functions of hardware:
Hardware is the corporeal and tangible portion of a computer system that
you interact with to take advantage of computer programs. It is distinct from
software in that it is built of physical material and generally does not perform
logical operations or change its state frequently.
The central piece of hardware for any computer is the motherboard, which is
a circuit board that contains all of the sockets, slots, and chip sets that all of
the other hardware devices will be connected into. The centra! processing
unit, which handles all of the mathematical calculations that the computer
needs to perform, is attached to the main socket of the motherboard. The
two main companies that produce processors, AMD and Intel, each make a
variety of different processor types that work with different motherboards.
The random access memory attaches to slots in the motherboard and it
controls the speed that computations occur. The hard drive is the component
that actually stores all of the data in the computer such as files, music or
games. All of these units are run by a power supply that plugs into a wall
socket. Computers with more advanced hardware will require a higher
voltage power supply to run at peak efficiency. Some sort of cooling system
must also be used, such as a fan or liquid cooling tubes, to prevent the other
devices from overheating and shutting down. All of these components are
held inside of a metal or plastic case.
High level languages
In computer science parlance, programming languages are divided into
categories according to the distance in which the syntax is abstracted from
the native processor instructions. Most high-level languages use a compiler
to make them portable among the supported platforms. This allows the
programmer to work in an English-like syntax while the compiler deals with
the details of converting it into processor-specific instructions. The efficiency
of modern compilers has made high-level languages more popular than the
more challenging requirements of low-level tools.
C+ + C++
C+ + C++ is a high-level language that maintains some of the features of a
low-level language. It provides a minimally worded logical command set that
is accessible for programmers on many platforms without worrying about the
underlying processor instruction set. It retains the C language ability to
directly address the processor or memory hardware when necessary, a

feature that many other high-level languages have done away with.
Common Business Oriented Language, or COBOL, is an example of a verbose
high-level language. Instructions and variables are spelled out in lengthy
statements designed for the ease of reading by the programmer. The syntax
is portable among the numerous platforms on which the language is
supported. Though it has been updated with modern object-oriented
features, it has been supplanted in recent years by other programming
Computer and interpreter
Computer language processor that translates a program line-by-line
(statement-by- statement) and carries out the specified actions in sequence.In contrast, an assembler or compiler completely translates a program
written in a high-level language (the source program) into a machinelanguage program (the object program) for later execution. Whereas a
compiled-program executes much faster than an interpreted-program, an
interpreter allows examination and modification of the program while it is
running (executing).
As with spoken languages, people have many different computerprogramming languages to communicate with computers.
These computer-programming languages help bridge the gap between
computers and people. Computer languages have been developed with
interpreting statements in mind. These are some of them:
A very popular, free, object oriented interpreted language created in 1991. It
is also modular which means people can add extra parts to it for others to
use. You will find Python being used as the back-end processing language on
web servers
The grand-daddy of interpreted computer languages. Created nearly fifty
years ago (1963) as an easy-to-learn language. Its strength is that it is
interactive - it checks your code as you type it in and its syntax is simple.
This is the second type of interpreter. It compiles source code into byte code
which then runs on a virtual machine. Java is very popular as the language to
use for coding the business- logic within a company's business application.
For example, on on-line mortgage application form on a Building Society web

site would most likely be connected to a Java server that is working through
all the complex business rules for providing a customer quote.