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Modul 3

KETERKAITAN RITEL MODERN DENGAN


PETANI DI INDONESIA

DEPARTEMEN SOSIAL EKONOMI PERTANIAN


FAKULTAS PERTANIAN
UNPAD
1

LEARNING OUTCOME:
Mahasiswa mampu menganalisis peluang
usaha dan dampak kesejahteraan dari
perkembangan ritel modern terhadap para
petani produsen dan pelaku aktif rantai nilai
modern di Indonesia.

REFERENSI UTAMA:

HORTICULTURAL PRODUCERS AND SUPERMARKET DEVELOPMENT


IN INDONESIA
Report of the World Banks Rural Development, Natural Resources and
Environment Sector Unit of the East Asia and Pacific Region.
The team leader for this report is Shobha Shetty (Sr. Economist, EASRE).
Other team members: Richard Chisholm (Sr. Agriculturalist, EASRE), and
Frans Doorman (Consultant).
The principal authors of the report are Ronnie Natawidjaja (Padjadjaran
University, Bandung), Thomas Reardon (Michigan State University), and
Shobha Shetty (World Bank) in collaboration with Trisna Insan Noor, Tomy
Perdana, Elly Rasmikayati (Padjadjaran University, Bandung), Sjaiful
Bachri (Center for Agricultural Social Economics Research and
Development, Bogor) and Ricardo Hernandez (Michigan State University).

CARA MODERN RITEL MENDAPATKAN


PASOKAN UNTUIK SAYUR DAN BUAH SEGAR:
1. IMPORT:
80% dari buah dan 20% dari sayuran yang dijual di supermarket adalah produk
import 60% dari total buah dan sayur yang dijual.
2-3 kali lebih tinggi dari negara berkembang lainya Mexico, Guatemala,
Thailand, and China
KENAPA?
Harga dan kualitas FFV dr China dan Thailand relative lebih dengan kualitas
yang sama atau bahkan lebih tinggi Transaction Cost rendah, efeisiensi dan
skala ekonomis tinggi.
BAIK UNTUK KONSUMEN di kota maupun di desa:
Kompetisi sehat, pangan murah dengan kualitas yang lebih baik
SEMENTARA
Petani lokal terganjal untuk memproduksi lebih baik karena kondisi pasar lokal
Hambatan untuk menjual ke modern ritel: kondisi supply chain yang sangat
terbatas jalan yang rusak, pungutan liar, tidak adanya cold chain dan
layanan logistik.
4

CARA MODERN RITEL MENDAPATKAN


PASOKAN UNTUIK SAYUR DAN BUAH SEGAR:
2. LOKAL:

Membangun supply chain langsung dari sentra produksi


melalui pemasok khusus, yaitu:
Petani besar/sedang atau Perusahan Agribisnis yang
memproduksi sayuran atau buah-buahan melalui kebun sendiri dan
menghimpun petani produsen lainnya yang kecil-kecil secara kontrak
(contract farming)

Suplayer Khusus ke Supermarket, merupakan perusahaan


yang memasok khusus ke supermarket tapi tidak memiliki
produksi sendiri, sehingga harus bekerjasama dengan para
bandar dan petani/ketua kelompok di sentra produksi

Petani atau Perusahan Agribisnis


Pemasok Ritel Modern
Biasanya merupakan petani memiliki lahan sedang atau
besar yang memiliki lahan milik sendiri
Menguasai teknologi produksi yang baik sehingga mampu
menghasilkan produk yang berkualitas

Untuk meningkatkan kapasitas produksi, kemudian


menjalin koordinasi dan bermitra dengan petani kecil,
melalui kontrak formal ataupun in-formal
Memberikan pembinaan pada petani kecil dalam hal bibit,
teknologi, jadwal penanaman, bantuan pembiayaan, dll
Melakukan sortir , standarisasi produk, dan pengemasan
sehingga mampu menghasilkan produk berkualitas tinggi
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Suplayer Khusus Berdedikasi


Pemasok Ritel Modern
Perusahaan/pedagang ini tidak memiliki basis produksi
sendiri, berperan sebagai bandar khusus untuk
supermarket/hypermarket
Secara langsung mencari produk baru ke berbagai sentra
produksi untuk meningkatkan jumlah SKU yang dipasok
Melakukan koordinasi dengan para petani kecil di sentra
produksi secara kontrak, baik formal maupun in-formal
melalui ketua kelompok, koperasi, atau bandar
Memberikan bantuan dukungan pada petani, baik berupa
bibit, teknologi, kalender tanam, dan juga bentuk bantuan
pembiayaan
Melakukan sortir , standarisasi produk , dan pengemasan
sehingga mampu menghasilkan produk berkualitas tinggi
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Dampak dari Transformasi/Modernisasi Pasar


Produk Segar Pertanian yang dihadapi Petani
di Sentra Produksi pada Tahun 2006
PETANI

1%

1%

1%

1%

5%
Pasar Induk
Regional atau
Nasional

46%

Bandar

2%

40%
Pedagang
Pengumpul

2%

1%

Penjual Ritel
untuk Pasar
Lokal

1%

Kelompok
Tani/Koper
asi

Hotel and
Restaurant
Pemasok
Khusus Ritel
Modern/Export

Ritel
Modern

Pengolahan
Skala Rumah
Tangga

Pemasok ke
Industri

Industri
Pengolahan
Makanan

Lebih banyak
alternatip saluran
penjualan bagi petani
dibandingkan tahun
1994

Pedagang
Antar Pulau

Exportir

Ringkasan Saluran Pemasaran


Berdasarkan Pasar Tujuan Akhir
Percentage Share by Final Market
No

Final Market

Panga
lengan

Lembang

1 Pasar Ritel Trad. Lokal

Rata-rata
%

Garut

2 Pasar Induk Tradisional

66

66

73

68

3 Pasar Antar Pulau

10

4 Ritel Modern

14

12

11

5 Hotel and Restaurant

6 Industri Skala Kecil

7 Industri Besar Pengolahan

8 Export

100

100

100

100

Total

Terjadinya BOOMING Hortikultura


di Jawa Barat
Ada indikasi kuat telah terjadinya Booming Tanaman
Hortikultur di Jawa Barat
Produksi hortikultur berkembang sangat cepat, teknikteknik pertanian modern terdifusi antar kelas petani
dengan cepat, termasuk petani yang masih memasok ke
pasar tradisional
Banyak petani yang beralih dari tanaman pangan ke

Sayuran bernilai tinggi


Melakukan investasi pada sistem pengairan
Penanaman secara multi croping dan rotasi sepanjang
tahun

Tingkatan Nilai (Value Ladder) Keuntungan


80,00
Pengusahaan
Tan. Pangan dan Hortikultura
R/C=1

Paprika

70,00

Cost (Juta Rupiah)

60,00
50,00

R/C=2

Kentang

40,00
Tomat

30,00

Sedap malam
Krisan

20,00
10,00
Jagung
Kc tanah
Kc hijau
Padi gogo Kedelai

Bw
merah

Cabe merah

Bw
daun

Kubis
Maw ar Buncis
Ubi jalar

Wortel
Kc Panjang
Padi saw ah
Ubi kayu

30,00

60,00

90,00

Revenue
(Juta Rupiah)
Revenue
(Juta Rupiah)

120,00

150,00

Value Ladder Effect


dari Transformasi Pasar Modern
Jakarta

Puncak (tadinya tan.


komoditas, sekr. niche)

Lembang (sekr mix


komoditas & niche)

Sumatera
(tanaman pangan)

Pangalengan
(komoditas)

Garut
(komoditas)

Value Ladder Effect dari Perubahan Struktural


Pada Pasar Pangan dan Hortikultura
Meningkat tangga nilai (value ladder), beralih dari
Komoditas bernilai rendah (seperti: ubi jalar, buncis)
Produk bernilai menengah
(seperti: tomat and bawang daun, dll)
Produk bernilai tinggi
(brocoli, paprika, sayuran Jepang, dll)

Beberapa pelaku yang besar malah sudah mulai


memperluas/mengalihkan usaha penanaman ke daerah yang
memiliki biaya oportunitas lahan dan tenaga kerja yang
lebih rendah.

Ukuran Sample Petani dan Distribusinya


Sample Size
Kabupaten

Kecamatan

Bandung

Pangalengan

39

41

Ciwidey

44

50

Pasirjambu

38

19

Lembang

29

40

Sub-total

150

150

Cikajang

45

22

Cigedug

35

41

Pasirwangi

24

35

Cisurupan

46

52

Sub-total

150

150

Total

300

300

Garut

Non-Supermarket
channel Farmer

Supermarket
channel Farmer

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Anasisa Value Chain Tomat ke Jakarta

Petani

Petani

Petani

Bandar

Pasar Induk Tradisional

Pasar Ritel
Tradisional

Petani

Bandar

Suplyer Khusus ke
Ritel Modern

Ritel Modern

Petani

Pengumpul
Lokal

Suplyer Khusus ke
Ritel Modern

Kelompok
Tani

Ritel Modern

Suplyer Khusus ke
Ritel Modern

Bandar

Ritel Modern

Pasar Induk
Tradisional

Pasar ritel
Tradisional

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Analisa Detil Value Chain per Saluran


Chain
Cost

Value
Added

1. Procurements Cost
2. Handling Cost
3. Storage Cost
4. Transport Cost
5. Rebate and Fee

26-29%

36-48-%

Farmer

Specialized Super
Wholesaler

8-12%

55-57%

24%
Farmer

Value
Added

26-35%
Supermarket

Value Added:
Rp 3.7 3.8 million per ton

32-37%

1. Procurement Cost 0%
2. Handling Cost
51%
3. Storage Cost
0%
4. Transport Cost
23%
5. Rebate and Fee
25%

Chain
Cost

15-21%
11-28%
0%
21-22%
34-47%

25%
Farmer
Group
28%

24%
Specialized Super
Wholesaler
39%

26%
Supermarket

Value Added:
Rp 3.6 million per ton

33%

16

Analisa Detil Value Chain per Saluran..

Chain
Cost

35-46%
Farmer

Value
Added

1. Procurement Cost
2. Handling Cost
3. Storage Cost
4. Transport Cost
5. Rebate and Fee

Chain
Cost

22-27%
Farmer

Value
Added

4-9%

16-18%

7-8%
Traditional
Wholesaler
21-22%

26-32%
Traditional
Wholesaler
20-27%

Value
Added

44-48%
Specialized Super
Wholesaler
35-37%

35-44%

5-6%

Farmer

Local
Collector
13-22%

6-18%

12-13%
Traditional
Wholesale Market
19-22%

60-72%
7-16%
12-33%

10-26%
Traditional
Retail Market
36-43%

Value Added:
Rp 1.6-1.8 million
per ton

22%
34%
0%
14%
30%

21-23%
Supermarket
35-37%

Chain
Cost

1. Procurement Cost
2. Storage Cost
3. Loading-Unloading Cost

25-27%
Traditional
Wholesaler
12-14%

Value Added:
Rp 3.3-3.4 million
per ton

1. Procurement Cost
2. Storage Cost
3. Loading-Unloading Cost

58-69%
8-13%
23-29%

12%

12-22%

Traditional
Wholesale Market
14-18%

Traditional
Retail Market
41-44%

Value Added:
Rp 1.8-1.9 million
per ton

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Analisa Ekonometrik
A two-step procedure was used first, estimating
the determinants of market channel participation
and then, controlling for the conditional probability
of participation in a channel, the technology choices
of farmers (production function and input use
functions):

Model Pemilihan Saluran Pasar: multinomial logit (p36)

Fungsi Produksi dan Analisa Alokatif Efisiensi:


comparison of marginal value products (MVPs)

Fungsi Permintaan Faktor Input: profit function


referensi\Holtikultura_model_p36.pdf
18

(1) supermarket channel,


which includes farmers selling to supermarkets, either directly, or indirectly
via a specialized/dedicated (mainly to supermarkets) wholesaler to
supermarkets; this is the channel with the closest connection to
supermarkets and have full information; most of the farmers in this
channel are aware that they are producing for/selling to supermarkets.;
(2) modern wholesaler, which includes farmers selling to modern
wholesalers who tend to be larger wholesalers who sell to the traditional
wholesale market as well as somewhat to supermarkets and to
specialized/ dedicated (to supermarkets) wholesalers; the farmers in this
channel tend to not be aware that part of their tomatoes go to
supermarkets; the wholesaler tends merely to signal certain requirements
and scheduling, but do not convey full information concerning the final
markets (we found this out through wholesaler interviews and market
tracing);
(3) traditional channel, which includes farmers who sell to local brokers
(small traders in the rural areas) and wholesalers who sell only to or in the
traditional wholesale market. This is the channel most distant from the
supermarket channel.
19

Hasil Estimasi Pemilihan


Saluran Pemasaran
Variable

Supermarket Producers
Coef.

Modern Wholesalers

(SE)

Coef.

(SE)

Producer's education (years)

0.152

0.122

0.024

0.063

Producer's age (years)

0.021

0.028

0.006

0.015

Family size

-0.197

0.203

-0.035

0.116

Lagged land (farm size)

-1.895

0.794

**

-0.048

0.135

Correction for Bandung lagged land

2.112

1.025

**

-0.665

0.452

Distance to paved highway (kms)

0.104

0.175

-0.210

0.354

Producer's experience (years)

-0.046

0.062

-0.070

0.024

**

Lagged packing houses in the area (units)

-0.121

0.025

**

0.008

0.003

**

Dummy for commercialization level of zone

4.069

0.954

**

1.007

0.331

**

Lagged association level (Associated =1


Not Asoc =0)

-0.945

0.816

0.029

0.337

Lagged irrigation share (% of farm size


under irrigation)

2.514

1.159

0.166

0.620

Number of Observations
Wald Chi(32)
Pseudo R2

**

596
858.96
0.748

Note that this is a multinomial logit and the base is the traditional channel farmers, so these are deviations from that base. Notes:
** = significant at 5%; *= significant at 10%.

20

Faktor Penentu Pemilihan


Saluran Pemasaran
Farm size (lagged) has a positive effect on supermarket channel
participation in Bandung, where land is scarce, but a negative effect in
Garut.
Bandung, near the city, the more capitalized and larger farmers tend to
make frequent shipments to specialized wholesalers and profit from the
nearby commercial opportunities.
Garut is a more hinterland area with larger land sizes; larger farmers tend
to sell large volumes to inter-island traders who come to that area for large
volumes, a smaller and more specialized channel, to smaller farmers, who
nevertheless are in the upper stratum of capitalization.
Number of packing houses (lagged, in kecamatan) have a positive effect
on participation in the modern wholesaler channel but a negative effect
on supermarket-channel participation, as farmers have an alternative.
Being in a high-commercialization zone favors participation in both
modern channels.
Irrigation share (lagged) has an important positive effect on
participation in the supermarket channel. Such consistency of
production is an important attribute that dedicated wholesalers look for
in farmers.
21

Hasil Estimasi Fungsi Produksi


Modern Wholesale
channel

Supermarket
channel
Coef.

(SE)

Coef.

Traditional channel

(SE)

Tomato Area (Ha)

0.798

0.683

0.860

0.186

Seed

0.207

0.680

0.120

Pesticides

0.002

0.007

Fertilizers

0.007

0.096

Labor

0.267

0.120

Dummy for dry season (dry =1,


other =0)

0.150

0.034

Dummy for Bandung

-0.024

Irrigation share

Coef.
0.975

0.088

0.189

0.034

0.091

0.007

0.002

0.021

0.030

0.019

0.042

**

0.109

0.036

**

**

0.161

0.062

**

0.282

0.035

**

**

0.143

0.015

**

0.176

0.020

**

0.074

-0.075

0.055

-0.075

0.018

**

-0.052

0.091

-0.034

0.035

0.032

0.024

Mills 1

0.005

0.006

0.001

0.001

-0.001

0.001

Mills 2

0.000

0.004

0.004

0.009

-0.003

0.003

Constant

5.729

3.117

7.472

0.806

4.082

0.828

Number of Observations

R-squared
Prob > F

**

(SE)

84

179

327

0.985

0.983

0.98

**

Notes: ** = significant at 5%; *= significant at 10%; base category is traditional wholesaler

22

Marginal Value Products dibandingkan dengan


harga faktor input: Allocative Efficiency
Supermarket
channel
MVP

Modern Wholesale
Channel

Factor Cost

Area

Fertilizer
Labor

476 <

1,000

MVP

Traditional Wholesale
Channel

Factor Cost

MVP

Factor Cost

36.4M

>

2.2M

41M

>

2.2M

48

<

1,000

219

<

1,000

226

<

1,000

326

<

1,000

23

Fungsi Produksi dan Analisa Alokatif


Efisiensi
The MVP of farmland is well above the rental factor cost for
both the modern wholesale channel farmers and the traditional
channel farmers
indicates a severe land constraint.
The MVP of labor is also well below the factor price for all
channels, but as the cost results suggest, the overuse of labor
(from an allocative efficiency viewpoint) is most severe among
traditional farmers.
The results for fertilizer are also similar to the other studies
cited, showing an overuse of fertilizer in an allocative efficiency
sense.

24

Fungsi Permintaan Faktor Input


Labor demand of farmers in the supermarket channel is more responsive to
factor input prices than farmers in the other market channels, apparently
indicating the supermarket-channel farmers greater commercial orientation.
For the latter group, the positive signs on the prices of fertilizer and pesticides
indicate they are substitutes with labor
Demand for pesticide responds (tautologically) positively to its own price. For
supermarket-channel farmers, it is a substitute for fertilizer, but a complement
for the other two groups. The output price and dry season effects are negative, as
there are fewer insects at that time.
Fertilizer use is measured in cash expenditure. The main results of interest here
are the strong complementarity of fertilizer use and irrigation, and the negative
effect of transaction costs (proxied by distance to the road) on fertilizer use.

25

Petani yang saat ini terkait dengan Saluran


ke Ritel Modern (dari 600 sample)
Pada kondisi saat ini, hanya 15% (dari sample) yang terkait
dengan supply chain ke pasar ritel modern (langsung dan
tidak langsung)
Petani yang berpartisipasi pada supply chain tersebut
adalah:
Petani kecil tapi bagian upper stratum dalam hal kepemilikan
lahan, modal, tangki irigasi air, dan tingkat pendidikan
Biaya usahatani mereka lebih kecil (lebih efisien) dari petani
lainnya
Tingkat keuntungan mereka 10-30% lebih tinggi dari petani
lainnya (karena harga yang lebih baik)

Kesimpulan Lainnya
Quality differentiation (and the concomitant investments) is not yet
systematically rewarded by merchants to farmers in the zone.
Mirroring the less developed market areas of other countries,
farmers still sell ungraded produce to wholesalers.
Tomato farmers get nearly all their technical assistance from input
distributors, and nearly all their credit from those same actors plus
wholesalers. Government and NGO financial services and extension
services play a miniscule role in the tomato boom in West Java.
Land-rental markets are extremely active among tomato farmers in
the area. Despite that, there is evidence from the allocative efficiency
estimates that there are land constraints and overuse of labor and
fertilizer, with the allocative inefficiency least among supermarket
producers
27

Implikasi Kebijakan
Agricultural support services: direct support through investments in public
goods and services notably research and extension services. Revamping the quality of the
extension services so that it is better prepared and more relevant to the needs of the market is
paramount.

Rural producers organization: development of farmer groups, grower


associations, and new-generation cooperatives appear to be strongly needed.

Rural Infrastructure: good quality telecommunications and a paved-road network


are essential, as otherwise local farmers will struggle to compete with imports. This is especially
an issue as horticulture crops in Indonesia are often produced in remote, highaltitude areas
where these infrastructure facilities are often deficient.

Access to financial services: since the payment of supermarkets is generally

delayed for up to 40 days, suppliers, farmer and wholesaler face a problem of having temporary
illiquid assets. The government can facilitate agreements with the modern retail association and
the banking system so that they provide a guarantee for the amount of sales the supermarket
owes, so that small/medium farmers or even wholesaler can get access to commercial bank loans.
There are some private banks expressing an interest in this kind of agreement.

Market intelligence: providing market intelligence to the supply chain actors and
facilitating business linkages among farmers, wholesalers and supermarkets through business
meetings, exhibitions, and business visit programs is a key role for the public sector.

Public product standards: The standards also need to be better socialized and

adopted along the supply chain. The study indicates there has been an effort to perform grading
and handling in the production zone but the market price differentiation is insufficient.

Land rental markets: public land registration needs to be widely socialized and
farmers encouraged to register their land. Land titles will give full right to the landowner and
facilitate land rental market with necessary legal support.

28

Diperlukan Kebijakan yang Mendukung


Terjadinya Transformasi Pertanian
Kebijakan pertanian pada masa Revolusi Hijau adalah
supply driven, ditentukan oleh pemerintah, mulai dari
tujuannya (untuk mencapai swasembada pangan), sampai
pilihan teknologi, pengadaan kebutuhan inputnya sampai
dengan harganya juga semua ditentukan oleh pemerintah.
Perkembangan pesat permintaan hortikultur tidak dibuat
atau ditentukan oleh pemerintah. Boom hortikultur ini
adalah phenomena demand driven.
Peranan pemerintah adalah memberikan dukungan
(support) dan fasilitasi kepada para pelaku, khususnya
pertani, agar mampu merespon dengan baik permintaan
pasar

Diperlukan Kebijakan yang Mendukung


Terjadinya Transformasi Pertanian
Diperlukan sebuah forum komunikasi antara petani,
suplyer supermarket, vendor industri makanan, dan
lembaga penelitian agar para pelaku bisa dengan cepat
merespon perubahan permintaan pasar.
Petani harus ditumbuhkan kesadarannya untuk berusaha
secara berkelompok, bukan diwajibkan berkelompok
untuk menerima bantuan.
Departemen Perdagangan, dan dinas-dinas perdagangan
propinsi maupun kabupaten bagian perdagangan dalam
negeri harus mampu membangun infrastruktur
perdagangan sistem pasar tradisional, yang terdiri dari
pasar induk dan pasar ritel tradisional.

Terima Kasih

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