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with applications to seismic reflection data

Arthur E. Barnes*

ABSTRACT

Fourier power spectra are often usefully characterized by average measures. In reflection seismology,

the important average measures are center frequency,

spectral bandwidth, and dominant frequency. These

quantities have definitions familiar from probability

theory: center frequency is the spectral mean, spectral

bandwidth is the standard deviation about that mean,

and dominant frequency is the square root of the

second moment, which serves as an estimate of the

zero-crossing frequency. These measures suggest

counterparts defined with instantaneous power spectra

in place of Fourier power spectra, so that they are

instantaneous in time though they represent averages

in frequency. Intuitively reasonable requirements

yield specific forms for these instantaneous quantities

that can be computed with familiar complex seismic

trace attributes. Instantaneous center frequency is just

instantaneous frequency. Instantaneous bandwidth is

the absolute value of the derivative of the instantaneous amplitude divided by the instantaneous amplitude. Instantaneous dominant frequency is the square

root of the sum of the squares of the instantaneous

frequency and instantaneous bandwidth.

Instantaneous bandwidth and dominant frequency

find employment as additional complex seismic trace

attributes in the detailed study of seismic data. Instantaneous bandwidth is observed to be nearly always

less than instantaneous frequency; the points where it

is larger may mark the onset of distinct wavelets.

These attributes, together with instantaneous frequency, are perhaps of greater use in revealing the

time-varying spectral properties of seismic data. They

can help in the search for low frequency shadows or in

the analysis of frequency change due to effects of data

processing. Instantaneous bandwidth and dominant

frequency complement instantaneous frequency and

should find wide application in the analysis of seismic

reflection data.

INTRODUCTION

.

.

In reflection seismology, an entire frequency spectrum is

sometimes usefully characterized by several average parameters, notably the center (or mean) frequency, the spectral

bandwidth, and the dominant frequency (Anstey, 1977,

p. 3-4; Widess, 1982; Kallweit and Wood, 1982; Berkhout,

1984, p. 28). Competing definitions for all three quantities

exist; however, the center frequency is commonly defined as

the average frequency of the power spectrum, and the

spectral bandwidth as a standard deviation about the center

frequency (Berkhout, 1984, p. 28). These definitions are

intuitively reasonable and suggest corresponding instantaneous measures (Cohen and Lee, 1988, 1990; Cohen, 1989;

Jones and Boashash, 1990). Dominant frequency lacks a

comparable definition, but rather is defined in terms of the

Widess, 1982; Yilmaz, 1987, p. 40; Sheriff, 1989, p. 212;

Sheriff, 1991, p. 88). It is often referred to without being

specified (e.g., Yilmaz, 1987, p. 160, 468; Sheriff and Geldart, 1989, p. 42; Lendzionowski et al., 1990; Tatham and

McCormack, 1991, p. 114).

The square root of the second moment of the power

spectrum can serve as a practical measure of dominant

frequency. It is an estimate of the zero-crossing frequency

and is closely related to center frequency and spectral

bandwidth. Equivalent instantaneous forms of these three

measures are defined in terms of instantaneous power spectra; these are constrained such that the instantaneous quantities are computable with familiar complex seismic trace

attributes. Instantaneous bandwidth and dominant fre-

Manuscript received by the Editor March 23, 1992; revised manuscript received September 3, 1992.

*Dpt de Gnie Minral, Ecole Polytechnique, CP 6079, Succursale A, Montreal, Qubec, CANADA H3C 3A7.

1993 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rights reserved.

420

Barnes

quency complement instantaneous frequency and find application in the analysis of the time-varying spectral properties

of seismic reflection data.

I review the concepts of the center frequency, spectral

bandwidth, and dominant frequency of a Fourier power

spectrum, and I present corresponding instantaneous measures expressed in terms of instantaneous power spectra.

These are reduced to simple formulas in terms of complex

trace attributes. Several examples illustrate applications of

instantaneous spectral bandwidth and dominant frequency

to reflection seismology.

MATHEMATICAL DEVELOPMENT

I review the definitions of center frequency, spectral

bandwidth, and dominant frequency of a Fourier power

spectrum to provide the basis for the introduction of corresponding instantaneous spectral measures. These quantities

are then reduced to easily computable complex trace attributes. The objective in presenting these attributes in this

manner is to emphasize their role as time-variant measures

of average spectral properties. This lends them intuitively

appealing meaning and suggests useful applications.

The development considers one-sided power spectra only

(e.g., Berkhout, 1984). This is justified because a seismic

trace is a purely real function. Therefore, the negative

frequency half of its spectrum is the mirror image of the

positive frequency half and can be ignored, obviating the

need to consider absolute values of frequency (e.g., McCarley, 1985). This is also justified if the seismic trace is made

analytic, for then the negative half of its power spectrum is

zero and can be discounted.

Average spectral measures

The mean or center frequency

is defined as

of a power spectrum

of the power spectrum,

(3)

be called root-mean-square frequency. It is a kind of

average measure of the zero-crossing frequency, and is

introduced as a useful measure of the dominant spectral

frequency (Papoulis, 1984, p. 348; see Appendix A). Inspection of equations (l), (2), and (3) leads to

108; Cohen, 1989). Figure 1 illustrates these spectral measures with regard to the spectrum of a 30 Hz Ricker wavelet.

Other definitions have been offered for center frequency,

bandwidth, and dominant frequency. Anstey (1977, p. 3-4),

Robertson and Nogami (1984), and Barnes (1991) take the

average frequency weighted by the amplitude spectrum as a

measure of center frequency, which has some usefulness in

the analysis of constant-phase wavelets. Ha et al. (1991)

present the definition of instantaneous frequency in an

integral form to obtain the Fourier spectral centroid.

Widess (1982) and de Voogd and den Rooijen (1983) introduce alternate definitions of spectral bandwidth, and Claerbout (1976, p. 68) discusses a quantity similar to spectral

bandwidth. Dominant frequency also has several different

definitions, as discussed in Appendix A. Nevertheless, the

definitions given above are preferable because they are

simple, consistent, usefully related, and independent of

phase. Further, they lead directly to convenient instantaneous forms.

(1)

Jones and Boashash, 1990). The variance of the frequency

is given by

about this mean

is the standard

Jones and Boashash, 1990). The quantity

deviation about the center frequency and is taken as a

measure of the bandwidth [or, as Gram-Hansen (1991)

suggested, a measure of half bandwidth]. These two quantities find application in studies of seismic reflection resolution

(Berkhout, 1984).

comparison of the center frequency, the bandwidth, and the

root-mean-square frequency defined in the text. The frequency is the expected value of the frequency of relative

maxima, as disc ussed in Appendix A. The two dashed lines

are equidistant from the center frequency, and the distance

between them is twice the spectral bandwidth.

Instantaneous Bandwidth

Instantaneous measures of center frequency, spectral

bandwidth, and dominant frequency are defined by replacing

the Fourier power spectrum,

, in equations (l), (2), and

(3) with the instantaneous power spectrum,

(5)

(6)

421

Cohen, 1989). These two conditions are approximately satisfied by the spectogram, or running short time-window

Fourier transform (Cohen and Lee, 1988, 1990), which at

present is the most widely applied form of instantaneous

power spectrum in reflection seismology (e.g., Martin and

White, 1989).

As defined in equation (9), instantaneous bandwidth is a

measure of the rate of relative amplitude change (White,

1991), and consequently can be expressed meaningfully in

units either of Hertz or of decibels per second, with the

10 dB/s = 54.575 dB/s. This

conversion being 1 Hz =

is consistent with the concepts of rise-time and the uncertainty principle (e.g., Carlson, 1968, p. 103; Claerbout, 1976,

p. 68; Poularikas and Seely, 1985, p. 246; Cohen, 1989). For

example, large rates of change in relative amplitude, associated with narrow signals, result in large bandwidths, while

small rates of change in relative amplitude, associated with

broad signals, result in small bandwidths.

Other formulas for instantaneous bandwidth exist, but

they are generally more involved and less intuitive than that

given as equation (9). For example, inserting the Wigner

instantaneous power spectrum into equation (6) yields

(7)

(10)

where

is instantaneous center frequency,

is inI call instantastantaneous spectral bandwidth, and

neous dominant frequency (Cohen and Lee, 1988, 1990;

Cohen, 1989; Jones and Boashash, 1990). These measures

are related by

(8)

which is the instantaneous equivalent to equation (4) above

(Cohen, 1989).

Reinforcing intuition, instantaneous center frequency, and

dominant frequency are equal, in a suitably time-averaged

way, to their Fourier spectral counterparts. The corresponding relationship for bandwidth is, unfortunately, more involved and less intuitive. The relationships are developed in

Appendix B.

These measures depend on the particular instantaneous

power spectrum employed. However, the exact form of the

spectrum need not be specified if two conditions are met,

which I require to accord with intuition and for ease of

computation. The first is that the instantaneous center frequency be instantaneous frequency itself (Tanner et al.,

1979); ignoring several objections to this equivalence that are

unimportant in the present context, this is true of many

useful instantaneous power spectra (Cohen and Lee, 1988;

Cohen, 1989). The second condition is that the instantaneous

spectral bandwidth be always real and positive. This does

to be of a class of

not contradict the first and restricts

instantaneous power spectra for which the instantaneous

bandwidth can be expressed as

where

and

is its derivative (Cohen and Lee, 1988, 1990;

and Boashash, 1990). This measure is not as simple as

equation (9) and is difficult to interpret since it can be

negative. Cohen (1989) gives a general formula for the

instantaneous bandwidth for an important set of instantaneous power spectra, from which formula both equations (9)

and (10) can be derived. Rihaczek (1968) proposed a definition for instantaneous bandwidth that is essentially the

square root of the absolute value of the time derivative of the

instantaneous frequency. This is not consistent with the

definition given in equation (6) and it is more difficult to

interpret. In all cases I prefer equation (9) because it is

simpler and more in accord with intuition.

The relationship between the instantaneous center frequency, spectral bandwidth, and dominant frequency can be

visualized as a frequency triangle, shown in Figure 2. After

a fashion, this triangle can also illustrate the relationship of

these measures to the instantaneous quality factor,

which is defined as

(11)

(Barnes, 1990); a similar definition is given by Tonn (1989,

1991). The term

is the instantaneous decay rate,

defined as the derivative of the instantaneous amplitude

divided by the instantaneous amplitude (Barnes, 1990, 1991).

Except for a factor of

and the fact that it can be negative,

instantaneous decay rate is equal to instantaneous bandwidth given by equation (9). Hence, referring to Figure 2,

instantaneous quality factor is the ratio of instantaneous

frequency to 2 times instantaneous bandwidth, or to the

divided by 2. It can be thought of as

tangent of the angle

the ratio of a frequency and an amplitude decay or as the

ratio of a frequency and a bandwidth, which is consistent

Barnes

422

1966, p. 296; Johnston and Toksz, 1981, p. 2).

APPLICATIONS

Instantaneous bandwidth and dominant frequency can be

used as complex seismic trace attributes complementing instantaneous frequency in the general analysis of seismic data

(e.g., Taner et al., 1979). The comparison of these measures is

illustrated by their application to a 30 Hz zero-phase Ricker

wavelet (Figure 3). The peak of the instantaneous dominant

frequency is much broader than that of the instantaneous

.

instantaneous bandwidth

and instantaneous

dominant frequency

Instantaneous quality factor

is related to the angle

by

time corresponding with the peak of the wavelet, where the

rate of amplitude change is zero. At times beyond 20 ms from

the wavelet peak, the Ricker wavelet resembles an overdamped oscillation, and the instantaneous bandwidth exceeds

the instantaneous frequency. Here it may be more appropriate

to consider the instantaneous bandwidth as a measure of

relative amplitude decay rate. It reaches a maximum of 26 Hz,

which is equivalent to about 1400 dB/s. The two maxima

roughly correspond to the effective beginning and ending of the

wavelet.

Figure 4 shows the application of these measures to a

seismic trace. Instantaneous bandwidth and the instantaneous frequency are distinctly independent, though they

tend to peak together. Instantaneous bandwidth is smaller

than instantaneous frequency almost everywhere. Where it

is larger, the instantaneous power spectrum is biased towards low frequencies, and the instantaneous frequency is

usually small. Perhaps, as in the example of the Ricker

wavelet given above, these places correspond to onsets of

distinct wavelets.

Instantaneous frequency has been employed to study wavelet interference patterns (Robertson and Nogami, 1984; Robertson and Fisher, 1988). Instantaneous bandwidth and instantaneous dominant frequency can be similarly employed, as

shown in Figure 5. A synthetic seismic trace is constructed by

convolving a zero-phase 30 Hz Ricker wavelet with three pairs

of equal and opposite reflection coefficients with spacing of 40,

30, and 20 ms. Thus there are three pairs of progressively

interfering wavelets, labeled a, b, and c; these are well resolvable, marginally resolvable, and poorly resolvable, respectively. The responses of the derived attributes differ markedly

for the three wavelet pairs. In wavelet pair b, instantaneous

bandwidth peaks while instantaneous frequency plunges

sharply negative at the point where the second wavelet begins

to dominate the first. This supports the idea that points where

instantaneous bandwidth exceeds instantaneous frequency

correspond to onsets of new arrivals. However, as the example

FIG. 3. Zero-phase 30 Hz Ricker wavelet and envelope (dashed line) with derived (a) instantaneous frequency, (b) instantaneous

bandwidth, and (c) instantaneous dominant frequency.

Instantaneous Bandwidth

generally exceed instantaneous frequency when the second

wavelet begins to dominate the first.

Instantaneous bandwidth and instantaneous dominant frequency complement instantaneous frequency in the analysis

of low-frequency shadows (e.g., Taner et al., 1979). Consider a gas sand with a quality factor of 25 buried in a

homogeneous earth with a quality factor of 250. The gas sand

has a thickness corresponding to a reflection record time of

25 ms, and it is at a depth corresponding to a time of 1.5 s.

The expected drop in instantaneous frequency from reflections beneath this gas sand is the low-frequency shadow,

and is matched by corresponding drops in instantaneous bandwidth and instantaneous dominant frequency (Figure 6; see

Appendix C for details of the calculation). Using both instan-

423

shadow lends more confidence to an interpretation.

Instantaneous frequency is an excellent tool for the analysis of the effects of normal moveout stretch on seismic data

(Vermeer, 1990, p. 91; Barnes, 1992). Such analysis is aided

with instantaneous bandwidth and instantaneous dominant

frequency, as illustrated in Figure 7. Similar study of other

data-processing algorithms can lead to a better understanding of their effects on the data.

DISCUSSION

Fourier power spectra can be usefully characterized by

average measures. Of particular importance in reflection

seismology are center frequency, spectral bandwidth, and

FIG. 4. Seismic trace (a) with derived instantaneous frequency (b), instantaneous bandwidth (c), and instantaneous dominant

frequency (d).

424

Barnes

dominant frequency. These quantities have definitions familiar from probability theory: center frequency is the spectral

mean, spectral bandwidth is the standard deviation about

that mean, and dominant frequency is the square root of the

second moment. Dominant frequency serves as an estimate

of the zero-crossing frequency. Numerous competing definitions for these quantities can be found, but these definitions are preferred because they are simple, internally consistent, independent of phase considerations, and have

insightful physical analogs. Further, they suggest convenient

and closely related instantaneous counterparts defined with

instantaneous power spectra in place of Fourier power

spectra. These instantaneous measures represent averages

in frequency that are instantaneous in time. Their exact form

intuitively reasonable requirements yield specific forms that

can be computed with familiar complex seismic trace attributes. Instantaneous center frequency is simply instantaneous frequency. Instantaneous bandwidth is the absolute

value of the rate of change of the instantaneous amplitude

divided by the instantaneous amplitude. Instantaneous dominant frequency equals the square root of the sum of the

squares of the instantaneous frequency and instantaneous

bandwidth, which is always positive.

Instantaneous bandwidth and instantaneous frequency are

completely independent of one another, while instantaneous

dominant frequency is a function of both and can substitute

for either. Together these attributes find application in the

FIG. 5. A synthetic seismic trace (a) with derived instantaneous frequency (b), instantaneous bandwidth (c), and instantaneous

dominant frequency (d). The seismic trace is constructed by convolving a zero-phase 30 Hz Ricker wavelet with three pairs of

equal and opposite reflection coefficients labeled a, b, and c, with spacing 40, 30, and 20 ms, respectively. The dashed line is

instantaneous amplitude.

Instantaneous Bandwidth

bandwidth tends to be smaller than instantaneous frequency,

and the places where it is larger may indicate arrivals of new

wavelets. These instantaneous spectral measures are perhaps better suited for tracking the time-varying spectral

content of the data. For example, both instantaneous frequency and instantaneous bandwidth should record a low

frequency shadow beneath a highly attenuating zone, such

as a gas sand, and so the use of both attributes together can

lend more confidence to an interpretation. Similarly, both

can be used in the analysis of time-varying frequency change

due to effects of data processing, such as that caused by

normal moveout stretch. Instantaneous bandwidth and instantaneous dominant frequency complement instantaneous

frequency and should find routine application in the analysis

of seismic reflection data.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Erick Adam assisted with computer applications. Partial

support was provided by a Natural Sciences and Engineering

and instantaneous spectral bandwidth for seismic energy that

has propagated through a highly attenuating zone. The top of

the zone is at 1.5 s and the zone has a thickness of 25 ms. At

zero time, the seismic energy has a boxcar spectrum from 10 to

90 Hz.

average spectral properties of data that initially had a constant

instantaneous center frequency of 50.0 Hz and a constant

instantaneous bandwidth of 23.1 Hz. The offset is 1 km and the

correction velocity is a constant 2.5 km/s.

425

awarded to A. Brown, M. Chouteau, C. Hubert, J.Ludden,

and M. Mareschal. Comments made in review by L. Cohen

and A. J. Berni were very helpful; to the extent that I was

able to respond to their suggestions, the paper was improved.

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APPENDIX A

ZERO-CROSSING FREQUENCY AND DOMINANT FREQUENCY

Zero-crossing frequency is the number of zero crossings

that occur on a seismic trace divided by twice the length of

the trace (Gupta, 1975); it is a function of the amplitude

spectrum and the phase spectrum of the data. If the data

with zero mean and with

were a random normal process

then its expected zero-crossing frepower spectrum

quency is the root-mean-square frequency of equation (3),

which is independent of the phase (Papoulis, 1984, p. 348).

Stated differently, for a trace length At there will be on the

points whre

equals zero, with the factor

average

2 accounting for the two zero-crossings per period.

Root-mean-square frequency can thus be interpreted as an

expected zero-crossing frequency; this lends it an intuitive

and appealing meaning. It is also simple, independent of phase,

and closely related to the center frequency and spectral bandwidth. This close relationship facilitates computation and affords insightful comparisons with analogous equations in physics. For example, in dynamics the center of mass corresponds

to center frequency, the radius of gyration with respect to the

center of mass corresponds to the bandwidth, and the radius of

gyration with respect to the origin corresponds to the rootmean-square frequency (Papoulis, 1984, p. 110). A more relevant though imperfect example is in damped harmonic oscillation, where the frequency of oscillation is similar to the center

frequency, the natural (undamped) frequency is similar to the

root-mean-square frequency, and the decay coefficient is similar to the spectral bandwidth (Close, 1966, p. 201; Kreyszig,

1972, p. 65). These reasons justify root-mean-square frequency

as a measure of dominant frequency.

Dominant frequency, however, is usually estimated by

counting the number of relative maxima within some interval

40; Sheriff, 1989, p. 212; Sheriff, 1991, p. 88); these estimates

depend on the phase of the data and tend to be higher than

the zero-crossing frequency. The formula for the expected

for the specvalue of the frequency of relative maxima

trum of a random normal process with zero mean and power

spectrum

is

(A-1)

(3). For the spectrum of a 30 Hz Ricker wavelet, the center

frequency is 31.9 Hz, the spectral bandwidth is 10.2 Hz, the

root-mean-square frequency is 33.5 Hz, and the average

frequency of relative maxima is 39.7 Hz (Figure 1). The

dominant frequency as defined by Kallweit and Wood

(1982) is 39.0 Hz, which is nearly the same as the average

frequency of relative maxima.

The measures of dominant frequency cited above do not

lend themselves readily to instantaneous equivalents. While

the measure defined by equation (A-l) does suggest an

instantaneous equivalent, it is more complex than rootmean-square frequency defined by equation (3), and it lacks

the convenient relationship with the center frequency and

the spectral bandwidth defined by equations (1) and (2). I

conclude that root-mean-square frequency is a more useful

measure of dominant frequency.

APPENDIX B

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE AVERAGE FOURIER SPECTRAL MEASURES

AND THEIR INSTANTANEOUS COUNTERPARTS

Useful relationships exist between the average Fourier

spectral properties introduced in the text and weighted

time-average values of their instantaneous counterparts.

Those for center frequency and dominant frequency are

particularly simple and intuitively appealing; that for bandwidth is unfortunately more involved and less intuitive.

These are developed below.

Let

seismic trace with the following properties (Cohen, 1989):

(B-1)

427

Instantaneous Bandwidth

and

(B-2)

Mandel, 1974; Saha, 1987). Denoting the weighted average

over time by brackets and recalling equation (1) permits

equation (B-6) to be expressed in a succinct and useful form:

(B-3)

(B-7)

where

is the magnitude of the trace and

is its

corresponds to

power spectrum. If the trace is analytic,

instantaneous amplitude. Equation (B-3) is Parsevals theorem.

The relationship between instantaneous center frequency,

, averaged over time, and the average Fourier spectral

follows readily from their definitions given in

frequency

the text and the above properties. From equation (5) and

equation (B-l) is derived

(B-4)

Hence

(B-5)

Performing the outside integration first and dividing each

side of equation (B-5) by one side of equation (B-3), and

recalling equation (1) gives

(B-6)

is equal to the average Fourier speccenter frequency

tral frequency (Cohen, 1989). When

is equated with

with trace envelope, this

instantaneous frequency and

In a like manner, the relationship between the instantaand root-mean-square freneous dominant frequency

quency is found to be

dt

I0

0

(B-8)

I

(B-9)

Interestingly, and perhaps unfortunately for intuition, the

corresponding relationship between instantaneous bandand Fourier spectral bandwidth

is more

width

involved. It is readily derived by inserting equation (B-9) and

equation (8) into equation (4) to get

=

(B-10)

(B-l 1)

average value over time of the instantaneous bandwidth

squared is not equal to the Fourier spectral bandwidth

squared, and in fact is always less. This is true whether the

is defined by equation (9) in

instantaneous bandwidth

the text, or by equation (10), or by some other equation

consistent with the given definitions and the properties of

With

as instantaneous frequency and

defined by equation (9), equation (B-11) is identical to a

result derived by Mandel(1974) and Berkhout (1984, p. 29),

among others.

APPENDIX C

A SIMPLE MODEL OF INSTANTANEOUS FREQUENCY AND BANDWIDTH

CHANGE DUE TO Q LOSSES

A simple model is developed to compute the changes in the

instantaneous center frequency and spectral bandwidth of

seismic energy propagating through an attenuating earth. I

assume that in some average way the resultant equations also

apply to reflected energy. Such an assumption is implicit in the

use of instantaneous frequency to find low-frequency shadows

beneath bright spots (e.g., Taner et al., 1979). The limitations of

the assumption are beyond this discussion, but they do not

detract from the general argument that spectral changes due to

attenuation

losses can be observed with instantaneous

bandwidth as well as with instantaneous frequency.

The quality factor Q is commonly defined by

(C-1)

where

is the power spectrum at time t of the

propagating seismic energy (Johnston and Toksz, 1981, p.

2; McCarley, 1985). This can be expressed as

(C-2)

with

defined as the power spectrum of the wavelet

0 (McCarley, 1985). Let

be a factor

at time

representing the frequency-independent energy losses suffered by the wavelet as a result of wavefront spreading (e.g.,

Toksoz and Johnston, 1981, p. 9). Then the spectral power at

time t, accounting for Q losses and wavefront spreading, is

(Toksozand Johnston, 1981, p. 9). By

defining a quantity

as

428

Barnes

(C-3)

(C-6)

Spencer et al., 1982), where Q(t) is the quality factor as a

function of propagation time, this can be written as

LHpitals rule gives

The corresponding equations for instantaneous dominant frequency are

(C-7)

(C-4)

This is an expression for the power spectrum of seismic

energy propagating through the earth as a function of time, in

other words, an instantaneous power spectrum. Given this

expression, the initial power spectrum, and the quality factor

as a function of traveltime, the instantaneous center frequency and bandwidth of the propagating energy can be

calculated from the definitions given in the text. The resulting quantities prove to be independent of b(t).

Let the initial power spectrum Ea (0, f) be an ideal

band-pass spectrum from fe to fh defined by

(C-5)

The instantaneous power spectrum is now defined; performing the integrations required for instantaneous center frequency yields

and

(C-8)

1

The instantaneous bandwidth can be found from equations

(C-6) and (C-7) and equation (8) in the text.

Equations (C-6) and (C-7) govern the change in instantaneous center frequency and instantaneous dominant frequency for seismic energy propagating through the earth as

a function of total traveltime t. If, after accounting for the

doubling of traveltimes, and if in an average sense the power

spectrum of the reflected energy equals that of the transmitted energy, then these equations can also be employed to

estimate the corresponding instantaneous frequency and

instantaneous bandwidth of the reflected energy.

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