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Basic

Sealing
Principles
Product Support

Mechanical seals

Basic parts

Function of a mechanical seal

Types of mechanical seals

Arrangements

Materials

Operation of seals
Product Support

Mechanical seals in Pumps

Stuffingbox

Motor

Shaft
Coupling

Product Support

Basic Parts

Rotating Sealface (1)

Stationary sealface (3)

Secondary sealing
elements (2+4)

Spring element (5)

Torque transmission
(6)

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Product Support

Features of Sealfaces
z

Solid, homogen materials

Surface roughness
(polished , lapped)

Hardness

Facewidth

Good heat dissipation

Product Support

Rotating faces

Solid faces

Inserted faces

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Rotating faces

Composite faces
Shrunk in
Bonded
Brazed
Supported

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Stationary faces

Solid

Composite type

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Stationary faces
Mounting
0 Ring mounted
single 0 ring
double 0 ring

elastomer cup
rigid clamped

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Secondary sealing elements

0-rings

Enveloped rings

Rubber cups

Wedge designs
Quad rings

Product Support

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0-rings: location and compression

Dynamic 0-ring
7%
Stationary 0-ring
10 - 12 %
Static 0-ring
20 %
Dynamic 0-ring

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Stationary 0-ring

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Springs

helical springs

wave springs

metall bellows

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Torque transmissions

Form locked transmission

Friction locked transmission

Product Support

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Function of a seal 1

Closing forces

Static closing force


Hydraulic closing force

Media
Spring

Product Support

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Function of a seal 2
Media as a lubricant and coolant

Lubrication
Media

Cooling

Product Support

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Function of a seal 3

acceptable minimal Leakage

Medium

Leakage

Product Support

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Function of a mechanical seal

Closing forces
Static closing force
Hydraulic closing force
Lubrication
friction
cooling

Spring

friction
lubrication
Media

cooling Leakage

Leakage

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Unbalanced / balanced seals

Balance ratio of a seal

k=

hydraulic loaded area


sliding face area

necessary to reduce the face load of a


seal

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Unbalanced seals

k >1 = unbalanced seal


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Balanced seals

k <1 = balanced seal


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Heat developement of a seal

Face friction
Heat dissipation
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The sealing gap

Media

Frictional heat

Pressure
reduction

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The sealing gap

high temperature
media

Frictional heat

Boiling point
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Leakage

minimal = is acceptable

is influenced by many parameters

is neccessary for proper seal operation

Product Support

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Leakage effecting parameters

finish of the sliding faces


running in process
flatness of the faces
face deflections caused by thermal and pressure loads
conditions of the secondary seals
vibrations and stability of the maschine
operation mode of the plant
characteristics of the sealed fluids
accuracy of the seal mounting and assembly
condition of the equipment

Product Support

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Types of seals

0-ring seals
(pusher type seals)

Bellows type seals

Product Support

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Single seal arrangement 1

Externally pressurized

springs in
product contact

springs without
product contact

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Single seal arrangement 2

Internally pressurized

Springs facing away


from the product

Product Support

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Single seal arrangement 3

Stationary seals

springs with
product contact

springs without
product contact

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Seal arrangements

Multiple seals

Back to back
face to face
tandem

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Double acting seal arrangerments


Double acting seals
z
z
z
z

Multiple seal
Faces barrierfluid lubricated
Back to back or face to face
Pressurized barrierfluid
( P1 + 2..3 bar
resp.+10% over P1)

z
z
z
z

Product Support

No product leakage
For aggressive media
For solid loaded media
For polimerising, sticky media
Environmental safe operation

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Tandem arrangement
Tandem seal
z
z
z

z
z

Multiple seal
Function as single seal with safety seal
Quenchmedia
pressureless ( standard )
Surveyance possibility of seal
Leakagecontrol and drain

Product

Product Support

Quenchmedia

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Seal materials

Secondary seals
Spring element

Construction parts
depending on the
seal type

Face materials

Product Support

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Seal face materials


Ideal characteristics
resistence

to corrosion
resistence to wear
geometrical stableness
thermal conductivity
emergency running capability
price competitiveness

A selection is always a compromise


Product Support

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Burgmann standard materials


Soft faces

Hard faces

Buko

1 = resin impregn.
carbon graphite
Buko 03 = antimony impregn.
carbon graphite

Bume

5 = stainless steel
Buke 5 = ceramic (99%)
Buka 22 = silicone carbide
Buka 20 = silicone carbide
Buka 16 = tungsten carbide

With hard / hard face pairing


Buka 22 and /or Buka 16 is used

Product Support

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DIN standard materials


Soft faces

Hard faces

B = Buko 1
A = Buko 03

= Bume 5
V = Buke 5
Q1 = Buka 22
Q2 = Buka 20

U2

= Buka 16

More details in DIN 24960

Product Support

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Secondary seals materials


Elastomers
z
z
z
z

P = Nitril Butadien Kautschuk ( Perbunan )


E = Ethylen-Propylen-Dien Kautschuk, EPDM
V = Fluor-Kautschuk, FPM, (Viton )
K = Perfluor-Kautschuk, (. Kalrez, Chemraz )

Elastomers, wrapped ( enveloped )


z
z

M1 = TTV, Viton double PTFE enveloped


M2 = TTE, EPDM, double PTFE enveloped

Produkt

Product Support

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Secondary sealing elements


Non-Elastomers
z

G = Statotherm, pure graphite

T = PTFE (Polytetrafluorethylen)

Y1 = Burasil, gasket asbestos free

Product Support

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Springs and construction


Springs

1.4571 = stainless steel, 316 Ti


2.4610 = Hast. C4

Construction

1.4571 = Stainless steel, 316 Ti


2.4610 = Hast. C4
1.4462 = Duplex SS, 329

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Operation I

Operation with productcirculation

Flushing into the stuffingbox


from discharge
external source

to the seal face

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Operation I : Flush

Flush

- Increase of pressure in the stuffingbox


- Temperaturreduction
- Avoiding of deposits

- Reduction of solids content

Product Support

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Operation II

Packing

Throttlebusch

Lipseal

Mechanical seal
Product Support

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Operation II Quench
Operation with an external quench with different medias
liquid

steam

gas

Collection of leakage
Prevent air contact
Cooling / heating
Additional lubrication
Prevent icing
Vacuum operation
Leakagecontroll
Product Support

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