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EFFECT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

Oleh:
Tatok Risanggalih Wijayanto
Universitas Negeri Malang
(Risanggalihwijayanto@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT
Agriculture is an important sector in providing food. With the condition that the majority of Indonesia is an
agricultural region, is expected to fulfill the needs of agricultural enterprises Indonesian food so no need to
import food from foreign countries. Then attempt to optimize the farm is very necessary to be done. In this case,
the climate and the type of crops are important in determining the success of farming. However, climate change
is happening lately made agricultural produce from farmers became erratic. The results are influenced by factors
other than the agricultural land is also determined by climatic factors. Plants are able to grow normally in the
range of temperatures between 15 -40 C. Below or above this range the temperature will disrupt the physical
and chemical processes in the body that is none other than the physiological reaction. Climate change also
resulted in a shift or change in rainfall patterns. Shifting rainfall patterns affect the resource and agricultural
infrastructure that led to the shifting of planting time, season, and cropping patterns. With the climate change it
is possible a decrease in agricultural output. Due to the existence of climate anomalies that occurred rainfall and
agricultural cropping patterns become displaced or not promising change. In addition, the effects of disasters
caused also contributed to the decline in agricultural products such as landslides, droughts and floods. The threat
of flooding is increasingly common in rice fields is one of the impacts of climate change on the agricultural
sector. This leads to reduced crop acreage and production of rice. Increasing the intensity of flooding will
indirectly affect production because of increased pest and plant disease. Increased frequency of floods can cause
problems such as pests
Keywords: Climate Change, Agricultural Products

INTRODUCTION
Agriculture is an important sector in providing food and absorb labor in Indonesia.
With the condition that the majority of Indonesia is an agricultural region, is expected to
fulfill the needs of agricultural enterprises Indonesian food so no need to import food from
foreign countries. Then attempt to optimize the farm is very necessary to be done. In this
case, the climate and the type of crops are important in determining the success of farming.
Cultivation has grown considerably and experiencing a golden age when the world
agricultural community expressed the green revolution (green revolution) in the 1970s. In the
range of the year occurred invention to produce high yielding varieties through genetic
engineering. Thanks to the invention of the high yielding varieties (rice PB 5) Indonesia has
reached self-sufficiency in rice in 1984. But it did not last long because then there was
stagnation of production as a result of the limitations of the plant to produce (the ability of the
plants have reached the limit can not be increased again (leveling off ) and compounded by a
variety of environmental impacts (Purnomo, 2006 in Budiastuti, 2009).
However, climate change is happening lately made agricultural produce from farmers
became erratic. The farmers are very difficult to determine when they will grow crops.
Climate change is apparent marked a few natural disasters such as floods, landslides, and
drought. Various scientific forum held intensive world level to solve this climate change.
Summit Earth (Earth Summit) in 1992 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to discuss efforts to stabilize
greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) emissions to the atmosphere at a certain level. Gas
emissions that occur are as a result of fossil fuel use and land use change are all development
activities. Negotiations continued until in 1997 in Kyoto, the Conference of the Parties CoP
(Conference of Parties) initiated a procedure for reduction of GHG emissions, known as the
Kyoto Protocol. Gas emissions produced by industrialized countries should be reduced to
5.2% of GHG emissions in 1990 and it should be achieved in the period 2008-2012. The end
of 2007 was held back the Conference of Parties 13 in Nusa Penida Bali to create a
multilateral treaty negotiation guidelines replace the Kyoto Protocol. At the meeting it was
determined that GHG emissions must be achieved at a certain level when the ecosystem is
able to adapt to climate change (Soemarwoto, 2001; Murdiyarso, 2002, 2003a, 2003b,
Compass, Dec. 2007 in a Budiastuti, 2009).

Besides International level meeting on climate change, the discussion was also carried
out by scientific forums universities, government agencies and independent organizations in
Indonesia. As with LAPAN (National Space Agency) in 2003 held a scientific meeting in
London with one of the topics of global climate irregularities that interfere with food security.
Period of the rainy season and dry season can no longer be predicted with certainty. Several
times an error in determining the time of planting as the weather was experiencing prolonged
deviation (Budiastuti, 2009)

DISCUSSION
2.1 Climate Change
The phenomenon of climate change actually has happened and continues to this day,
even still happen in the future. In principle, climate change is happening because of some
climatic elements intensity deviates from the conditions usually lead to a certain direction.
Climate change is happening today is mostly caused by human activity. Human activities
generate economic development increasingly rapidly. Rapid economic development is a
serious impact on the world climate. The serious effects include massive combustion in coal,
oil, and wood. (Mudiarso, 2003 in Nurdin 2012) explains that the industrial estates have
produced waste "greenhouse gases" (GHGs), such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4),
and nitrousoksida (N2O), which can lead to "blanket effect" that encourages global warming.
The phenomenon of El Nino and La Nina also affect climate change in the local and
regional scale, where this phenomenon occurs only every few years. In 1978, compiled a list
of El Nino events which can be sorted by the year 1726, along with the intensity scale of 1
(one) to 4 (four) for the category of strong, medium, weak and very weak (Henderson, 2010).
El-nino strong ever experienced in Indonesia in 1982/1983 and 1997/1998 and perceived as
drought and famine. Long dry season adversely affects the growth of plants because all
physiological activities such as photosynthesis, respiration, transpiration, growth rate and
ultimately disrupted crop production. Unfortunately, information about the weather rarely
touch the perpetrators of agricultural activities. It is very important to know that people,
especially farmers immediately determine the steps in the management of agricultural
systems. The results of research in the field agrohidrologi or hydrology for agriculture is
needed to anticipate climatic factors or unfavorable weather and simultaneously empower
farmers in cultivating crops (Zadrach, 2002 in Budiastuti 2009).

2.2 Climate and Plant Growth


The results are influenced by factors other than the agricultural land is also
determined by climatic factors. It can happen because the climate is a natural condition in a
wide area so that man can not control the climate and the weather is going to happen. But
people can get around it with a variety of approaches. Effective approach is to adjust the farm
system with the local climatic conditions, the plant tree species suitable for example onion
and garlic planted in the dry season, planting rice in the rainy season and so forth. Climate
and weather data analysis should be kompeherensif and sustainable because of the climate
and the weather is a system that is always subject to change. Growth and production of the
end product of the process of photosynthesis and various other physiological. The process of
photosynthesis as the early life of the plant is essentially a physiological and physical
processes that convert solar energy (sunlight) in the form of electromagnetic waves into
chemical energy in the form of carbohydrates. Most of the chemical energy is reduced or
converted into kinetic energy and thermal energy through the process of respiration, to meet
the internal needs of the plant. Solar radiation is of course a direct effect on plant growth and
development (morphogenesis). The temperature range for normal plant growth is between 15
-40 C. Below or above this range the temperature will disrupt the physical and chemical
processes in the body that is none other than the physiological reaction (Budiastuti, 2009)
In addition to solar radiation, the process of photosynthesis is determined by the
availability of water, CO2 concentration and temperature. While the process of respiration
and some metabolic processes of plants affected by air temperature and other climatic
elements. In addition to metabolic processes, the process of flowering, grain filling and
ripening seeds or fruit of the rice plant is also very influenced by solar radiation (intensity and
duration of irradiation), air temperature and relative humidity, and wind. Therefore, the
productivity and quality of crops which are determined on the charging phase and ripening
seed or fruit is influenced by various elements of the climate and weather, especially solar
radiation and air temperature. Various physiological processes, growth and crop production is
strongly influenced by the weather elements, namely the state of the atmosphere from time to
time during the life of the plant, the availability of water (soil moisture) is determined by
rainfall within a certain time period and referred to as elements of the climate. Likewise, the
growth and yield of an accumulative of physiological processes during certain phases or
periods of growth and therefore in a more technical sense it can be stated that the growth and

crop production is influenced by various elements of the climate (as the accumulation of
weather conditions) during plant growth.

2.4 Impact of Climate Change Of Agriculture


Climate change will have an impact on shifts or changes in rainfall patterns. Changes
in rainfall patterns have occurred since the last few decades in several regions in Indonesia. In
addition there is the tendency of monthly rainfall intensity changes with the diversity and the
deviation of the higher and increased frequency of extreme climate events, especially rainfall,
wind, and tidal flood. Some experts find and predict the direction of change in the pattern of
rainfall in Western Indonesia, especially in the northern part of Sumatra and Borneo, where
the intensity of the rainfall tends to be lower, but with a longer period. In contrast, in the
Southern District of Java and Bali intensity of rainfall is likely to increase, but with a shorter
period (Naylor, 2007 in Haryono 2011). Shifting rainfall patterns affect the resource and
agricultural infrastructure that led to the shifting of planting time, season, and cropping
patterns, as well as land degradation. The tendency of shortening of the rainy season and
increased rainfall in Southern Java and Bali resulted in changes in the beginning and duration
of the growing season, thus affecting the planting index (IP), the planting area, the start time
of planting and cropping patterns. Pullback beginning of the rainy season for 30 days can
reduce rice production in West Java and Central Java as much as 6.5% and in Bali reached
11% of normal conditions. In contrast, in the northern part of Sumatra and Kalimantan, there
is a tendency extension of the rainy season with a lower intensity, which resulted in
lengthening the growing season and increased IP. However, the productivity of land in
Sumatra and Kalimantan are not as good as in Java. (Haryono, 2011)
Climate change will also affect the state of the ground water and infrastructure,
especially irrigation, which led to the threat of drought or flood. The level of damage to the
irrigation network is also quite high. It is estimated that the current irrigation network is not
functioning properly reach 70%, thus reducing the efficiency of water use (DG PLA 2007 in
Haryono, 2011). Changes in rainfall patterns cause a decrease in the availability of water in
reservoirs, particularly in Java. For example, for 10 years the average volume of water flow
into the Citarum the reservoir decreased from 5.7 billion m3 to 4.9 billion m3 per year
(Bappenas, 2009 in Haryono, 2011). These conditions have implications on the declining
ability of reservoir irrigate the fields in the northern coast of Java. The same conditions
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encountered in other reservoirs in Java, such as Gajahmungkur and Kedung Ombo. Not only
drought, flood threats are increasingly common in rice fields is also one of the effects of
climate change on the agricultural sector. This leads to reduced crop acreage and production
of rice.
Increasing the intensity of flooding will indirectly affect production because of
increased pest and plant disease. Increased frequency of floods can cause problems such as
pest snails in rice plants. In addition, there are also indications that the flooded paddy field in
the previous season are most likely experiencing an explosion of brown planthopper pests.
Pests like other living creatures development is influenced by climatic factors, either directly
or indirectly. Temperature, relative humidity and foroperiodisitas directly affect the life cycle,
fecundity, long life, and the ability of insect diapause. Generally pest insects such as fleas
small-fellowship to be a problem in the dry season or greenhouse because there is no
exposure to rain. Indirect influence is related to the natural enemies of pests both predators,
parasitoids and pathogens. The influence of climatic factors on the life cycle of the pathogen
could against pathogens, virulence (infectious power), transmission, and reproduction of the
pathogen. Effect of climate change will be very specific to each disease. (Garret 2006 in
Kertasapoetra 1993) stated that climate change affects the disease through its influence on the
level of the genome, cellular, physiological processes of plants and pathogens. Climatic
factors also affect the host plant resistance. Vanilla plants were stressed because of too much
light will be susceptible to stem rot disease caused by Fusarium. The expression of the
symptoms of some diseases because the virus is dependent on temperature. Climate change
will affect crop yields. Reduced crop yields could threaten food security.

CONCLUSION
Climate change is happening in the world is caused by increasing concentrations of
CO2 in the atmosphere caused by human activity. The phenomenon of El Nino and La Nina
is also very influential on local and regional climate change. Climate change has a major
impact on agriculture. With the climate change it is possible a decrease in agricultural output.
Due to the existence of climate anomalies that occurred rainfall and agricultural cropping
patterns become displaced or not promising change. In addition, the effects of disasters
caused also contributed to the decline in agricultural products such as landslides, droughts
and floods. The threat of flooding is increasingly common in rice fields is one of the impacts
of climate change on the agricultural sector. This leads to reduced crop acreage and
production of rice. Increasing the intensity of flooding will indirectly affect production
because of increased pest and plant disease. Increased frequency of floods can cause
problems such as pests

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Firdaus, Azhar. 2013. Mitigasi dan Adaptasi Perubahan Iklim Pada Pertanian. Solo: Fakultas
Pertanian UNS Solo
Haryono dkk. 2011. Pedoman Umum Adaptasi Perubahan Iklim Sektor Pertanian. Bandung:
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Kartasapoetra, Ance Gunarsih. 1993. Klimatologi Pengaruh Iklim terhadap Tanah dan
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Gorontalo: Jurusan Agroteknologi Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Negeri Gorontalo