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Flow of Heat in a Body

Ralph Marwin Corpuz


BSME 1310928
College of Engineering and Technology
New Era University, Quezon City
waitskin_ralm@yahoo.com

Heat is very essential in every days living


and in fact, is also plays a great impact in
studying thermodynamics. It is defined,
scientifically, as an energy in process of
transfer between a system and its
surroundings, other than as work or with the
transfer of matter. Using the methods of
solving differential equations, we get an
expression for the heat flowing through the
body having an area A normal to the
direction of the heat the rate of flow of heat
through a cylindrical shell is directly
proportional to the difference of the inner
and outer temperatures and inversely
proportional to the natural logarithm of the
ratio of the outer to the inner radius. we
have observed the performances how heat
flows in a body using the derive equation.
The constant quantity of heat flowing
through the body is equal to the negative of
the product of constant proportionality, which
is a property of the making up the body and
is known as the thermal conductivity, and
the cross-sectional area and the temperature
gradient with respect to direction x normal to
the direction of the flow.

Introduction
Heat is very essential in every days living
and in fact, is also plays a great impact in
studying thermodynamics. It is defined,
scientifically, as an energy in process of
transfer between a system and its
surroundings, other than as work or with the
transfer of matter. Heat is transferred by
Conduction, Convection, Radiation, or more
normally, by a combination of two or more of
them.
In this study, we must consider the Laws
on Heat Flow in a Body (Derive from
experimental Studies):
(a) The quantity of heat (calorie/seconds)
flowing in body is proportional to its
mass (in grams) and to its temperature
(C).
(b) Heat flows from higher to a lower
temperature.
(c) The rate of flow (calorie/second)
across an area (square centimeter) is
proportional to the area and to the
temperature gradient (i.e. the rate of

change of the temperature relative to


the direction perpendicular to the
area.)
Then, if Laws (a) and (b) are applied to a
body
under
steady-state
heat
flow
conditions (flow rate of heat is independent
of time) the following relation is obtained,

q=KA

du
dx

where, q is the constant quantity of heat


flowing through the body having an area A
(square centimeter) normal to the direction
of the heat (calorie/second). The temperature
at any point on the body (C) is denoted by u.

du
dx

is the temperature gradient relative to

the direction x (cm.) normal to the direction


of flow. K is the constant of proportionality
which is a property of the material making up
the body and is known as the thermal
conductivity (calorie/cm.deg.sec.)

Methodology
If the above relation is applied to a
steady-state heat flow of steam, in
particular, through a cylindrical pipe with an
insulating material of thermal conductivity K,
then for length L (cm) of the pipe and the
inner and outer radii of the insulating
material x1 and x2 (cm), we have,

q=KA

du
dx

with A is equal to 2

(1)

multiply by the

length L and x (x1xx2).

A=2 Lx

Substituting this to Equation (1),

q=2 KLx

du
dx

And, divide both side by

dx
x

MAT 311 - Applications of Differential Equations

dx
=2 KLdu .
x

Then by integrating both side,


x2

q
x1

u2

dx
=2 KL du
x
u1

we obtain,

q=

2 KL(u 1u 2)
ln ( x 2/x 1)

which states that the rate of flow of heat


through a cylindrical shell is directly
proportional to the difference of the inner
and outer temperatures and inversely
proportional to the natural logarithm of the
ratio of the outer to the inner radius.

Results and Discussions


The
Heat Flow concept is very huge when in
terms of applications because we can simply
observe it from our surroundings and
environment. Best way to show its
application is by solving this real-scenario
problems:
(1) A pipe 20 cm in diameter contains
steam at 100C and is covered with a
certain insulation 5 cm in thickness.
The outside temperature is kept at
40C. By how much should the
thickness of insulation be increased in
order that the rate of heat loss shall be
decreased by 20%?
(2) A steam pipe having a radius of 3cm
and with a steam temperature of
100C is wrapped with a 1 cm layer of
insulation of thermal conductivity
0.0003 calorie/cm.deg.sec. and then
that layer is wrapped with a 2cm layer
of insulation of thermal conductivity
0.0002 calorie/cm/deg.sec. At what
temperature must the outside surface
be maintained in order that 0.008
calorie/sec will flow from each square
cm of pipe surface?
(3) A pipe 10 cm in diameter contains
steam at 100C. is to be covered with
two coats of insulation, each 2.50 cm
thick, the inner with k= 0.00017
calorie/cm.deg.sec. and the outside
surface temperature is 30C, find the
heat loss per hour for a meter length of
pipe.

1. For the solution in problem (1), we use the


derived basic equation:

q=

2 KL(u 1u 2)
ln ( x 2/x 1)

where, from the given values,:


x1 = 10 cm
x2 = 15 cm
u1 = 100C (constant)
u2 = 40C (fixed)
Under the given condition, the original
amount of heat flow rate is,

q=

2 KL(10040)
ln ( 15/10)
q=

or

120 KL
ln 1.5

For the rate of heat loss to decrease by


20% the new rate is,
qn = 0.80 qo

2 KL(10040)
120 KL
=0.80
ln ( x /10)
ln 15
Or

0.80 ( lnxln10 )=ln 1.5


lnx=2.81

x=16.6 cm
So, the thickness of the insulation must
be increased by

16.6015=1.60 cm

1.60 cm.
2. Here, two (2) insulations are involved.
Basic Equation:

q=

2 KL(u 1u 2)
x2
ln ( )
x1

For the first insulation,


X1 = 3 cm ; u1 = 100C
X2 = 4cm ; u2 =?
K1 = 0.0003 cal/cm.deg.sec.
L=

1
2 (3)

or 2L = 1/3 cm

q = 0.0080 cal/sec
substitute the known values,

MAT 311 - Applications of Differential Equations

ln

q=

q=0. 120 (u 230)

1
( )(0.0003)(100u 2)
3
0.0080=

From which, u2 = 77C


For the second insulation,
X2 = 4cm; u2 = 77C
X3= 6cm; u3 = ?
K2= 0.0002 cal/cm.deg.sec.
2L= 1/3 cm (same as in the first)
q= 0.0080 cal/sec
substitute known values,

6
ln ( 4)
( 1/3)(0.00020)(77u 3)
0.0080=

Simplify to get

u 3=28.3 C .

3. Problem number three (3) is similar to


problem two (2).
Use the basic equation:

q=

2 KL ( u 1u 2 )
ln ( x 2/ x 1 )

For the first insulation,


X1 = 5 cm ; u1 = 100C
X2 = 7.5 cm ; u2 =?
K1 = 0.00060 cal/cm.deg.sec.
L=

1 m(100 cm)

Substitute to the basic relation,

2 (0.00017)(100)(100u2)
q=
ln ( 10 /7.5)
q=0.30 (100u 2) .
For the second insulation,
X1 = 7.5 cm ; u2 = ?
X2 = 10 cm ; u3 = 30C
K1 = 0.00017 cal/cm.deg.sec.
L=

2 (0.00017)(100)(u 230)
ln ( 10 /7.5)

1 m(100 cm)

Substitute known values,

Equate the qs of the previous solutions,

0.30 ( 100 u 2 )=0.120 (u 230)


From which,

u2 = 80C.

So, using any of the two values of q,

q=0.30 ( 10080 )=18.85 cal /sec


= (67,860 cal/hr)
Conclusions and Recommendations
In summary, we have observed the
performances how heat flows in a body using
the derive equation. The constant quantity of
heat flowing through the body is equal to the
negative of the product of constant
proportionality, which is a property of the
making up the body and is known as the
thermal conductivity, and the crosssectional area and the temperature gradient
with respect to direction x normal to the
direction of the flow.
The first problem is implies in a circular
cylindrical steam pipe concerning about the
increased of the insulation in order that the
rate of heat loss be decreased. So, first, they
have to substitute the initial conditions
equating it to the expression made for the
rate of heat loss to decrease. In the second
problem, two (2) insulations are involved
finding the temperature outside surface in
order that certain heat will flow from each
square cm of pipe surface. The third problem
is solved the same way as the second (2nd)
because theyre both having pipes with two
insulating material.
References
[1]
https://www.teachengineering.org/view_lesso
n.php?
url=collection/cub_/lessons/cub_housing/cub_
housing_lesson01.xml (Retrieved Oct. 12,
2015).

MAT 311 - Applications of Differential Equations

[2] R.A.D., H.T.T., A.D.T., Engineering


Mathematics Made Easy:Theorethical
Applications of Ordinary Differential
Equations.
[3] http://www.engr.sjsu.edu/trhsu/Chapter
%203%20First%20order%20DEs.pdf
(Retrieved Oct. 12, 2015).

MAT 311 - Applications of Differential Equations