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# CVE312 Fluid Mechanics II (2 Units)

Fluid statics: Floatation and stability. Dynamics of fluid flow-conservation. Equation of mass an
momentum. Euler and Bernoullis equations. Reynolds number. Dimensional analysis, similitude,
Buckinggham Pitheorems. Application of hydraulics models. Flow measurements. Flow meters
and errors in measurement.
Week One:
Floatation and stability
This topic will focus on the forces that are present in fluids at rest. Force variations (Pressure
variations)- in a static fluid is important to the Civil Engineer. Some examples are water retained by a
dam bounded by a levee, gasoline in a tank truck, and accelerating fluid containers. Furthermore, fluid
statics deals with the stability of floating bodies and submerged bodies and is applied in the design of
ship hull and in load distributions determination for flat bottomed barges. Thus, fluid statics concerns
the forces that are present in fluids at rest, with applications to various practical problems.
The objectives of this chapter are to discuss pressure and pressure measurements , to develop
equations for calculating forces on submerged surfaces, and to examine problems involving the stability
of partially or wholly submerged bodies.
PRESSURE AND PRESSURE MEASUREMENT
Consider a wedge-shaped particle exposed on all sides to a fluid as illustrated in Fig. 1a. Fig.1b is a freebody diagram of the particle cross section. The dimensions of x, y, z are small and tend t zero as
the particle shrinks to a point. The only forces considered to be acting on the particle are due to
pressure and gravity. On either of the three surfaces, the pressure force is F=pA. By applying Newton's
second law in the x- and z-directions, we get, respectively,

p x zy p x sy sin (

p z xy p s sy cos g

xyz ) 0

xyz

xyz a z 0
2
2

where: px, pz, and ps are average pressures acting on the three corresponding faces ax and az are
accelerations

## is the particle density

The net force equals zero in a static fluid. After simplification, with ax=z=0, these two equations become
px z -pssin=0

## and Pz z -ps s cos-

g
2

xz 0

The third term on the left-hand side of the second equation can be neglected because it is a higherorder term containing xz , which is very small in comparison to the other terms. From the geometry
of the wedge, we find that

z s sin
and

x s cos
which being arbitrarily chosen. Substituting into the pressure equation yields

px
pz

ps
px=pz=ps
ps

which illustrates that pressure at a point is the same in all directions. This concept was shown for a twodimensional model, but the proof is easily extended to three dimensions.
From the preceding paragraphs, we have seen that forces acting on a fluid at rest are due to pressure
and gravity. It is therefore important to learn how these forces vary in a static fluid.
Consider an element of a fluid at rest, as illustrated in Figure 1.2 a. The element chosen has a volume dx
dy dz and is sketched in a coordinate system where the positive z-direction is downward, coincident
with the direction of the gravity force. Figure 1.2 b is a view of the element looking in the positive ydirection; the force acting on the right face is pdydz and that on the left face is p (p / x)dxdydz,

both normal to their respective surfaces. Summing forces in the x-direction, we have the following for a
static fluid:

0 pdydz ( p

p
dx)dydz
x

(1)

Simplifying, we get

p
0
x

(2)

which means that pressure does not vary with respect to x. A similar argument can be made for the
forces in the y-direction, which would yield

p
0
y

(3)

Thus, Equation 1 and 2 show that there is no variation of pressure in any lateral direction.
Fig. 1.2c gives a free-body diagram for the z-direction. Summing forces, we obtain

## 0 pdxdy gdxdydz p dz dxdy

z

or
dp= gdz

(4)

Therefore, pressure does not vary in a static fluid in the z-direction-it increases with depth, as shown by
Equation (4). Integrating both sides yields
p2

z2

p1

z1

dp gdz

(5)

where point 1 is a reference point such as the free surface of a liquid and point 2 is a point of interest.
For incompressible fluids, the density is a constant, and Equation (5) can be easily evaluated to give

p 2 p1 g ( z 2 z1) gz
where z is the depth below the liquid surface. This relationship is the basic equation of hydrostatics
and is often written as

p gz
Example 1.1
A cylindrical open-topped tank that serves as a reservoir for octane before it is piped to another location
is 140 ft in diameter. Determine the pressure difference between the top and the bottom of the walls
due to the octane when the tank is filled to a depth of 30ft.
Solution
We use the hydrostatic equation

p 2 p1 g ( z 2 z1)
Section 1 refers to the free surface of the octane and section 2 is at the bottom . For octane ,
0.701(1.94slug/ft3). By substitution,
p2-p1= p 0.701(1.94slug/ft3)(32.2 ft/s2)(30-0)
or

p 1310

lbf
ft 2

## The result is independent of diameter.

Example 2.2
A cup of coffee is 7cm in diameter and filled to a depth of 8cm with coffee (assume properties are the
same as for water ). Calculate the pressure difference between the surface of the coffee and the bottom
of the cup.
SOLUTION
The hydrostatic equation applies with p=1000kg/m3 for water:

p gz (1000kg
p 785 N

m3

)(9.81m

s2

)(0.08m)

m2

## The result is independent of the cup diameter

Continuation
Equation (5) was integrated for the case of incompressible fluids (constant density), which is reasonable
for liquids. The hydrostatic equation resulted . Gases on the other hand, are compressible fluids with
properties that are related by the ideal gas law, under simplifying conditions:

p RT

P
RT

## Substitute this into Equation (4), to get,

dp=

p
gdz
RT

or

dp
g

dz Integrate the above equation from point 1 to point 2, for constant temperature effect
p RT
p2

dp
g 2

p RT z dz
p1
1

ln

p2
g

( z 2 z1 )
p1 RT

Rearranging, we get

z 2 z1

RT p 2
ln
g
p1

(8)

In most common example of a compressible fluid, our atmosphere, temperature is not a constant
throughout but varies with height in the troposphere according to;
T=T0-h

(9)

where T =temperature at any point from sea level(where T=T0) to an altitude h of approximately 36,000
ft, or 11km.
is called a lapse rate (3.60F/1000ft or 6.50C/km)
The stratosphere, the layer above the troposphere can be described by the same ideal gas equation. A
lapse rate equation is not necessary for the stratosphere because it is approximately isothermal.
Whether the fluid is compressible or incompressible, it is important to note that pressure variations in
static fluids are the result of gravity. The pressure increases with depth in either case.
Example 2.3
Graph the relationship between pressure and elevation in the stratosphere assuming it to isothermal at
-570C. The stratosphere begins at an altitude of approximately 11 000m, where the pressure is 22.5
kPa. Extend the graph to an elevation of 20000 m.
Solution
In this case, Equation (8) applies, but it must first be modified. Equation (8) was derived from
Equation(4), but Equation(4) is based on the assumption that the positive z-direction is coincidental with
the direction of the gravity force. In this example, we are dealing with the atmosphere, and we are
quoting measurements of altitude using the earth's surface as a reference. So the positive z-direction is
upward, which is opposite from the direction of the gravity force. Therefore, if we use Equation(8), we
must account for this discrepancy. We can do so by using a negative g. Thus,

z z 2 z1

RT p 2
ln
g p1

We select as our reference, z1=11 000m, where p1=22.5 kPa. From standard tables of the physical
properties of gases at room temperature and pressure, R=286.8J/(kg.K) for air, and we were given

T=570C=216K. In applying the preceding equation, let z1=z=any value ranging from 11 to 20km and
p2=p=the corresponding pressure.
Substitution gives

z 11000

286.8(216)
p
ln
9.81
22500

or
z=11000-6.315ln

p
22500

Rearranging yields

11000 z
p
ln

6.315
22500
Solving for pressure, we get

11000 z

6.315

p=22500exp

## Plot altitude, z(cm) against pressure, p (kPa).

THE STABILITY OF BODIES IN FLUIDS
a. The stability of submerged bodies
For a body not otherwise restrained, it is important to know not only whether it will rise or fall in the
fluid, but also whether an originally vertical axis in the body will remain vertical. We are not here
concerned with effects of a fluid in motion but with states of equilibrium. We must, however ,
distinguish three types of equilibrium . A body in STABLE EQUILIBRIUM will, if given a small displacement
and then released, return to its original position. If, on the other hand, the equilibrium is unstable, the
body will not return to its original position but will move further from it. In neutral equilibrium, the body,
having been given a small displacement and then released, will simply adopt its new position.
For a body wholly immersed in a single fluid-as, for example the balloon and gondola illustrated in Fig. 3the conditions for stability of equilibrium are simple. An angular displacement from the normal position
(a) brings into action the couple Wx, which tends to restore the system to position (a). This, then, is a
stable arrangement. If, however, the centre of gravity G were above the centre of buoyancy B, the
couple arising from a small angular displacement would be such as to cause the assembly to topple
over. So far a completely immersed body the condition for stability is simply that G be below B. If B and
G coincide, neutral equilibrium is obtained.
b. The stability of floating bodies

The condition for angular stability of a body floating in a liquid is a little more complicated. This is
because, when the body undergoes an angular displacement about a horizontal axis, the shape of the
immersed volume in general changes, so the centre of buoyancy moves relative to the body. As a result
stable equilibrium can be achieved even when G is above B.
Figure 4a illustrates a floating body -a boat, for example -in its equilibrium position. The net force is
zero, so the buoyancy is equal in magnitude to the weight W of the body. There must be no moment on
the body, so the weight acting vertically downwards through the centre of gravity G must be in line with
the buoyancy acting vertically downwards through the centre of buoyancy B. Figure 4b shows the
situation after the body has undergone a small angular displacement or angle of heel, . It is assumed
that the position of the centre . It is assumed that the position of the centre of gravity G remains
unchanged relative to the body. (This is not always a justifiable assumption for a ship since some of the
cargo may shift during an angular displacement) . The centre of buoyancy B, however, does not remain
fixed relative to the body . During movement , the volume immersed on the right-hand side increases
while that on the left-hand side decreases, so the centre of buoyancy (i.e. the centroid of the immersed
volume ) moves to a new position B'. Suppose that the line of action of the buoyamcy (which is always
vertical) intersects the axis BG at M. For small values of , the point M is practically constant and is
known as the metacentre. For the body shown in the Figure, M is above G, and the couple acting on the
body in its displaced position is a restoring couple, that is, it tends to restore the body to its original
position. If M were below G, the couple would be an overturning couple and the original equilibrium
would have been unstable.
The distance of the metacentre above G is known as the metacentric height, and for stability of the body
it must be positive (i.e. M above G). Neutral equilibrium is of course obtained when the metacentric
height is zero and G and M coincide. For floating body, stability is not determined simply by relative
positions of B and G. The magnitude of the restoring couple is W(GM) sin and the magnitude of GM
therefore serves as a measure of the stability of a floating body.
Example 4
A uniform, closed cylindrical buoy, 1.5 m high, 1.0m diameter and of mass 80kg is to float with its axis
vertical in sea-water of density 1026 kg.m-3. A body of mass 10 kg is attached to the centre of the top
surface of the body. Show that, if the buoy floats freely, initial instability will occur.
Solution
Moments of mass about horizontal axis through O:

1.5
m ={(80+10)kg} (OG)
2

OG=0.8333 m
FIGURE

## (1m) 2 h 1026kg.m 3 g (80 10)kgg

whence h=0.1117m

d 4
From Fig. 5, Ak of a circle about a centroidal axis =
64
2

2
BM Ak

64

d4 /

d 2h

d2
16h

12
m 0.560m
=
16 0.1117
and

0.1117

0.560 0.8333m
2

GM=OB+BM-OG=
=-0.2175m

## Since this is negative (i.e. M is below G),the buoy is unstable.

Stability of a body subject to an additional force
When an unconstrained body is in equilibrium in a fluid the only forces relevant to its stability are the
weight of the body and its buoyancy. If, however, an additional force is provided -by, for example , an
anchor chain-stability is determined by the lines of action of the buoyancy and the resultant downward
force.
Example 5
For the buoy considered in Example 4, calculate the least vertical downward force applied at the centre
of the base that would just keep the buoy upright. What would then be the depth of immersion?
Solution
A vertically downward force F applied at O increases the total downward force from W (the total weight
of the buoy) to W+F. To maintain vertical equilibrium , the buoyancy too is increased to W+F, and so the
new depth of immersion h' is given by

d 2 h' W F

Taking moments of forces about a horizontal axis through O gives the requirement for the restoring
couple to be just zero:
FIGURE

h' d 2

W(OG)=(W+F)(OB+BM)= g d h'
4
2
16
h
'

that is,
(90 kg)g (0.8333m)=(1026kg.m-3)g

(h' ) 2 (1m) 2
(1m) 2

4
16
2

whence
h'=0.2473m
and
F= g

## d 2 h'W (1026 9.81 12

4
4

=1072N
c. Stability of a fluid itself
In the preceding sections, we have considered the stability of separate, identifiable, bodies wholly or
partly immersed in a fluid. We now turn attention to the stability of parts of the fluid itself that, perhaps
because of uneven heating or cooling, have a density slightly different from that of neighboring fluid.
These differences of density are the cause of fluid motion known as convection currents, which are
frequently encountered in both liquids and gases.
If, for example, only the lower layers of a certain bulk of fluid are heated, an unstable condition results.
This is because if some of the warmer fluid is displaced upwards, it finds itself surrounded by cooler,
and therefore denser, fluid. The buoyancy force exerted on the warmer fluid by its surroundings is
equal in magnitude to the weight of an equal volume of the surrounding denser fluid. As this buoyancy
is greater than the weight of the newly arrived fluid, there is a net upward force on the warmer fluid,
which therefore continues to rise. Heavier fluid then flows downwards to take the place of the less
dense fluid that has moved up and thus free convection is started.

If, however, the lower layers of fluid are cooled, the conditions are stable. Fluid displaced downwards
would be surrounded by cooler, denser, fluid; it would therefore experience a buoyancy force greater
than its own weight and would return upwards to its original position.
Such movements occur on a large scale in the atmosphere. The lower part of the atmosphere is
continually being mixed by convection, which is largely due to the unequal heating of the earth's
surface.
EQUILIBRIUM OF MOVING FLUIDS
In certain instances the methods of hydrostatics may be used to study the behavior of fluids in motion.
For example, if all the fluid concerned moves uniformly in a straight line, there is no acceleration and
there are no shear forces. Thus no force acts on the fluid as a result of the motion and, in these
circumstances, the hydrostatic equations apply without change.
If the fluid concerned, is undergoing uniform acceleration in a straight line, no layer moves relative to
another, so there are still no shear forces. There is however, an additional force acting to cause the
acceleration. Nevertheless, provided that due allowance is made for this additional force, the system
may be studied by the methods of hydrostatics. Fluids in such motion are said to be in relative
equilibrium.
The Principles Governing Fluids in Motion
Introduction
In this section, we lay the foundations of the analysis of fluid flow by considering first the description of
motion in terms of displacement, velocity and acceleration but without regard to the forces causing it.
The Principle of Conservation of Mass is introduced; then the inter-relation between different forms of
energy associated with the fluid flow is examined; and finally some simple applications of these results
are considered.
Acceleration of a Fluid Particle
The velocity of a fluid particle is a function both of position and of time. As the particle moves from say,
point A to point B, its velocity changes for two reasons. One is that particles at B have a velocity
different from particles at A, even at the same instant of time; the other reason is that during the time
the given particle moves from A to B, the velocity at B changes. If B is at only a small distance s from A,
the particle's total increase of velocity u is the sum of the increase due to its change of position and the
increase due to the passing of a time interval t :

u
u
s t
s
t

and so, in the limit, as t 0, the acceleration as in the direction of flow is given by

as

du uds u

dt sdt t

or, since ds

as

dt

u,

du
u u
u

dt
s dt

## The full rate of increase du

(1)

dt

for a given particle is often termed the substantial acceleration. The term

represents only the local or temporal acceleration, that is, the rate of increase of velocity with

respect to time at a particular point in the flow. The term u(u s) is known as the convective
acceleration, that is, the rate of increase of velocity due to the particle's change of position. Although in
steady flow u t is zero, the convective acceleration is not necessarily zero, so that substantial
acceleration is not necessarily zero.
A particle may also have an acceleration in a direction perpendicular to the direction of flow. When a
particle moves in a curved path, it changes direction and so has an acceleration towards the centre of
curvature of the path, whether or not the magnitude o the velocity is changing. If the radius of the path2
line is rp, the particle's acceleration towards the centre of curvature is u rp . Alternatively, if the

streamline has a radius of curvature rs, the particle's acceleration an towards the centre of curvature of
the streamline has in general a convective part u 2 rs and a temporal part u n t , where un represents
the component of velocity of the particle towards the centre of curvature. Although, at that moment, un
is zero, it is, unless the flow is steady, increasing at the rate u n t. Thus

an

u 2 u n

rs
t

(2)

## The Continuity Equation

The principle of the conservation of mass expresses the fact that matter can neither be created nor
destroyed. The continuity equation is a mathematical statement of that principle. Applying the principle
to a fixed region within a fluid (See the Figure 3.1), we can write:
The rate at which mass enters the region=The rate at which mass leaves the region+ The rate of
accumulation of mass in the region
If the flow is steady(i.e. unchanging with time), the rate at which mass is accumulated within the region
is zero. The expression then reduces to
The rate at which mass enters the region=The rate at which mass leaves the region

This relation may now be applied to a stream-tube whose cross-section is small enough for there to be
no significant variation of velocity over it. A length s of the stream-tube is considered between the
cross-sectional planes B and C (Fig.3.2 ), s being so small that any variation in the cross-sectional area
A along that length is negligible. Then, the volume of fluid contained in that small piece of the streamtube is ( A)s . (We recall that the cross-section by definition is perpendicular to the length ). If the
fluid initially between planes B and C passes through the plane C in a short time interval t , then the

rate at which fluid volume passes through C is As / t , or, in the limit, Ads / dt. But ds dt is the

linear velocity there, say u, so the rate of volume flow is Au. As in calculating a volume, a length must
be multiplied by the area of a surface perpendicular to that length, so in calculating the rate of volume
flow (frequently termed the discharge and represented by the symbol Q) the velocity must be multiplied
by the area of a surface perpendicular to it. The rate of mass flow is given by the product of the
discharge and the density.
The rate at which a mass of fluid enters a selected portion of a stream tube-where the cross-sectional

area is A1 , the velocity of the fluid u1 and its density 1 -is therefore 1 A1 u1 . For steady flow, there
is no accumulation of mass within the stream-tube, so the same mass must pass through all crosssections of the tube in unit time. Thus

1 A1 u1 1 A2 u 2 ... constant

(3)

For the entire collection of stream-tubes occupying the cross-section of a passage through which the
fluid flows, eqn (3) may be integrated to give

udA constant
A

where u is everywhere perpendicular to the elemental area A . If and u are constant over the entire
cross-section, the equation becomes

Au constant
For a fluid of constant density the continuity relation reduces to

udA constant
A

## which may be written

Au constant= Q
where u represents the mean velocity and Q is the volumetric flow rate. For the flow of an
incompressible fluid along a stream-tube, eqn 3 indicates that uA constant, so as the cross-sectional
area A decreases, the velocity increases, and vice versa. This fact at once allows a partial
interpretation of the pattern formed by streamlines in steady flow: in regions where the streamlines are

close together, the velocity is high, but where the same streamlines are more widely spaced the velocity
is lower. This conclusion, which applies to incompressible fluids, does not necessarily apply to the flow
of compressible fluids in which large density changes occur.

BERNOULLI'S EQUATION
The velocity of a fluid in general varies from one point to another even in the direction of flow. Since, by
Newton's First Law, a change of velocity must be associated with a force, it is to be expected that the
pressure of the fluid also changes from point to point.
The relation between these changes may be studied by applying Newton's Second Law to a small
element of the fluid over which the changes of velocity and pressure are very small. The element is so
chosen that it occupies part of a stream of a stream -tube of small cross-section (see Fig. 3.3). The ends
of the element are plane and perpendicular to the central streamline, but may be of any geometrical
shape.
The forces under investigation are those due to the pressure of the fluid all round the element, and to
gravity. The other possible forces are assumed to be negligible.
The behavior of an ideal fluid is thus often remarkably similar to that of an ideal, inviscid one. In the
absence of shearing forces, any force acting on a surface is perpendicular to it, whether the surface is
that of a solid boundary or that of an element of fluid. It is also assumed that the flow is steady.
The element is of length s , where s represents the distance measured along the stream-tube in the
direction of flow. The length s , is so small that the curvature of the streamlines over this distance is
neglected.
The pressure, velocity and so on will (in general) vary with s, but, as the flow is steady, quantities at a
particular point do not change with time and so, for the stream-tube considered, each variable may be
regarded as a function of s only.
At the upstream end of the element, the pressure is p, and at the downstream end p+ p (where p
may of course be negative). At the sides of the element, the pressure varies along the length, but a
mean value of p+k p may be assumed, where k is a fraction less than unity. The pressure at the
upstream end (where the cross-sectional area is A) results in a force pA on the element in the direction
of flow; the pressure at the downstream end (where the cross-sectional area is (A+ A ) causes a force
(p+ p )(A+ A ) on the element in the opposite direction.
Since the force in any direction is given by the product of the pressure and the projected area
perpendicular to that direction, the net axial force downstream due to the pressure at the sides of the
element is (p+k p ) A , since A is the net area perpendicular to the flow direction.

The weight of the element, W, equals gAs (the second order of small quantities being neglected) and
its component in the direction of motion is - gAs cos, where represents the density of the fluid and
the angle shown between the vertical and the direction of motion. Thus, in the absence of other
forces, such as those due to viscosity, the total force acting on the element in the direction of flow is

pA ( p p )( A A) ( p kp )A gAs cos
When the second order of small quantities is neglected, this reduces to

Ap gAs cos

(6)

Since the mass of the element is constant, this net force must, by Newton's Second Law, equal the mass
multiplied by the acceleration in the direction of the force, that is, As (du dt).
We may write s cos as z , where z represents height above some convenient horizontal datum and
z the increase in level along the length of the element. Then dividing by As and taking the limits s
0 , we obtain

1 dp du
dz

g
0
ds dt
ds

(7)

## From equation (1)

du
u u
u

dt
s dt
However, for steady flow the local acceleration

u dt 0 and so du dt u(du ds) (the full derivative now taking the place of the partial because for
this stream -tube u is a function of s only). We then have

1 dp
du
dz
u
g
0
ds
ds
ds

(8)

as the required equation in differential form. This is often referred to as Euler's equation, after the Swiss
mathematician Leonard Euler (1707-83). It cannot be completely integrated with respect t s unless is
either constant or a known function of p. For a fluid of constant density, however, the result of
integration is

p u2

gz constant

2
or, if we divide by g,

(9)

p u2

z constant
g 2 g

(10)

This result (in either form) is usually known as Bernoulli's equation or the Bernoulli equation in honour
of another Swiss mathematician, Daniel Bernoulli (1700-82), who in 1738 published one of the first
books on fluid flow (Equations 9 and 10, however not developed until some years later).
Z is the elevation above some horizontal plane arbitrarily chosen as a base of measurement. The
Bernoulli Equation assumes that the flow is steady and hence not applicable to unsteady flows.
To sum up, the conditions to which Bernoulli's equation applies are: the fluid must be frictionless
(inviscid) and of constant density; the flow must be steady; and the relation holds in general only for a
single streamline.
The significance of the terms in Bernoulli's equation
The derivation of Bernoulli's equation is based on the application of Newton's Second Law o Motion,
which relates the rate of change of momentum of a body to the sum of the applied forces. However, as
noted previously, the analysis incorporates a number of important simplifications.
It is assumed that the fluid is inviscid and incompressible, that the flow is steady, and the relations have
been derived along a single streamline. If, in addition, there is no heat transfer along the streamline and
no shaft work is done (say, by a pump or turbine), then, the equation takes on exactly the same form as
the corresponding energy equation. In these circumstances, the terms of the Bernoulli equation can be
interpreted as contributions in an energy balance
Equation (9) states that the sum of three quantities is constant. Consequently the separate quantities
2
must be interchangeable and thus of the same kind. The second term u 2 , represents the kinetic

energy of a small element of the fluid divided by mass of the element. The third term gz, also represents
energy/ mass and corresponds to the work that would be done on the fluid element in raising it from
datum level to the height z divided by the mass of the fluid element.
Similarly, the term p must also represent an amount of work divided by the mass of the fluid.
2
Each of the terms in p , u 2 and gz represents energy/mass or energy/weight. The quantities in

General Energy Equation for Steady Flow of any Fluid
For a fluid at pressure p1 and with velocity at a section where the (average ) elevation is z1 and leaves
with pressure p2 and velocity u2 where the (average) elevation is z2. As the fluid moves from inlet to
outlet , its properties, in general, change from one point to another. However, we assume they do not
change with time.

## From the expression, the Steady-Flow Energy Equation was derived as

p
p 1

1
q 2 u 22 gz2 1 u12 gz1 e2 e1 w
2 2
1 2

(13)

where q represents the net heat transferred to the fluid divided by mass and w represents the net shaft
work done by the fluid divided by mass; w is the net amount of work done by the fluid.
For the above Eq.(13) to be valid, the following assumptions must be followed strictly;
1. The flow is steady and continuous, that is, the rate at which mass enters the region considered equals
that at which mass leaves the region and neither varies with time.
2. Conditions at any point between the inlet and outlet sections 1 and 2 do not vary with time.
3. Heat and work are transferred to or from the fluid at a constant net rate.
4. Quantities are uniform over the inlet and outlet cross-sections 1 and 2.
5. Energy due to electricity, magnetism, surface tension or nuclear reaction is absent. If energy due to
any of these phenomena is, in fact, involved, appropriate additional terms will appear in the equations.
The Steady-Flow Energy Equation in Practice
The Steady-Flow Energy Equation (SFEE) applies to liquids, gases and vapours, and accounts for viscous
effects. In many applications, it is considered simplified because some of the terms are zero or cancel
with others. If no heat energy is supplied to the fluid from outside the boundaries, and if the
temperature of the fluid and that of its surroundings are practically identical (or if the boundaries are
well insulated) q may be taken as zero.
If an incompressible fluid with zero viscosity flows in a stream-tube across which there is no transfer of
heat or work, the temperature of the fluid remains constant. Therefore the internal energy is also
constant and the equation reduces to

p
p 1

1
0 2 u 22 gz 1 u12 gz1
2 2
1 2

## This is identical to the Bernoulli's Equation (9).

Real fluids have viscosity, and the work done in overcoming the viscous forces corresponds to the socalled fluid friction. The energy required to overcome the friction is transformed into thermal energy.
The temperature of the fluid rises above the value for frictionless flow; the internal energy increases
and, in general, the heat transferred from the fluid to its surroundings is increased. The increase of
temperature, and consequently of internal energy, is generally of no worth (the temperature rise is
normally only a very small fraction of a degree) and thus corresponds to a loss of useful energy.

Moreover, as we have defined q as the heat transferred to the fluid divided by mass of the fluid, a loss
of heat from the system is represented by -q and so the total loss (divided by the mass of the fluid) is e2e1-q. For a fluid of constant density it is usual to express this loss of useful energy, resulting from friction,
as head loss due to friction, hf. Therefore
hf=(e2-e1-q)/g
Then for a constant-density fluid with no other heat transfer and no shaft work performed the SteadyFlow Energy Equation reduces to

p1 u12
p
u2

z1 h f 2 2 z 2
g 2 g
g 2 g

(16)

Here u1 and u2 represent mean velocities over the cross-sectional (1) and (2) respectively . If we assume
further that the flow occurs in a horizontal pipe of uniform cross-section, then u1=u2 and z1=z2 and so

p1 p2 / g h f . That is, the displacement work done on the fluid in the pipe is entirely in

overcoming friction.
Example
A pump delivers water through a pipe 150mm in diameter. At the pump inlet A, which is 225 mm
diameter, the mean velocity is 1.35 ms-1 and the pressure 150 mmHg vacuum. The pump outlet B is 600
mm above A and is 150 mm diameter. At a section C of the pipe, 5 m above B, the gauge pressure is 35
kPa. If friction in the pipe BC dissipates energy at the rate of 2.5 kW and the power required to drive the
pump is 1.27 kW, calculate the overall efficiency of the pump. (Relative density of mercury=13.56).
Solution
Mean velocity at A=uA=1.35ms-1
Therefore, by continuity,

u B uC u A

( Area) A
( Area) B ,C

225
1
1
1.35
ms 3.038ms
150

pA 1 2
Energy added by pump / time Energyloss to friction / time pC 1 2
u A gz A

uC gzC

2
Mass / time
Mass / time

Time

Mass
1
Energyloss to friction
pC p A uC2 u A2 g ( z C z A )

Time
2
Time

(0.225m) 2 1.35ms 1 35000 13560 9.81(0.150) 1000(3.0382 1.352 ) 1000 9.81 5.6N .ms 1
4
2

2.5kW 8.6kW

## Therefore, efficiency of pump=8.6/12.7=67.7%

Notice that pA, is a vacuum pressure, is negative.
Energy transformation in a constant-density fluid
The concept of head, that is, energy divided by weight of a constant-density fluid, is of great value in
allowing a geometrical representation of energy change. From the system shown Fig 7, piezometer
tubes are connected at certain points to a pipe conveying liquid from a large reservoir. At a point where
the (gauge) pressure in the pipe is p, the liquid will rise in the piezometer tube to a height

p g .
At points in the reservoir far from the outlet, the velocity of the liquid is so small as to be negligible. At
such a point1 at a depth h1 below the free surface, the pressure is therefore given by the hydrostatic
relation p1 gh1 , so the sum of the three terms in Bernoulli's expression is

gh1 g 0 2 2 g z1 h1 z1 H
Thus H is the total head for the streamline on which the point 1 lies. If no energy is dissipated by friction,
the total H is constant along that streamline and may therefore be represented by a line parallel to the
datum plane.
At point 2 in the pipe, the pressure is indicated by the rise p2 g of the liquid in the piezometer tube.
The amount by which the sum of p2 g and z2 falls short of the total head corresponds to the velocity
2
head u 2 2 g for the streamline considered. There is a similar state of affairs at point 3, although here

the cross-section of the pipe is smaller and so the mean velocity is greater than at 2 by virtue of the
continuity equation Au =constant.
In practice, friction leads to a loss of mechanical energy, so the total head line drops. The height of any
2
point on this line above the datum plane always represents the total head ( p g )+( u 2 2 g )+z of the at

the point in question. Another line that may be drawn is that representing the sum of the pressure head
and elevation only: ( p g )+z. This line, which would pass through the surface levels in the piezometer
tubes of Fig 7, is known as the pressure line or hydraulic grade line. The geometrical representation that
these lines afford is frequently useful, and it is therefore important to distinguish clearly between them.
The one-dimensional continuity relation shows that, for a fluid of constant density, a reduction in the
cross-sectional area causes an increase in the mean velocity. Equation (16) shows that in the absence of
additional energy input to the fluid, the increase in velocity will be accompanied by a decrease of
pressure (provided that the change of elevation z is small). Conversely, an increase of cross-sectional
area of the flow gives rise to a decrease of velocity and an increase of pressure.
The energy equation (16) also shows , however, that for a given elevation, the velocity cannot be
increased indefinitely by reducing the cross-sectional area. Apart from exceptional circumstances, not
encountered in normal engineering practice, the absolute pressure can never become less than zero.
Any further reduction of the cross-sectional area would not bring about an increase of velocity, and
therefore the discharge (i.e. area x mean velocity) would be reduced. There would then be a consequent
decrease in the velocity at other sections. This is known as choking
With liquids, however, difficulties arise before the pressure becomes zero. At low pressures, liquids
vaporize and pockets of vapour may thus be formed where the pressure is sufficiently low. These
pockets may suddenly collapse-either because they are carried along by the liquid until they arrive at a
region of higher pressure, or because the pressure increases again at the point in question. The forces
then exerted by the liquid rushing into the cavities cause very high localized pressures, which can lead to
serious erosion of the boundary surfaces. This action is known as cavitation. Furthermore, the flow may
be considerably disturbed when cavitation.
In ordinary circumstances, liquids contain some dissolved air. The air is released as the pressure is
reduced, and it too may form pockets in the liquid which are often known as air locks. To avoid all these
undesirable effects, the absolute pressure head in water, for example, should not be allowed to fall
Example Questions on Buoyancy and Metacentric Height
Example 1
A wooden block of width 1.25m, depth 0.75m, and length 3.0m is floating in water. Specific weight of
the wood is 6.4kN/m3. Find
(i) Volume of water displaced, and
(ii) Position of centre of buoyancy
Solution
Width of the wooden block=1.25m

## Depth of the wooden block=1.25m

Depth of the wooden block=3.0m
Volume of the block=1.25x0.75x3=2.812m3
Specific weight of wood, w=6.4kN/m3
Weight of the block=6.4x2.812=18kN
(I) Volume of water displaced:
For equilibrium, the weight of water displaced=weight of wooden block=18N
Volume of water displaced=

## weight of water displaced 18

1.835m 3
weight densityof water
9.81

## (where density of water =9.81 kN/m3)

(ii) Position of centre of buoyancy:
We know that,
Volume of wooden block in water=volume of water displaced
or 1.25xhx3.0=1.835
(where h=depth of wooden block in water)

1.835

## Hence centre of buoyancy =

0.489
0.244 from the base.
2

Example 2
A wooden block of specific gravity 0.7 and having a size of 2m x 0.5 m x0.25 m is floating in water.
Determine the volume of concrete of specific weight 25 kN/m3, that may be placed which will immerse
the (I) block completely in water and (ii) block and concrete completely in water.
Solution
Size of the block=2 m x0.5 m x0.25 m
Therefore, volume of the block =0.25m3
Specific gravity of the block=0.7 x9.81 =6.867 kN/m3

## Weight of the block =6.867 x 0.25=1.716kN

(Therefore, specific weight of water =9.81 kN/m3)
Let Wc =weight of concrete required to be placed on the block, and
Vc=Volume of concrete required to be placed on the block
Total weight of the block=Wc+1.716kN

(i)

## (i) Immersion of the block only:

When the block is completely immersed, the volume of water displaced =0.25m3
Therefore, upward thrust at the time of complete immersion
=0.25 x9.81=2.45kN

(ii)

Wc+1.716=2.45
or Wc=0.734kN

weight

0.734
0.0294m 3
25

## (ii) Immersion of block and concrete:

Total weight of the block and concrete=25Vc+1.716...................................(i)
and upward thrust=(Vc+0.25)x9.81.............................................................(ii)
Equating (i) and (ii), we get
25Vc+1.716=(Vc+0.25)x9.81
or 25Vc+1.716=9.81Vc+2.45 or 15.19Vc=0.734
or Vc=0.0483m3.
Example 3
A cylinder of mass 10 kg and area of cross-section 0.1m2 is tied down with string in a vessel containing
two liquids as shown in Figure a below. Calculate gauge pressure on the cylinder bottom and the tension
in the string. Density of water=1000kg/m3. Specific gravity of A=0.8. Specific gravity of B(water)=1.0.
Solution

## Given: Mass of cylinder, m=10kg

Area of cross-section =0.1m2
Density of water (liquid B)=1000kg/m3
Density of liquid A=0.8x1000=800kg/m3
Tension in String, T:
Volume of liquid A displaced =0.1x0.1=0.01m3
Therefore mass of liquid A displaced, mA=0.01x800=8kg
Volume of liquid B displaced=0.1x0.125=0.0125m3
Mass of liquid B displaced mB=0.0125x1000=12.5kg
Total mass of liquid displaced=mA +mB=8+12.5=20.5kg
Upward thrust =20.5x9.81=201.1N
Weight of cylinder=mg=10x9.81=98.1N
Net upward thrust=201.1-98.1=98.1N
Therefore, tension in the string T=103N
Pressure (gauge)on the cylinder bottom, p:

## Net upward thrust

103

2
p= Area of cross section 0.1 1030N / m

Example 4
A wooden block of specific gravity 0.75 floats in water. If the size of the block is 1mx0.5mx0.4m, find its
metacentric height.
Solution
Size (or dimensions) of the block=1mx0.5mx0.4m.
Specific gravity of wood=0.75
Specific weight w=0.75x9.81=7.36kN/m3
Weight of wooden block=specific weight x volume
=7.36x1x0.5x0.4=1.472kN

## Let depth of immersion=h meters

Weight of water displaced=specific weight of water x volume of the wood submerged in water
=9.81 x1x 0.5x h=4.9h kN
Now for equilibrium,
Weight of wooden block=weight of water displaced; 1.472=4.9h
h=

1.472
0.3m
4.9

## Therefore, distance of centre of buoyancy from bottom, i.e

OB=

h 0.3

0.15m
2
2

and OG=

0 .4
0 .2 m
2

BG=OG-OB=0.2-0.15=0.05m
Also BM=

I
V

=

1 0.5 3
0.014m 3
12

## and V=volume of water displaced (or volume of wood in water)

=1x0.5xh=1x0.5x0.3=0.15m3
BM=

I 0.0104

0.069m
V
0.15

## We know that the metacentric height,

GM=BM-BG (Therefore, G is above B)
=0.069-0.05=0.019m
Example 5

A solid cylinder 2 m in diameter and 2m high is floating in water with its axis vertical. If the specific
gravity of the material of cylinder is 0.65, find its metacentric height. State also whether the equilibrium
is stable or unstable.
Solution
Given: Diameter of cylinder d=2m; height of cylinder, h=2m; specific gravity=0.65
Depth of cylinder in water =sp.gravityxh
=0.65x2.0=1.3m
Distance of centre of buoyancy (B) from O, i.e.,
OB=

1. 3
0.65m
2

## Distance of centre of gravity (G) from O, i.e.,

OG=

2 .0
1 .0 m
2

BG=OG-OB=1.0-0.65=0.35m
Also, BM=

I
V

=

64

d4

64

2 4 0.785m 3

=

BM=

2 2 1.3 4.084m 3

I 0.785

0.192m
V 4.084

## We know that the metacentric height,

GM=BM-BG=0.192-0.35
=-0.158M
-ve sign means that the metacentric (M) is below the centre of gravity (G). Thus the cylinder is in
unstable equilibrium.

## Summary of Fluid Dynamics

1. The science which deals with the geometry of motion of fluids without reference to the forces causing
the motion is known as "hydrokinematics'' (or simply kinematics).
2. The science which deals with the action of the forces in producing or changing motion of fluids is
known as " hydrokinetics" (or simply kinetics). Hence, the study of fluids motion involves the
consideration of both the kinematics and kinetics.
3. In fluid mechanics, the basic equations are :(1) Continuity equation, (2) Energy equation, and (3)
Impulse-momentum equation
4. The different types of head (or Energies) of a Liquid in Motion are:
(i) Potential head or potential energy
This is due to configuration or position above some suitable datum line. It is denoted by z.
(ii) Velocity head or kinetic energy
This is due to velocity of flowing liquid and is measured as

V2
where V is the velocity of flow and 'g'is
2g

## the acceleration due to gravity (g=9.81)

(iii) Pressure head or pressure energy
This is due to the pressure of liquid and reckoned as

p
where p is the pressure and w is the weight
w

## density of the liquid.

Mathematically,

V2 p
(m ) of liquid
H= z
2g w
Total Energy=z+

V2 p
( Nm / kg ) of liquid
2g w

5. Bernoulli's Equation
It states that " In an ideal incompressible fluid, when the flow is steady and continuous , the sum of
pressure energy, kinetic energy and potential (or datum) energy is constant along a stream line.''
Mathematically

p V2

z =constant
w 2g

where,

p
pressureenergy
w

V2
Kinetic energy, and
2g
z=Datum(or elevation) energy
Examples Questions under Bernoulli's equation
1. In a pipe of 90mm diameter water is flowing with a mean velocity of 2m/s and at a gauge pressure of
350 kN/m2. Determine the total head, if the pipe is 8 meters above the datum line.
Neglect friction
Solution
Diameter of the pipe =90 mm
Pressure, p=350kN/m2
Velocity of water, V=2m/s
Specific weight of water, w=9.81kN/m3
H= z

V2 p

2g w

22
350

43.88m
=8+
2 9.81 9.81
H=43.88m

## 2. A pipeline (Fig c) is 15cm in diameter and it is at an elevation of 100m at section A. At section B it is an

elevation of 107 m and has diameter of 30cm. When a discharge of 50 litre/sec of water is passed
through this pipeline, pressure at A is 35kPa. The energy loss in pipe is 2m of water. Calculate pressure
at B, if flow is from A and B.
Solution
Given DA=15cm=0.15m; DB=30cm=0.3m;
pA=35kPa; Q=50litres/sec=0.05m3/s;
hf=2m of water; Direction of flow; from A to B

Pressure at B, pB

VA

VB

2
A

2
B

0.05

2.829 m / s

0.15

0.05

0.707 m / s

(0.3)

PA V A2
PB VB2

zA

zB hf
w 2g
w 2g
PB PA V A2 VB2

or
w
w 2 g

( z A z B ) h f

V A2 VB2

( z A z B ) h f
or p B p A w
2 g

## (1000 9.81) 2.8292 0.7072

(100 107) 2
= 35

1000
2

9
.
81

35+9.81(0.3824-7-2)=-49.54kPa.

i.e., pB= -49.54kPa. This shows that the given pressure at A, 35kPa is gauge pressure and hence there is a
vacuum at point B.
3. Water flows in a circular pipe. At one section, the diameter is 0.3m, the static pressure is 260kPa
gauge, the velocity is 3 m/s and the elevation is 10 m above ground level. The elevation at a section
downstream is 0m, and the pipe diameter is 0.15m. Find out the gauge pressure at the downstream
section.
Frictional effects may be neglected. Assume density of water to be 999 kg/m3.
Solution
3
Refer to Fig.d. D1=0.3m; D2=0.15m; z1=0; z2=10m; p1=260kPa, V1=3m/s; 999kg / m

2
D1
A1
V1
V3
V1 4
A2
D2

2
4

D
= 1
D2

0.3
V1
3 12m / s
0.15

## Weight density of water,

w= g=999x9.81=9800.19N/m3
From Bernoulli's equation between section 1 and 2 (neglecting friction effects as given), we have

p1 V12
p V2

z1 2 2 z 2
w 2g
w 2g
260 1000
(3) 2

10
9800.19
2 9.81

p2
(12) 2

0
9800.19 2 9.81

26.53+0.459+10=

p2
7.34
9800.19