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TUGAS

ENERGETIKA DAN STRUKTUR

Take Home Examination


Energetica, Class A and Class B

DWI NICHE
H311 12 264

JURUSAN KIMIA
FAKULTAS MATEMATIKA DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN ALAM
UNIVERSITAS HASANUDDIN
MAKASSAR
2014

1. Consider the reversible expansion of a perfect gas. Provide a physical interpretation for the

fact that pV = constant for an adiabatic change, whereas pV = constant for an isothermal
change. Explain the significance of a physical observable being a state function and compile
a list of as many state functions as you can identify.
ANSWER:
If H is constant with temperature T1 dan T2 integral can intergration. If not, ketergantungan
temperatur dari H harus disubtitusi dan kemudian evaluasi integral analitis atau grafik
dapat dibuat.
a. Adiabatic Change
The pressure of a perfect gas that undergoes reversible adiabatic expersion from a volume V1
to a volume Vf is related to its mital pressure by PfVf = PiVi .
Where = Cp1m/Cv1m. This result is summarized in the from PV

= konstan, for a

monoatomic perfect gas, Cv1m = 5/2 R and from Cp1m = 5/3 R, = 5/3, for a gas fall more
slearply (Px 1/v ) than the corresponding isotherm (P 1/v). The physical reason for the
difference is that, in an isothermal expansion, energy flows into the system as heat and
maintains the temperature, as in result the pressure does not fall as much as in an adiabatic
expension.
b. Isothermal reversible expension
Consider the isothermal, reversible expension of a perfect gas. The expensions of a perfect
gas. The expensions is made isothermal by heeping the system in thermal contact with its
sumoundings (which may be a constant-temperatur bath). Because the equation of state
PV-nRT, we knoww that at each stage P=nRT/V, with V the volume at that stage of the
expension. The temperature T is constant in an isothermal expension, so (together with n and
R) it may be takes outside the integral. It follows that the week of reversible isothermal
expension of a perfecct gas from Vi and Vf at a temperature T is

(a)

2. Suggest (with explanation) how the internal energy of a van der Waals gas should vary with
volume at constant temperature.
ANSWER:
The fundamenta; equation of thermodinamics which combines the first and the second law of
thermodinamic

Another important equation is known as the Tds equation (there two of them) which can be
derivated starting with the exat differential of S = S (T,V), multiplying both sides by T and
using the Maxwell equation, ( )

( ) , reminding that Cv = T ( ) is the heat

capacity at constant volume,


(

Combine equation,
(

for a van der waals gas we get.

this means that,


(

3. A sample consisting of 2.00 mol He is expanded isothermally at 22C from 22.8 dm3 to 31.7
dm3 (a) reversibly, (b) against a constant external pressure equal to the final pressure of the
gas, and (c) freely (against zero external pressure). For the three processes calculate q, w,
U, and H.
ANSWER:
For a perfect gas at constant temperature,

For a perfect gas at constant temperature, H is also zero, H= 0

U does not change at constant temperature, PV if the gas obeys Boyles law. hese apply to
all three cases below:
a. Isoterm Reversible expansion

W = - 4905,26 J = 0,2296144923

b. expansion against a constant external pressure

c. free expansion is expansion against no force


W=0
Q = -W = 0 J

4. A sample of 2.00 mol CH3OH(g) is condensed isothermally and reversibly to liquid at 64C.
he standard enthalpy of vaporization of methanol at 64C is 35.3 kJ mol1. Find w, q, U,
and H for this process. The constant-pressure heat capacity of a sample of a perfect gas was
found to vary with temperature according to the expression Cp /(J K1) = 20.17 +
0.4001(T/K). Calculate q, w, U, and H when the temperature is raised from 0C to 100C
(a) at constant pressure, (b) at constant volume.
Know :
n = 2.00 mol
= 67C 337 K
H = 35,3 kJ/ mol
Question: w, q, V
Answer :

Case 1
H = U + n R T

we know that :
w = n R T, because T is zero so W is zero (0)

Case 2
a. At constant presure

= 14,9

14,9

b. At constant volume

+ ]+

+ ]

and

depend only on temperature in perfect gases. This,

= 14,9 kJ and

= 14,1 kJ as above at constant volume:


W=0

So, q = + 14,1 kJ

5. A sample of nitrogen of mass 3.12 g at 23.0C is allowed to expand reversibly and


adiabatically from 400 cm3 to 2.00 dm3. What is the work done by the gas?
Know:
M = 3,12 gram
= 23,0 C 296 K
V2 = 2 dm3
V1 = 0,4 dm3
Question: w = ..?
Answer:

W = - 541,40768 J (1,609437912)

6. A sample consisting of 1.0 mol of perfect gas molecules with CV = 20.8 J K1 is initially at
3.25 atm and 310 K. It undergoes reversible adiabatic expansion until its pressure reaches
2.50 atm. Calculate the final volume and temperature and the work done.
Known:
n = 1 mol
Cv = 20,8 J/K
P1 = 3,25 atm

T = 310 K
Pf = 2,50 atm
Question : Vf , Tf , W
Answer:
For reversible adiabatic expansion

( *

( *

= 288 K

7. When 2.25 mg of anthracene, C14H10(s), was burned in a bomb calorimeter the temperature
rose by 1.35 K. Calculate the calorimeter constant. By how much will the temperature rise
when 135 mg of phenol, C6H5OH(s), is burned in the calorimeter under the same
conditions? (H(C14H10)solid = 7061 kJ mol1.)
Known:

T = 135 K

For the anthracene reaction:

7055 kJ/mol

= 0,06597 kJ/K
For the reaction:

][

3050 kJ/mol

8. You received an unsolicited proposal from a self-declared inventor who is seeking investors
for the development of his latest idea: a device that uses heat extracted from the ground by a
heat pump to boil water into steam that is used to heat a home and to power a steam engine
that drives the heat pump. This procedure is potentially very lucrative because, after an initial
extraction of energy from the ground, no fossil fuels would be required to keep the device
running indefinitely. Would you invest in this idea? State your conclusion clearly and present
detailed arguments to support it.
ANSWER:
Yes, i would be inverst in this idea. Because this procedur is patenally very lucrative, because
an initial extraction of energy from the ground, no fosil fuels would be required to keep
devicerunning definetely and a device that uses heat extracted from the ground by a heat
pump to boil water into steam that isused to heat a home and the power a steam engine that
drives heat pump.

9. Suggest a physical interpretation of the dependence of the Gibbs energy on the temperature.
ANSWER:
Perubahan energi bebas dengan temperature pada tekanan konstan diberikan oleh
(

Persamaan di atas dapat juga dinyatakan sebagai:


(

*
( )

( )
( )

Persamaan (3) lebih sering digunakan dan dikenal dengan persamaan Gibb-Helmholtz
persamaan ini dapat dinyatakan sebagai:

Atau perubahan dalam energi bebas reaksi dengan temperatur dapat ditulis sebagai

Jika H konstan dengan kisaran temperatur T1 dan T2 integral di atas dapat di integrasikan,
jika tidak, ketergantungan temperature dari H harus disubtitusi dan kemudian evaluasi
integral analitis atau grafik dapat dibuat.

10. A sample consisting of 2.00 mol of diatomic perfect gas molecules at 250 K is compressed
reversibly and adiabatically until its temperature reaches 300 K. Given that CV,m = 27.5 J
K1 mol1, calculate q, w, U, H, and S. Calculate H and Stot when two iron blocks,
each of mass 1.00 kg, one at 200C and the other at 25C, are placed in contact in an isolated
container. The specific heat capacity of iron is 0.449 J K1 g1 and may be assumed constant
over the temperature range involved.
Known:
n = 2 mol
T1 = 250 K
T2 = 300 K
Cv m = 27,5 J/mol K
Proses = reversible adiabatic of a perfect
Question:
qmv,W,U,H dan S= ?
Answer:
a. qmv = 0
b. W =
U = q + w
U = Cv dT
Cv dT = q + w
Cv dT = 0 + w
Cv dT = (2,0 mol)(27,5 J/mol K) (300 K 250 K)
= 2750 J

c. U =
U = q + w
d. H =
For a perfect gas, H = Cp dT
Cp is not given, however, we know that, Cp Cv = nR
H = (

) dT

=(

) dT

e. S =