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ALAKNANDA HYDRO POWER COMPANY LIMITED

330 MW SHRINAGAR HYDRO ELECTRIC PROJECT


IN UTTARANCHAL STATE, INDIA

DOCUMENT NO. TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01

BASIC ENGINEERING AND DESIGN CRITERIA

Matulya Centre A, 1st Floor,


249, Senapati Bapat Marg,
Lower Parel (West),
Mumbai 400 013, India

R0

08-02-2007

BBG

VB

REV.
NO.

DATE

PREPARED
BY

CHECKED
BY

AJ

CLEARED BY

VB
APPROVED
BY

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

REVISION STATUS

REV. NO.

DATE

R0

08-02-2007

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

DESCRIPTION
Released for detailed design.

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. i of i

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

CONTENTS
SECTION - 1 - INTRODUCTION ...........................................................................................1
1.1

GENERAL................................................................................................................................. 1

SECTION - 2 - BRIEF PROJECT DESCRIPTION .................................................................2


2.1
2.2

TYPE OF PROJECT................................................................................................................. 2
GENERAL LAYOUT AND MAJOR PROJECT COMPONENTS .............................................. 2

SECTION - 3 - SALIENT FEATURES ...................................................................................5


3.1
3.2

CIVIL WORKS .......................................................................................................................... 5


HYDRO-MECHANICAL WORKS ........................................................................................... 10

SECTION - 4 - GENERAL TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS ................................................12


4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.10
4.11

GENERAL............................................................................................................................... 12
FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS........................................................................................... 12
LIFETIME REQUIREMENTS ................................................................................................. 12
COMPLETENESS OF FACILITIES........................................................................................ 12
DRAWINGS AND DOCUMENTS ........................................................................................... 12
UNITS ..................................................................................................................................... 13
CODES AND STANDARDS ................................................................................................... 13
SAFETY .................................................................................................................................. 13
SEISMIC DESIGN REQUIREMENTS .................................................................................... 13
FUTURE MAINTENANCE ...................................................................................................... 14
ARCHITECTURAL APPEARANCE........................................................................................ 14

SECTION - 5 - PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS ...........................................................15


5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4

GENERAL............................................................................................................................... 15
CIVIL WORKS ........................................................................................................................ 15
HYDRO-MECHANICAL WORKS ........................................................................................... 17
VERIFICATION OF PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS ......................................................... 18

SECTION - 6 - HYDRAULIC DESIGN REQUIREMENTS....................................................20


6.1
6.2
6.3

GENERAL............................................................................................................................... 20
HYDROLOGY......................................................................................................................... 20
WATER CONDUCTOR SYSTEM AND STRUCTURES ........................................................ 22

SECTION - 7 - GEOTECHNICAL AND GEOLOGICAL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS ...........27


7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
7.10
7.11
7.12
7.13
7.14

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS................................................................................................. 27
CODES AND STANDARDS ................................................................................................... 28
LOADS AND FORCES ........................................................................................................... 28
ROCK MASS PROPERTIES .................................................................................................. 29
DESIGN OF UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES .................................................................... 30
DESIGN OF ROCK EXCAVATION ........................................................................................ 31
WATER TUNNELS ................................................................................................................. 31
DESIGN OF ROCK SUPPORT .............................................................................................. 31
LINING DESIGN ..................................................................................................................... 33
SOIL SUPPORT ..................................................................................................................... 34
FOUNDATION OF SURFACE STRUCTURES ...................................................................... 34
DESIGN OF EMBANKMENT AND CUT SLOPES ................................................................. 34
SETTLEMENT ALLOWANCE ................................................................................................ 34
SEEPAGE ANALYSIS ............................................................................................................ 35

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. i of iv

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

7.15
7.16
7.17
7.18
7.19

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

DESIGN OF RIPRAP AND SLOPE PROTECTION ............................................................... 35


FILTER DESIGN..................................................................................................................... 35
DESIGN OF PRESSURE RELIEF WELLS ............................................................................ 36
GROUTING ............................................................................................................................ 36
FURTHER INVESTIGATIONS ............................................................................................... 37

SECTION - 8 - ROAD DESIGN REUIREMENTS .................................................................38


SECTION - 9 - GENERAL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS .......................................................39
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
9.7
9.8
9.9
9.10
9.11
9.12
9.13
9.14

GENERAL............................................................................................................................... 39
ARCHITECTURAL CONCEPTS FOR BUILDINGS ............................................................... 39
ROOF ACCESS...................................................................................................................... 39
PLATFORMS AND WALKWAYS ........................................................................................... 39
STAIRS AND LADDERS ........................................................................................................ 40
ANCHOR BOLTS AND INSERT PLATES.............................................................................. 41
VERTICAL HEADROOM ........................................................................................................ 41
EXPANSION /CONSTRUCTION JOINTS.............................................................................. 41
BRICK / STONE MASONRY AND PARAPET WALL............................................................. 41
DRAINAGE ............................................................................................................................. 42
WATER PROOFING OF UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES................................................. 43
ANTI TERMITE TREATMENT................................................................................................ 43
PLINTH LEVEL....................................................................................................................... 43
STATUTORY REQUIREMENTS............................................................................................ 43

SECTION - 10 - DESIGN REQUIREMENTS - LOADS AND LOAD COMBINATIONS........44


10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6
10.7
10.8
10.9
10.10
10.11
10.12
10.13
10.14
10.15

GENERAL............................................................................................................................... 44
DEAD LOADS......................................................................................................................... 44
IMPOSED LOADS .................................................................................................................. 44
WATER PRESSURE .............................................................................................................. 45
UPLIFT LOAD......................................................................................................................... 45
EARTH PRESSURE LOADS ................................................................................................. 45
WIND LOAD ........................................................................................................................... 46
SEISMIC LOADS.................................................................................................................... 46
TEMPERATURE LOAD.......................................................................................................... 46
EQUIPMENT LOADS ............................................................................................................. 46
CRANE, MONORAIL AND ELEVATOR LOADS.................................................................... 47
OTHER LOADS ...................................................................................................................... 48
BASIC LOAD CASES ............................................................................................................. 48
LOAD COMBINATIONS ......................................................................................................... 48
LOAD COMBINATIONS FOR UNDERGROUND / WATER CONDUCTOR
STRUCTURES................................................................................................................... 49

SECTION - 11 - DESIGN REQUIREMENTS - REINFORCED CONCRETE


STRUCTURES AND FOUNDATIONS .......................................................50
11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.5
11.6
11.7
11.8

GENERAL............................................................................................................................... 50
DESIGN METHODOLOGY..................................................................................................... 50
INCREASE IN STRESSES..................................................................................................... 52
STABILITY OF STRUCTURES .............................................................................................. 52
MINIMUM THICKNESS OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS ...................................................... 53
MINIMUM HEIGHTS FOR PEDESTALS OF STEEL COLUMNS .......................................... 53
MINIMUM HEIGHTS FOR ENCASEMENT TO STEEL COLUMNS ...................................... 54
CONCRETE MIX .................................................................................................................... 54

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. ii of iv

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

11.9
11.10
11.11
11.12

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

NON-SHRINK GROUTING..................................................................................................... 54
MINIMUM COVER TO FOUNDATION BOLTS ...................................................................... 55
PLACING TEMPERATURE.................................................................................................... 55
MISCELLANEOUS REQUIREMENT ..................................................................................... 55

SECTION - 12 - DESIGN REQUIREMENTS - STEEL STRUCTURES ................................56


12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4
12.5
12.6
12.7
12.8

GENERAL............................................................................................................................... 56
FRAMING ............................................................................................................................... 56
MATERIALS ........................................................................................................................... 57
CONNECTIONS ..................................................................................................................... 57
DESIGN METHODOLOGY..................................................................................................... 58
PERMISSIBLE DEFLECTIONS ............................................................................................. 59
MINIMUM THICKNESS AND SIZES OF STEEL ELEMENTS............................................... 60
SLENDERNESS AND DEPTH RATIO ................................................................................... 60

SECTION - 13 - DESIGN REQUIREMENTS - DESCRIPTION AND TECHNICAL


REQUIREMENTS OF THE WORKS ..........................................................61
13.1
13.2
13.3
13.4
13.5
13.6
13.7
13.8
13.9
13.10
13.11
13.12
13.13
13.14
13.15
13.16

INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................... 61
DAM AND SPILLWAY ............................................................................................................ 61
HEADRACE TUNNELS AND INTAKES................................................................................. 66
TROUGH SECTION ............................................................................................................... 68
DESILTING BASIN ................................................................................................................. 69
POWER CHANNEL ................................................................................................................ 70
FOREBAY AND BYPASS ARRANGEMENT ......................................................................... 72
PENSTOCKS.......................................................................................................................... 75
POWER HOUSE .................................................................................................................... 76
TAILRACE SYSTEM .............................................................................................................. 80
CROSS DRAINAGE WORKS ................................................................................................ 80
BOUNDARY WALL, SECURITY GATE AND POST .............................................................. 80
CHAINAGE MARKERS .......................................................................................................... 81
PLINTH PROTECTION .......................................................................................................... 81
HORTICULTURE AND LANDSCAPING ........................................................................................... 82
TRANSFORMER YARD ......................................................................................................... 82

SECTION - 14 - ELECTRO-MECHANICAL REQUIREMENTS ...........................................83


14.1
14.2
14.3
14.4
14.5
14.6
14.7
14.8
14.9
14.10
14.11
14.12
14.13
14.14
14.15

TURBINE ................................................................................................................................ 83
MAIN INLET VALVE ............................................................................................................... 83
CRANE ................................................................................................................................... 84
COOLING WATER SYSTEM ................................................................................................. 84
DEWATERING AND DRAINAGE SYSTEM ........................................................................... 84
FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM ............................................................................................... 84
VENTILATION AND AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM............................................................. 85
MAIN GENERATOR & BUSDUCT SYSTEM ......................................................................... 85
GENERATOR STEP UP TRANSFORMER............................................................................ 85
400 KV SWITCHYARD ........................................................................................................... 85
STATION AND DAM AUXILIARY AC SYSTEM..................................................................... 86
EMERGENCY BACKUP SYSTEM......................................................................................... 86
DC AUXILIARY SYSTEM ....................................................................................................... 86
PROTECTION SYSTEM ........................................................................................................ 86
INSTRUMENTATION, CONTROL AND TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM ......................... 87

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. iii of iv

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

SECTION - 15 - GENERAL ELECTRICAL REQUIREMENT...............................................89


15.1
15.2
15.3
15.4
15.5
15.6
15.7
15.8
15.9

GENERAL............................................................................................................................... 89
CABLING ................................................................................................................................ 89
AC AUXILIARY SYSTEM ....................................................................................................... 90
EARTHING SYSTEM ............................................................................................................. 93
BATTERY ROOM ................................................................................................................... 94
LIGHTING AND SOCKET OUTLETS..................................................................................... 94
CONTROL AND OPERATING MODES FOR LIGHTING .................................................... 102
SYSTEM COMPONENTS .................................................................................................... 103
INSPECTION AND TESTING............................................................................................... 105

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. iv of iv

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

SECTION - 1 - INTRODUCTION
1.1

GENERAL
The Shrinagar Hydro Electric project is proposed on the river Alaknanda (a major tributary of
Ganga River) in Uttaranchal State. The power station will be located near (on the other bank
of river) Shrinagar Town; therefore the project is named after this town. The project is
located about 112 km from Rishikesh (the nearest rail head), 141 km from Haridwar, 170 km
from Roorkee and 344 km from Delhi. The project is proposed to generate power utilising
the perennial water flow in the river and the head of about 66 m by constructing a 95 m high
dam across the major river Alaknanda.
Alaknanda river has a vast catchment area of 11,100 km2 out of which 2640 km2 (23.8%) is
snow bound. Alaknanda is a perennial river and gets flooded in monsoon season (JulySeptember) and in May-June, though lesser in magnitude due to melting of snow. The
minimum observed discharge during the year 1971-1972 to 1993-94 was 69.60 m3/sec in
February 1987-88. While the maximum discharge during the same year was 3954 m3/sec in
August 1972-73. Dhauliganga, Pindar and Mandakini are the major tributaries of the
Alaknanda River. Alaknanda river confluences with other major river called Bhagirathi River
at Devprayag (33 km downstream of Shrinagar town) and further the river is called the
sacred Ganga River.
The Full Supply Level (FSL) of dam of Shrinagar project is restricted by the tailrace water
level (TWL) of the proposed Utyasu Dam project on the upstream. The TWL of Shrinagar
project controls the FSL of the Kotli-Bhel dam located downstream. Hence there is almost
no scope to revise the gross head available for power generation.
Alaknanda Hydro Power Company Limited (AHPCL), a group company of GVK (formerly
Duncans North Hydro Power Co. Ltd.), is developing and implementing the Shrinagar Hydro
Electric Project. AHPCL is henceforth referred as the Owner.
This document covers the basic engineering, and design criteria to be followed by the DEC
while planning and designing the project. Any alternative suggestions/ proposals by the DEC
shall be conveyed to the Owner along with its advantages in terms of performance,
economy and reduction in construction period. Owner will study the proposal/s and may or
may not accept such proposals.

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 1 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

SECTION - 2 - BRIEF PROJECT DESCRIPTION


2.1

TYPE OF PROJECT
As explained above, Alaknanda River being a perennial river, the proposed Shrinagar hydro
electric project is planned as a run-of-the-river scheme. The main purpose of dam in the
project is to create a potential head for power generation. The dam being about 90 m in
height will have certain live storage capacity. The power plant may be operated as peaking
power station also during low flow season to take the advantage of availability of live storage
capacity.

2.2

GENERAL LAYOUT AND MAJOR PROJECT COMPONENTS


a.

The proposed project is run-of-the-river type and its general layout is as shown on
Exhibit No. 1 is accepted by Central Electricity Authority. DEC may suggest very minor
changes in the general arrangement of the project during planning and designing stage
with appropriate reasoning. However, Owner reserves the right to accept the proposed
changes or otherwise without assigning a reason thereof. In case of acceptance of the
alternative arrangement/ layout by Owner, responsibility of proper planning, designing
and performance requirements still remains with DEC, but without affecting the total
Project schedule.

b.

It shall be ensured that all the structures and construction activities to complete the
project are located within the land available with the Owner.

c.

The Project has been cleared/ approved by the Central Electricity Authority (CEA) (vide
their letter No. F.No.2 / UP / 28 / 2000 - PAC / 706-14, dated 20-07-2005) and the
Ministry of Environment and Forests under certain conditions. DEC shall consider and
implement all these conditions while planning and designing of various project
components.

d.

For convenience, the overall project execution may be divided into two or three parts.

e.

The major structures / components, but not limited to, covered under each part will be
as follows:

2.2.1

Part-I
a.

Main concrete gravity type dam (either Roller Compacted Concrete (RCC) or
conventional concrete Type) as accepted by the Owner, along with gated spillway,
foundation treatment, energy dissipation arrangement, water release outlet, dam
instrumentation, lifts, upstream and downstream cofferdams.

b.

One/ Two numbers headrace tunnels as accepted by Owner with support system and
concrete lining as per design criteria/ requirement, portals at tunnel entry and exits,
along with intakes, geological treatments, etc.

c.

Associated EIA and R&R works, hydro-mechanical works (gates and stoplogs) for
spillway, water release outlet through dam, diversion tunnel/s, intake for headrace
tunnels, trashracks, automatic trash removal/ cleaning arrangement, etc. along with
their handling arrangement and permanent type enclosures, and access to them.

d.

Accesses, bridges, culverts, infrastructure and enabling works.

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 2 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

2.2.2

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

Part-II
a.

RCC trough crossing Supana Nala,

b.

Desilting basin/ arrangement with flushing arrangements. (Adopting latest technology,


model studies, etc)

c.

Power Channel beyond desilting basin including excavation, banking, concrete lining,
cross-drainage works, crossovers, fencing, information boards, foot bridges, etc.

d.

Forebay with outlet for flushing arrangement for silt including bed / side lining, intake
gates,

e.

Concrete lined / RCC bypass arrangement with gates,

f.

Associated EIA and R&R works, hydro-mechanical works (gates and stoplogs) at
desilting basin outlet & inlet, flushing arrangement, automatic type gates at bypass
arrangement, etc. along with their handling arrangement and permanent type
enclosures, and access to them.

g.
2.2.3

Accesses, bridges, culverts, infrastructure and enabling works.

Part-III
a.

Surface steel penstocks (4 numbers) supported on ring girder supports, with intakes,
anchor blocks and specials like expansion joints, manholes, reducers, drainage and
emptying/ filling arrangement with piping and valves, etc.

b.

Complete power house structure to accommodate the four numbers of generating units
including control room, administrative building, toilet blocks, maintenance bay, providing
lift, two EOT cranes (each about 140 T / 30 T capacity with a common lifting beam), unit
auxiliaries and power house auxiliaries, lighting to the required flux level, etc.

c.

Cooling water tank, fire water tank and make up tank, piping, pump house (for cooling
water and drinking water),

d.

Tailrace system including cofferdam, road diversion, etc.

e.

Bridges and culverts (double lane, loading IRC 70R or the heaviest equipment to be
transported, whichever is higher) crossing power channel, bypass channel, tailrace
channel, etc. All the bridges for road leading to the power house shall be completed on
priority considering the schedule of transport of equipment furnished by the electromechanical Contractor.

f.

G-T yard and 400 kV switch yard and associated structures.

g.

Associate EIA and R&R works, hydro-mechanical works (gates and stop logs) draft
tube along with their handling arrangement, permanent type enclosures and accesses
to them.

h.
2.2.4

Accesses, bridges, culverts, infrastructure and enabling works.

Common (as applicable to each of above Part)


a.

Upgrading existing permanent and temporary access roads, bridges, culverts,


walkways, etc. as required by the Contractor for the construction of works.

b.

New access roads (permanent and temporary) along with concrete bridges, culverts,
cross-drainage works, etc. during the contract period.

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 3 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

c.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

Implementation of the EIA and R & R plans and the measures and activities arising out
of the stipulations and conditions of the CEA clearance and the environmental
clearance by the MOEF, all of which fall within the line dividing the respective civil
works in parts.

d.

Permanent lighting arrangement to the required flux level and voltage on dam top, dam
galleries, lifts, intake, desilting basin, street lighting, electric supply to appropriate
voltage to hydro-mechanical works, etc. including cabling, overhead wiring with poles/
towers, safety arrangements, electric bulbs/ tubes, all fixtures, switches, etc. complete.
The Contractor shall be responsible for the maintenance of such facilities till handing
over to the Owner.

e.

All miscellaneous works like surface drainage arrangement, fencing, enclosures


(housing) for instrumentation, site fillings considering environmental and safety aspects,
landscaping, turfing, etc.

2.2.5

Interfaces
More than one Contractor will carry out project implementation. The project planning and
corresponding tender and construction drawings shall clearly indicate/ specify the scope of
works at the interfaces to avoid duplication or discontinuity/ omission of the works.

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 4 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

SECTION - 3 - SALIENT FEATURES


The salient features of the project are as per the Techno-Economic Clearance accorder by
CEA are attached below as a part of this section.

3.1

CIVIL WORKS
1

LOCATION
State ..

Uttaranchal State, India.

District ..

Tehri and Pauri

Tehsil

Kirtinagar and Pauri

Longitude .

78 50 E

Latitude .

30 14 N

Nearest rail head .

Rishikesh

0
0

POWER
Installed Capacity ..

330 MW (4 units of 82.5 MW each) +


10% continuous overloading

Period of Generation .

Run of the river scheme, base load


generation during monsoon and peaking
generation during low flow period.

HYDROLOGY
River ..

Alaknanda River, a major tributary of


Ganga River

Catchment area ..

11,100 sq km

Snow bound catchment area

2,640 sq km

Maximum Probable Flood (PMF) .

26,400 cumecs

Standard Project Flood (SPF) ..

19,200 cumecs

DIVERSION TUNNEL
Nos. ..

Length ..

500 m

Finished Diameter ......

8m

Shape ...

Horse Shoe

Diversion discharge

700 cumecs

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 5 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

DIVERSION DAM
Type ..

Concrete gravity

Length ..

248 m

Maximum height of dam above deepest

90 m

foundation level ..

Height of dam from deepest river bed .

66 m

Number and size of spillway bays

8 bays of 14 m width each

Spillway crest elevation .

584.50 m

Full reservoir level (FRL) ..

605.50 m

Minimum Draw Down Level (MDDL) ..

603.00 m

Maximum water level (MWL) ....

609.80 m

Gross storage ..

78 Mm

Live storage .

8 Mm

Dead storage ...

70 Mm

Energy dissipation device ..

Solid bucket

Road level on top of dam ..

611.0 m.

3
3

INTAKE
Invert level of trashrack .

593.00 m

Shape ..

Circular

Design discharge ...

716 cumecs

HEAD RACE TUNNELS


Nos. ..

Length ..

1013 m and 1145 m

Diameter ..

9.5 m

Shape ...

Circular

Design discharge

716 cumecs

Lining

Concrete lined

TROUGH
Length ..

185 m

Size ...

13 m x 5.65 m

Shape

Twin barrel

Shape in cross-section ..

Rectangular

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 6 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

10

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

DESILTING BASIN
Length ..

240 m

Width (including divide wall) .

158.5 m

Water depth .

13.0 m

Particle size to be removed ..

0.20 mm and above

Flushing discharge .

100 cumecs

POWER CHANNEL
Shape in cross-section ..

Trapezoidal

Length (including transition) .

3.05 km

Design discharge

616 cumecs

Lining

Concrete lined

Value of Rugosity coefficient

0.015 to 0.017

Cutting section
Bed width .

14.50 m

Side slope ....

1.5 : 1

Full supply depth ....

9.5 m

Longitudinal slope ..

1 in 8,000

Filling section

11

Bed width .

14.50 m

Side slope ....

2:1

Full supply depth .

8.8 m

Longitudinal slope ..

1 in 8,000

Rugosity coefficient ...

0.014 to 0.017

Type of lining ..

Concrete lining

FOREBAY
Full Reservoir Level (FRL)

12

600.30 m

BYPASS CHANNEL
Type of fall structure at head

Ogee type

Fall

11.8 m

Crest level ...

596.80 m

No. and size of bays at head ...

3 Nos. of 15 m each with


2 piers of 1.5 m each

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 7 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

13

14

Total width ..

48 m

Design discharge

616 cumecs

PENSTOCKS
Numbers ..

Diameter ..

5.6 m

Length ..

114 m

POWER HOUSE
Location

Right bank of river Alaknanda

Type .

Surface

Size of Machine hall ..

Refer drawing AHPCL-SHEP-GA1002/P0 for tentative details. Actual


dimensions will be finalized by E&M
Contractor.

Installed capacity

330 MW (4 units of 82.5 MW each) +


10% continuous overloading

Type of turbines ..

Vertical Francis

Gross head ..

67.20 m

Net head ...

65.97 m

Service bay elevation .

548.00 m

Minimum Tail Water Level .

530.90 m

Normal Tail Water Level

533.10 m

Main Inlet Valves .

4 nos.

Type .

Butterfly

Size

4.90 m diameter.

Unit Auxiliary Systems ..

Governing system, Oil pumping system,


Cooling water system, Compressed Air
System etc. along with instrumentation
and control system.

Power House Auxiliary Systems .

Cranes, Ventilation and Air Conditioning


System, Drainage and Dewatering
System etc. along with instrumentation
and control system

15

TAILRACE CHANNEL
Type ..

Trapezoidal lined section

Length ..

140 m

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 8 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

16

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

Bed width .

85 m

Full supply depth

3.10 m

Side slope

2:1

Bed slope .

1 in 2430

Type of lining ...

Dry boulders lining / PCC lining

Value of Rugosity coefficient .

0.03

SWITCHYARD
400 kV Switchyard .

One and Half C.B. scheme 4 incoming


and 4 outgoing bays, size 135 m x 234
m (approximately)

GT Yard ..

12 nos. 11kV/ 400 kV 34 MVA Single


Phase GTs

Transmission Line .

400 kV double circuit 2nos. Lines from


GT Yard to Switchyard.

17

TRANSMISSION LINE
400 kV single circuit line to Rishikesh
Sub-station ...

100 km (approximately)

400 kV single circuit line to Nehlaur Substation ...


18

19

150 km (approximately)

POWER GENERATION BENEFITS


90% Dependable year.. .

1397 GWh

Average year ...

1515 GWh

Secondary Energy (in average year) ..

118 GWh

Peaking Capacity ...

363 MW

CONSTRUCTION PERIOD ..

44 months.

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 9 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

3.2

HYDRO-MECHANICAL WORKS

Sr.

Location

Type of

Clear size

No.

of gate

gate

(width x
height)

(above gate
sill)

(m)

(m)

1.

Dam

Radial

spillway

14.00 x

Nos.

Design head

21.00

21.15

Stoplogs

14.00 x

Tunnel

Vertical lift

9.25 x

intake

gate.

11.00

Opening / closing of gates


by hydraulic hoists and rope
hoist as an alternative.

11

21.00

2.00

2.

Operating condition

Motor operated hoist located


on moving crane with lifting
beam.

16.50

Capable of controlling flow,


full/ part opening and closing
against full water head by
hydraulic hoist.

Stoplogs.

9.25 x 2.00

16.50

Motor operated hoist with


lifting beam and capable of
opening and closing against
full water head.

3.

Desilting

Vertical lift

basin.
4.

5.

5.00 x

11.00

11.00

Desilting

Radial

basin

type with

Flushing
ducts.

hydraulic
hoist

Bypass

Automatic

channel

type.

Stoplogs.

2.30 x 1.00

by hydraulic hoist.
2

12.00

Penstock

Vertical lift

intake

hydraulic
hoist

Capable of opening against


water and silt load with
hydraulic hoist.

15.00 x

3.50

3.50

15.00 x

4.70 x 5.60

Capable of opening and


closing against full water
head.

3.5

1.20

6.

Opening / closing of gates

Motor operated hoist located


on moving crane with lifting
beam.

13.10

Full opening / closing of


gates by hydraulic hoist.
Capable of opening and
closing against full water
head.

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 10 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

Sr.

Location

Type of

Clear size

No.

of gate

gate

(width x
height)

(above gate
sill)

(m)

(m)

Stoplogs

4.70 x 1.50

Nos.

Design head

13.10

Operating condition

Motor operated hoist located


on moving crane with lifting
beam.

7.

Draft tube

Vertical lift

5.00 x 4.64

4.50

Opening / closing of gates


by motor operated hoist
(located on moving crane)
under balanced condition.
Bypass arrangement for
balancing pressure shall be
included.

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 11 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

SECTION - 4 - GENERAL TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS


4.1

GENERAL
Design of all the works shall be made by the DEC in two steps, namely:
a.

Basic Design performed before the start of construction work.

b.

Detailed Design performed before and during construction of the Project.

The DEC shall advise Owner on all additional field and laboratory investigations needed to
fulfill the design and construction requirements.

4.2

FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS
The DEC shall plan and design complete and fully functional civil and hydro-mechanical
works for Shrinagar Hydro Electric Power Project for various components and shall be
capable of fulfilling all the performance requirements.

4.3

LIFETIME REQUIREMENTS
The Civil and Hydro-mechanical works shall be designed and engineered by DEC and
accordingly manufactured, delivered, constructed, completed, commissioned and tested by
Contractors in such manner as to provide reasonable certainty that the minimum working life
of them will be as per GOI gazette published in book titled Indias Electricity Sector,
Widening Scope for Private Participation (this reasonable certainty is based on good
engineering practices, manufacturer's specifications and guidelines and normal operation
and maintenance).
The DEC shall inform the Owner of such specific parts or components in the design that
have a shorter technical life time than those stated above. Such parts or components shall
not be implemented in the Permanent Works without the approval of the Owner.
All materials and equipment specified as well as the design itself shall be from a recognised
manufacturer/ standard and proven design.

4.4

COMPLETENESS OF FACILITIES
DEC through design and specifications shall ensure that all structures/ Equipment
constructed/ erected will be complete in every respect with all embedments, mountings,
fittings, fixtures and standard accessories normally provided with such equipment and/or
those needed for erection, completion and safe operation of the equipments required by
applicable codes though they may not have been specifically detailed in the respective
specifications unless included in the list of exclusions. All similar standard components /
parts of similar standard equipment provided, shall be interchangeable with one another.

4.5

DRAWINGS AND DOCUMENTS


All drawings shall be produced by using CAD (Computer Aided Design) technique, such as
Auto-CAD, R13 or later version. Reports shall be produced with computer programs
available in Microsoft Office, calculations on Excel spread sheet or MathCAD.

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 12 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

4.6

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

UNITS
All measures, calculations, numerical results, specifications, final documentation etc.,
demanded to fulfill the design requirements for the Works, shall be presented to the Owner /
Owners engineer in SI-units. Angles shall be given in the 360-degree system for both
surveyors work and Civil Works.
The co-ordinate reference system to be used for all Works in the Project shall be defined by
a quadrant grid system. Each drawing shall contain a scale reflecting the appropriate meter
spacing. The grid system shall be defined in accordance with the Indian national co-ordinate
system. The elevation shall be given with zero at mean sea level as reference according to
the Indian elevation system. Any deviation in following these norms must be brought to
notice of Owner prior to commencement of work. DEC shall obtain clearance in such
instances from Owner in writing prior to resolving / resorting such changes.

4.7

CODES AND STANDARDS


Except where specifically pointed out in these Project Requirements, all design and
construction work including the materials used and methods applied shall be in accordance
with Indian Standard code issued by BIS. However reference can be drawn from one or
more internationally well-recognised standards of practice after approval from Owner. By
definition such standards comprise e.g. ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials),
ISO (International Organisation for Standardisation), IEC (International Electro technical
Commission), DIN (German Code), BS (British Standard), SS (Swedish Standard), EN
(European Standard), ACI (American Concrete Institute), USBR (United States Bureau of
Reclamation), USACE (US Army Corps of Engineer), ASCE (American Society of Civil
Engineers).
If, for any reason, the above or equivalent standards are not available, neither applicable nor
reasonable, other relevant standards shall be proposed and, if accepted, used instead.

4.8

SAFETY
The design shall be safe and robust with allowance for corrosion, unforeseen loads and
varying geotechnical conditions. The design shall take full account of constructional and
operational risks, including provision of a high level of safety.
The design shall be done in a timely manner to support an aggressive and well co-ordinated
construction schedule also taking into account adverse weather conditions, and performed
in a safe manner so that on-time completion of the Project is ensured.

4.9

SEISMIC DESIGN REQUIREMENTS


The Design of Permanent Works shall account for seismic loads basically characterised by a
peak horizontal ground acceleration as recorded in the seismic parametric report prepared
by CWPRS, Pune, in April 2005. DEC is expected to reconfirm from the National committee
on seismic design parameters (NCSDP) as advised by CEA regarding the revised latest
parameters to be adopted in design and base his designs on the same.

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 13 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

4.10

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

FUTURE MAINTENANCE
The design and composition of construction materials shall ensure sufficient durability,
considering the structural details of which they form part as well as the effect of environment
to which they may be exposed.
Provisions of roads, accesses etc shall be made for inspection and maintenance of all
Permanent Works and to ensure easy access and safety during these operations.
The design should be made to ease commissioning, required inspections and maintenance
and as well minimise loss of energy production during maintenance.

4.11

ARCHITECTURAL APPEARANCE
Powerhouse and other civil structures including dam shall have an architectural design,
which fits in with the original environment and give the best exterior appearance. The interior
architectural design shall be of a standard equal to or better than hydropower plants located
in India.
The architectural design shall also include landscaping etc. for all areas, which are affected
by the Project.

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 14 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

SECTION - 5 - PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS


5.1

GENERAL
The Contractor will construct all the structures based on the construction drawings prepared
by the DEC. The DEC shall indicate the minimum acceptable criteria and accordingly
Contractor shall guarantee the performance like maximum permissible leakages, head loss,
opening and closing times, vibration level, ratings, capacities, shape, size, alignment and
other performance figures required as per BIS codes and Technical Specification of the
system/ equipments after conducting the performance tests. The DEC shall note that in the
event of any deficiencies in meeting the guaranteed figures, Owner may at his discretion
accept the system/ structure/s after deducting the liquidated damages as specified in the
bidding documents or get the defects repaired by any other agency and recover the cost of
repair. Adequate instrumentation and control systems shall be installed in the dam and
appurtenant works for continuous surveillance of performance period of 12 months after
taking over by the Owner.

5.2

CIVIL WORKS
A Test Programme of all tests for the civil works that are to be carried out by the Contractor
shall be prepared and furnished by the Owner for review and acceptance. The Test program
and procedure shall be included in the Specification to be prepared by DEC. In addition to
as given in relevant BIS codes, the Test Program shall include the following minimum:
a.

b.

General Performance requirements:


i.

Watering-up and dewatering tests

ii.

Leakage/ water tightness tests

iii.

Cracking

iv.

Seepage

v.

Out of size, shape and alignment

vi.

Others

Structure-wise Specific Performance requirements are as given in the subsequent


paragraphs. The target date/ month indicated is the calendar month starting from
signing of Contract Agreement.

5.2.1

Dam and Spillway


a.

Water availability in the dam i.e. the reservoir is filled up to the FRL before start of
st

th

commissioning of the 1 unit in 36 month.


b.

DEC shall prepare the reservoir filling procedure and criteria.

c.

Reservoir levels:

d.

i.

MWL 609.800 m measured with an accuracy of + 0.005 m.

ii.

FRL 605.500 m measured with an accuracy of + 0.005 m.

iii.

MDDL 603.000 m measured with an accuracy of + 0.005 m.

Verticality test as specified in the relevant codes

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 15 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

e.

Seepage on the downstream and in galleries 2 Lugeons.

f.

Erosion on the stilling basin not acceptable.

g.

The discharge facilities including the Spillway should be capable of passing the PMF
taking into account to routing effect of the reservoir without the reservoir level with
minimum specified freeboard shall be available under all operating conditions
including during extreme floods or extreme wind conditions or winds subsequent to
earthquakes or large floods.

h.

All discharge facilities including spillway shall be capable in operational conditions at


all times. Any deposition of silt/ debris near to dam / discharge facilities shall be
minimum so that routing of floods is not impaired.

i.

Hill slopes shall be adequately protected to remain stable so that they do not
constitute an unacceptable risk to the safety of the dam.

5.2.2

Intake and Headrace Tunnels


a.

Invert level of Intake as measured with an accuracy of + 0.005 m.

b.

Intake shall have sufficient water cover under MDDL condition and no vortices should
form. Based on the revised designs conforming to physical model test results, if any,
DEC shall rectify formation of vortices, if any.

c.

Preferably, there shall not be settlement of sediment in the tunnel. However, the
reduction in cross-sectional area of the tunnel by 2% due to settlement of sediments
will be the governing criteria. The non-silting velocity shall be corresponding to the
design discharge in the tunnel.

d.

No cracks, falling of concrete

e.

No stagnant water in the tunnel after dewatering.

f.

Above items will be checked by taking outage of each tunnel after 6 months of its
operation.

5.2.3

Trough Over Supana Nala


No visible cracks, leakages and settlement shall occur.

5.2.4

Desilting Basin
a.

Requirements on the operational scenarios in wet and in dry season shall be specified
and strictly fulfilled.

b.

During maintenance of any one half of the basin portion, other half portion shall
operate as efficient as when the complete basin works.

c.
5.2.5

The flushing shall be efficient with discharge not exceeding 100 m /sec.

Power Channel
a.

Loss of water shall not be more than 0.60 m /sec per million m of wetted perimeter of
lining as specified in CBIP Manual No. 171.

b.

Settlement of sediment The reduction in area due to siltation shall be lesser of 2%


of cross-section area of channel within one year of its operation or as specified in the
BIS code or in CBIP Manual No. 171.

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 16 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

c.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

The channel shall be capable of carrying of the design discharge plus 10%
overloading with sufficient (minimum) free board. The discharge shall be measured
and recorded by Contractor at least two locations using current meters during
commissioning/ performance tests.

5.2.6

Bypass Channel
a.

The channel shall be capable of passing a required discharge under all extreme
conditions.

b.

No erosion or damage to the concrete lining of chute will be accepted.

c.

The bypass channel shall have efficient energy dissipation arrangement on the
downstream.

5.2.7

Penstocks
a.

Head loss shall not be more than specified, during handing over and also after one
year of its operation. The head loss shall be measured at the unit inlet valve on the
calibrated pressure gauge, which is to be installed by the Contractor.

b.

The acceptable limit in variation in diameter (out of roundness) and in straightness of


alignment shall not be more than the specified.

c.
5.2.8

The penstocks shall be vibration free. The acceptable vibration limit is 100 microns.

Powerhouse and Tailrace Channel


a.

Elevation of surrounding wall of powerhouse and tailrace channel shall be above the
3

water level with respect to HFL corresponding to 40,000 m /sec, a landslide induced
flood with provision of free board.

5.2.9

b.

Finishing items shall be as per specifications.

c.

Waterproofing of the roof shall have Guarantee during the performance period.

Road Works
a.

The road works shall be without any potholes and unevenness.

b.

All the structures shall be accessible by roads at all times including earthquake/
extreme flood condition.

5.2.10

Bridges
a.

All the bridges shall be of RCC and non-submersible type and hence should not get
submerged during extreme floods.

b.
c.

There shall not be failure during the highest loading for which they are designed.
Bridges shall meet all design requirements in terms of sizes (dimensions), cracking,
and deflection as specified in MOST/ IRC standards.

5.3

HYDRO-MECHANICAL WORKS

5.3.1

Radial and Vertical Gates


a.

Leakage shall under no circumstances exceed the values specified in the respective
BIS codes/ specifications.

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 17 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

b.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

The operating times defined in the technical data sheets furnished by the DEC shall
be guaranteed by the Contractor for the full head ranges with an accuracy of 5%.

c.

Undesirable incomplete gate closure will not be allowed.

d.

Wherever required, hoists shall be capable of holding intermittent position without any
oil pressure loss.

e.

Gates and hoists shall satisfy all shop/ performance tests as per BIS codes/
specifications.

f.
5.3.2

Shall have vibration free and cavitations free operation at all positions and conditions.

Hydraulic Hoist
a.

The operating speeds defined in the technical data sheets furnished by the DEC shall
be guaranteed for the full head ranges with an accuracy of + 5%.

5.3.3

b.

Working Oil Pressure as defined in the technical data sheets.

c.

Test Oil Pressure as defined in the technical data sheets

Stoplogs
a.

Leakage rates shall under no circumstances exceed the values specified in the IS
codes/ specifications.

b.
5.3.4

5.3.5

A vibration free and cavitations free operation in all positions.

Trashrack
a.

Size and spacing of vertical bars shall be as specified without any tolerance.

b.

Trash racks shall be vibration free.

Trashrack Cleaning Machine


a.

The lifting capacity shall not be less than specified in the technical data sheets.

b.

The operating speeds defined in the technical data sheets furnished by the DEC shall
be guaranteed for the full load ranges with an accuracy of 5%.

5.3.6

Gantry Cranes
Hoists shall be electrically cum manually operated with their capacity, speed of travel,
approach, access, lift, etc. shall be as specified.

5.3.7

Automatic Gates
a.

The maximum rise in water level when the gates are completely open shall not be
more than specified in technical data sheets.

5.4

b.

The gates shall be rigid, stable and shall not hunt for small change in water level.

c.

All the gates shall operate (open/ close) at water level specified in the bypass channel

VERIFICATION OF PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS


a.

In order to demonstrate compliance with the Performance Guarantees, DEC to ensure


that the Contractor shall prepare a detailed test procedure to be submitted for
Owners acceptance not later than 90 calendar days prior to the undertaking of the
performance tests.

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 18 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

b.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

The Contractor shall be responsible for carrying all the complete tests including
provision of all labour, materials, instruments, instrument calibration and the cost of
commissioning manager. DEC/ Owner will witness and DEC will certify all these tests.

c.

In case of non-compliance of any structure or instrument to the performance


requirements, Contractor shall repair, correct or replace all the defects to the
satisfaction of Owner.

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 19 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

SECTION - 6 - HYDRAULIC DESIGN REQUIREMENTS


6.1

GENERAL
The Project shall be planned and designed by the DEC so that:
a.

The needed turbine flow is conveyed at the acceptable limit of head losses (specified
herein under) in accordance with the capacity requirements in a safe and dynamically
acceptable manner.

b.

Part of the silt that accumulates in the reservoir can be flushed through the spillway
gates and low-level bottom outlets in the dam, if provided. This shall be designed for
continuous operation in the wet season when the river discharge is more than the
design discharge for power plant and for periodic intermittent flushing in order to save
water in the dry season.

c.

The design flood requirements of the Indian Standard IS: 11223 shall be fulfilled.

d.

The desilting arrangement shall be capable of flushing hydraulically with either of two
or both at a time, flushing systems. Both shall be designed for continuous operation in
flood season and also for periodic intermittent flushing in order to save water.

e.

The Contractor shall measure, verify at site and prove to the Owner of the proper
functioning of the hydraulic designs, which are the results of proper operation
simulations,

analytical

calculations

and

hydraulic

model

tests

results/

recommendations.
f.

Following paragraphs describe in detail the hydraulic design requirements for major
structures/ project components. DEC shall ensure that these requirements are strictly
met to ensure the expected power generation and smooth operation.

6.2

HYDROLOGY

6.2.1

Data
a.

River flow data for 30 years, on 10 daily basis is available. The Part-I Contractor shall
measure the daily flow in the river on the upstream of dam and keep record during the
construction period (staring from signing of Contract till handing-over).

b.
6.2.2

Observed silt data and ambient temperature data is also available with the Owner.

Floods
a.

Design Floods
i.

The Shrinagar dam has been classified as a large dam in conformance with
Indian design safety standards. The design flood for safety of the dam shall be
the Probable Maximum Flood (PMF). The relevant Indian Standards shall be
followed for designs. The design floods shall be considered together with
assumed failure to open one of the spillway gates. Freeboard requirements shall
be met, except that the dam, being a concrete structure will require minimum
freeboard during passage of the PMF.

ii.

No structural damage to the main structures will be acceptable during discharge


of the PMF. All structures, including the dam, spillway with energy dissipating

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 20 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

arrangements and appurtenant works, shall be designed so that the flood can be
discharged without damages.
iii. Beyond the synthetic unit hydrograph methods, estimation of flood peaks were
made by statistical methods. The following table summarises the results from the
previous hydrological flood studies.
Return period in
years or flood

b.

Peak discharge
3
(m /sec)

100

10,300

500

12,000

1000

14,100

SPF

19,200

PMF

26,400

Land Slides
Floods related to landslides shall be considered in the studies. Since the Shrinagar
catchment area is prone to landslides and there have been landslide-related flood
events recorded in history, the design criteria must be adapted accordingly. Design
criteria have therefore also been established for slide-induced floods and reservoir
flood waves, respectively.

c.

Slide-induced floods
i.

The dam shall be safe for floods caused by such slides as could possibly occur in
the catchment area upstream from the reservoir during the technical lifetime of
the project. The technical lifetime of the project/ structures shall be as per the
guidelines laid down by Government of India.

ii.

The tender design shall facilitate the release of a slide-induced flood of 40,000
3

m /s with all gates open, without jeopardising the stability of the dam.
Overtopping of the dam is acceptable, provided it is demonstrated that the dam
will withstand the overtopping. Significant repair works are accepted in this
extreme event.
iii.

Before the Basic Design period, the DEC shall perform a supplementary study of
the effects of landslide-related scenarios, based on historical information,
topographical maps and hydrological information together with empirically based
assessments etc., to determine the size of the flood at the dam with reasonable
accuracy. Such study may result in a modification of the above-stipulated
3

requirement of 40,000 m /s, which shall be communicated to the Owner before


the Basic Design.
d.

Slide-induced flood-waves
i.

The dam shall also be safe for impact waves caused by slides that could possibly
occur directly into the reservoir during the technical life of the project.

ii.

It is required that the dam can safely withstand a slide-induced flood-wave with a
height of 10 m above the Full Supply Level. Overtopping of the dam is

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 21 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

acceptable, provided it is demonstrated that the dam will withstand the


overtopping.
iii.

Before the Basic Design period, the DEC shall perform a supplementary study of
the effects of waves caused by slides into the reservoir, based on historical
information, topographical maps, geological information for sensitive areas
including field surveys and empirically based assessments or mathematical/
physical modeling to determine wave-heights (super-elevations) at the dam and
at other sensitive areas along the reservoir.

iv.

Such study if result in a modification of the above stipulated requirement of a 10


m design wave height (super-elevation), which shall be communicated to the
Owner before the Basic Design.

v.

In the Basic Design the DEC shall demonstrate that the safety of the dam is not
threatened by reservoir slide-induced waves. Destruction of gates and limited
structural damage to the dam and other parts of the Project are acceptable in the
flood-wave scenario.

e.

Dam Break Studies


The DEC shall carryout the dam break studies. The study shall cover effect of dam
failure on the downstream in terms of water spread, water levels, possible damages to
the property, etc.

f.

Design Flood for Temporary River Diversion Structures


The selection of the design flood for temporary river diversion structures shall be
made by DEC with regard to the consequences of failure, as well as the period of
operation of the structure.
Furthermore, the dimensioning of the structures depends on the Contractors
schedule, construction methods and risk assessment. One objective of the design of
the temporary river diversion structures shall be to avoid consequential delays of the
finalisation of permanent structures. The design shall include a method statement for
evaluation.

6.3

WATER CONDUCTOR SYSTEM AND STRUCTURES

6.3.1

General
a.

The hydrological and hydraulic performance of the water transfer structures shall be
sustained for normal operation conditions during the technical lifetime of the Project.
The leakages out of these facilities shall meet the minimum performance criteria.

b.

The water transfer structures shall be designed to take the full design flow of the
power station including necessary flow to cater for overloading of generating units (by
10%) and flushing requirements.

c.

Head losses in the water transfer system shall be evaluated for hydraulic purposes
and accounted for in design for all normal operation conditions. This implies that the
dimensions of the water conductor system are dictated by the design flow and the
ruling hydraulic conditions upstream, downstream and within the structures
themselves.

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 22 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

d.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

In case of load rejections in the power station, the water conductor system shall be
designed to avoid over-topping due to open channel surges and shall have a
minimum freeboard above the maximum water level shall be as per relevant BIS
code.

e.

The need for energy dissipating structures shall be evaluated for hydraulic and
erosion purposes and be accounted for in design reports. Physical Model tests shall
be got carried out by DEC to verify the function of the

f.

i.

Energy dissipating arrangements of the dam.

ii.

Desilting basin

iii.

Tailrace channel, etc.

The project shall include a valve-controlled facility in the immediate vicinity of the dam
or through one of the spillway piers, adjustable for release in the range of 0 - 5
m3/sec.

g.

Water conductor system structures shall be designed to be emptied by gravity only.


No pumping shall be involved. To facilitate normal inspection and maintenance, the
water conductor structures shall have inverts suitable for vehicle traffic, avoiding
circular shape at the bottoms of conduits that may carry bed load.

h.

For the optimum operation of the Project, reliable monitoring functions for the water
conductor system are required. Necessary instrumentation to collect and transfer
information on gate positions, reservoir and forebay water levels, as well as canal
and/or tunnel water levels immediately upstream the power intake, flow measurement
shall be identified in the Basic Design.

i.

The tunnel intake gates shall be capable of throttling to enable controlling the
discharge passing through tunnel. The gate shall be able to receive the command/
signal from instruments and operate accordingly for this purpose.

6.3.2

Reservoir
The mode of reservoir operation is quite important from the consideration of possibilities to
defer sedimentation and retain sufficient storage for daily peaking generation in the future.
Physical Model studies may be suggested by DEC on how best to operate the reservoir to
achieve this. The model studies shall provide information on whether a draw-down below the
indicated minimum draw-down level (MDDL) will be required in the future and if so this shall
be quantified and accounted for in the design of the project.
The model studies shall also provide information on whether further preparations should be
made at initial construction of the project to facilitate future removal or exclusion of coarse
sediment particles (gravel) from the turbine flow at the river intake.

6.3.3

Dam
Many potential hydro power project sites have been identified and planned on the
Alaknanda River, in cascading form, by the Government of Uttaranchal. Therefore,
considering the projects planned on the upstream of the Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project
following levels shall be strictly followed:
a.

Full Reservoir Level (FRL) at EL 605.500 m

b.

Maximum Water Level (MWL) to EL 609.800 m.

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Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 23 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

c.

The minimum Draw-Down Level (MDDL) of the reservoir shall be as far as possible
close/ nearest to the FRL in to enable water diversion in the water conductor system
and shall not be less than EL 603.00 m.

The Contractor shall plan the construction activities of dam in such a way that the reservoir
is filled up to the Full Reservoir Level well before the time of start of commissioning and
testing of the first generating unit.
6.3.4

Tunnel Intakes
a.

The hydraulic performance of the intakes shall be sustained so that the net flow area
of the intakes is not reduced by unfavourable sedimentation build-up.

b.

The intakes shall be designed and evaluated for hydraulic purposes. The entry shall
be bell-mouth shaped and entrance losses shall be accounted for in design.
Furthermore, the intakes shall have sufficient water cover (i.e. submergence) at
MDDL condition and be designed to prevent development of vortices, which may
affect proper function of desilting arrangements or increase head losses.

c.

Intakes shall be designed for a maximum velocity of 1.5 m/sec calculated on the gross
area (at MDDL) through the trash racks with maximum clear 10 cm spacing. The
calculated head loss through intake shall not be more than 0.50 m.

d.

The possible need for a bed load (gravel) excluder, possibly combined with the outlet
for release of ecological flows, shall be investigated in the Basic Design.

e.
6.3.5

The performance of the intakes may be verified in physical models as required.

Tunnels
a.

Both the tunnels shall be identical in terms of physical sizing and hydraulic
characteristics.

b.

The combined water carrying capacity of both the tunnels at MDDL condition shall be
3

equal to total design discharge for generating units (560 m /sec) plus 10% for
overloading the generating units plus the discharge required for flushing the desilting
3

basin (maximum 100 m /sec).


c.

The surface finish of concrete lining shall be smooth with rugosity coefficient between
0.014 and 0.016. The total head loss through tunnel corresponding to discharge of
3

716 m /sec shall not be more than 1.75 m.


6.3.6

Desilting
a.

Desilting shall be carried out to prevent bed load and suspended sediment from
entering the power channel and further to power house. The desilting arrangement
shall be designed to remove all particles larger than 0.20 mm. The flushing discharge
3

for desilting shall not be more than 100 m /sec.


b.

Requirements on the following two operational scenarios shall be fulfilled:


i.

Wet season: power station operating at the design discharge or over-loaded


condition - Continuous removal of 100% of particles coarser than 0.20 mm
carried by the water. Reservoir inflow assumed as (steady-state) greater than
3

750 m /s.

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 24 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

ii.

Dry season: Removal (settling and flushing) of at least 100% of particles coarser
than 0.20 mm carried by the river to the dam area. Reservoir inflow assumed as
3

(steady-state) 100 m /s.


c.

The Owner wishes to minimise wastage of water due to flushing and method
statements on the procedures for flushing and necessary time and amount of water
for such activities shall be presented.

d.

In order to verify the above requirements physical model studies are required, which
shall be carried out at the reputed research institute like Central Water and Water
Research Station, Khadakwasla, Pune or equivalent research station.

e.
6.3.7

The head loss across the desilting basin shall not be more than 0.10 m.

Power Channel and Bypass Arrangement


a.

Channel shall be provided with reinforced concrete abrasive resisting lining with
smooth surface finish. The Mannings n Coefficient shall be between 0.014 and
0.017.

b.

The velocity in the channel shall be non-silting and non-erosive and shall be between
1.0 and 1.8 m/sec.

c.

The channel shall have prismatic section and uniform flow conditions.

d.

The longitudinal slope shall be very mild and flatter than 1 in 8,000.

e.

The design discharge capacity for power channel as well as for bypass channel shall
3

be equal to the discharge required by generating units (560 m /sec) plus 10% for
3

overloading i.e. for 616 m /sec.


f.

The channel shall have only horizontal curves and shall be smooth. Super-elevation
shall be provided to the curves, wherever required.

g.

The cross-drainage works shall not obstruct the flow in channel resulting in head loss.

h.

Channel shall be designed so that no material (gravel, boulders etc.) will be


transported into the canals as a result of heavy rains, i.e. storm water.

i.

The performance of the bypass channel, including surplus escapes at the streams
shall be verified in the basic design.

6.3.8

Forebay
a.

For the efficient and successful operation of the power plant, it is essential to maintain
highest water level at the forebay. Water level at forebay shall be minimum at FSL
600.300 m and maximum operating water level of 601.300.

b.

The automatic gates shall be capable of maintaining water surface in between these
two levels

6.3.9

Penstocks
a.

The penstock diameter shall be most economical.

b.

The penstocks bends shall be smooth for minimum head loss. Bend centerline radius
shall be three times the internal diameter of penstock and angle of each bend
0

segment shall not be more than 6 .


c.

The painted inside surface shall be smooth with Rugosity Coefficient of 0.012.

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Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 25 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

d.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

The total head loss through penstock corresponding to design discharge shall not be
more than 1.15 m.

e.
6.3.10

Corrosion allowance of 2 mm shall be considered.

Power House And Tailrace


a.

The power station shall be designed to sustain structurally and shall be protected
against the flooding even for the discharge caused by land slides upstream or into the
reservoir.

b.

A tailrace channel shall have a efficient hydraulic design and of rectangular in section
in RCC.

c.

The channel shall be guarded against the long-term negative effects of flood-related
settlement of material (boulders, gravel) in it.

d.

The procedures for removal of the settled material, if any and necessary time for such
activities shall be presented. In the Basic Design, the performance of the tailrace
channel and potential risk of sediment deposition during flood season shall be studied
in hydraulic model tests.

e.

A tailrace rating curve shall be established by DEC in the Basic Design.

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Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 26 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

SECTION - 7 - GEOTECHNICAL AND GEOLOGICAL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS


7.1

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
a.

The requirements regarding geotechnical and geological design are given in order to
ensure the quality, lifetime, future maintenance and overall safety of structures
depending on geological / geotechnical design within the Works. The design work
itself shall be conducted using best engineering as per satisfaction to the Owner.

b.

The geotechnical design shall include verification measures relevant to the function of
specific structures. Such measures shall be carried out continuously during
construction works in order to verify the appropriateness of the design.

c.

DEC shall prepare geotechnical design documents and submit them to the Owner for
review, including drawings and reports containing input data, calculations and results,
thereby rendering a full understanding of the design.

d.

e.

The geotechnical design requirements refer to the following project components:


i.

Soil and Rock foundations including dam foundations

ii.

Soil and Rock cuts

iii.

Earth and Rock fill embankments

iv.

Earth and Rock slopes

v.

Tunnel excavation

vi.

Any other structure or work defined during the Basic Design

The DECs Basic Design as well as Detailed Design of earth and rock structures shall
include the following:
i.
ii.

Comprehensive evaluation of existing geotechnical data.


Additional site investigations that the DEC deems necessary in order to provide
sufficient data for safe and uniform geotechnical design, e.g. detailed drilling
investigations, study of groundwater conditions, testing of rock and soil
samples, engineering geological mapping, etc.

iii.

Site characterisation, i.e. establishing the engineering characteristics of the


rock and soil masses.

iv.

Rock mass classification.

v.

Mechanical analysis of rock and soil to determine properties and derive failure
mechanisms.

vi.

Support and stabilisation measures including calculations to verify that the


design fulfils long-term stability requirements.

vii.

Definition of the proper construction methods to meet the geotechnical design


requirements.

DEC is fully responsible for the design as well as the functioning of structures associated
with the Works. Furthermore, the DEC shall be responsible for the sampling and
interpretation of the geotechnical and geological data as well as the characterisation of the
rock and soil masses connected with the Works.

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 27 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

7.2

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

CODES AND STANDARDS


Except where pointed out in this specification, all materials and test methods used in the
design and construction phases of geotechnical structures shall be in accordance with
relevant IS standards.
IS: 4880

Code of practice for design of tunnels conveying water (All parts)

IS: 4756

Safety code for tunneling work

IS: 5878

Code of practice for construction of tunnels (All parts)

IS: 4081

Safety of code for blasting and related drilling operations

If, for any reason, the above standards are not available or clearly neither applicable nor
reasonable, other internationally, well-recognised standards shall be proposed.

7.3

LOADS AND FORCES

7.3.1

General
The following loads are to be considered for geotechnical and/or civil design of structures:

7.3.2

a.

Dead loads

b.

Pore pressure and uplift

c.

Water pressure

d.

Earth pressure

e.

Silt load

f.

Earthquake loads

g.

In-situ stresses

h.

Live loads

Special Design Considerations


a.

Pore Pressure/Uplift
Pore pressures shall be derived from existing site-specific information or from
additional site investigation results.

b.

Active pressure
Static active pressure against vertical or nearly vertical structural surfaces shall be
calculated using Rankine or Coulomb's theory, as appropriate. For active conditions to
exist, the structure must yield or tilt at least 1/1,000 of its height under this pressure.
For seismic loading, dynamic earth pressure shall be considered.

c.

At rest pressure
At rest soil pressure shall be applied wherever the structure does not yield or tilt under
the load of a compacted fill.

d.

Passive pressure
Passive soil pressure on vertical or nearly vertical structural surfaces shall be
calculated using Rankine or Coulomb's theory as appropriate. In order to develop full

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 28 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

passive pressure, the structure must yield or tilt toward the soil at least 1/100 of its
height.
e.

Earthquake
The DEC shall consider seismic loads as per seismic parametric study report and
relevant IS codes.
Earthquake loads are assumed to have no effect on the water pressures considered
for uplift.

7.3.3

Earth Retaining Structures


a.

Stability
i.

Design factor of safety of structures for sliding and overturning shall be based on
relevant IS codes of standards for different structures. Wherever applicable
sliding factor of safety incorporate partial factor of safety in respect of friction and
partial factor of safety in respect of cohesion.

ii.

Maximum bearing pressure shall always be less than allowable bearing pressure
for occasional loads, increase in allowable bearing pressure values shall also be
taken wherever applicable.

b.

Design
In estimating earth pressures on retaining structures, at-rest pressures (Ko) shall
normally be used. Design shall be carried out based on relevant IS codes along with
applicable permissible stresses.

c.

In Situ Stress Magnitudes and Orientations


From the design requirements stated for geotechnical structures and/or foundations of
such structures it is explicit that the DEC shall present how the three-dimensional
stress state has been calculated, what assumptions have been made and, if
necessary, how stresses and their orientations will be observed or assessed.
Therefore, the DEC shall include for stress measurements should the DEC expect
that such actions must be taken in order to provide valid input data for optimised
design according to the requirements.
It shall be noted that the horizontal/vertical stress ratio is strongly effected by
topographic conditions. Analyses shall be performed so as to assess the impact of
differing in-situ stress environments on stress concentrations.

7.4

ROCK MASS PROPERTIES

7.4.1

Rock Mass Classification


For the rock mass classification in the underground excavations, the Rock Tunneling Quality
Index (Q) proposed by the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute shall apply. The final definitions
of rock classes shall be determined jointly by the DEC and the Owner when the geotechnical
conditions have been made fully available and satisfactorily recognised.
The need for classification of rock outside of underground excavations shall be determined
by the DEC and presented to the Owner in the Basic Design along with suggested
applicable classification system.

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 29 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

7.4.2

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

Assessment of Discontinuity Properties


Average shear strength values shall be determined for the principal discontinuities based on
precedent experience and an assessment of the nature of the discontinuity surfaces
recovered during the complementary site investigation programme managed by the DEC.

7.4.3

Rock Mass Failure Criterion


For stability analyses in the design process, the DEC shall use either Mohr-Coulombs or
Hoek-Browns failure criterion as appropriate.

7.4.4

Intact Rock Strength


The intact uniaxial compressive strength of the rock values shall be determined by means of
point load testing and/or unconfined compression strength testing on selected rock core
samples obtained from the vicinity of relevant rock structures.

7.4.5

Rock Mass Deformability


Deformation modulus values for the rock mass shall be determined on the basis of
correlation between the rock mass classification system(s) proposed by the DEC and
deformation modulus established and as per engineering practices.

7.4.6

Sliding Stability Analyses


The DECs method for sliding stability analyses shall be identified in the Basic Design. Shear
strength parameters for use in the assessment of the sliding stability of structures founded
on rock shall be calculated based on an assessment of the expected condition of the
foundation or discontinuity surface, the nature of the sliding surface, the strength of the rock
or concrete on either side of the sliding surface and the normal stress condition which will
exist under the loading condition analysed.
Parameter values used in the analyses shall be established on the basis of testing of
representative rock core samples where such are available, or by using conservative lower
bound estimates for the parameters as determined from data available for similar rock types.

7.5

DESIGN OF UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES


The design requirements given in this section apply to the permanent underground
structures for the Works including:
a.

Tunnels

b.

Any other critical underground structures which may be identified during the Basic
Design

Temporary access tunnels, adits and alike shall be excavated and supported so as to
ensure the safety during the underground works and the scheduled advancing rate.
Temporary access tunnels shall further be sealed / plugged as required. The design of the
underground structures shall include:
a.

Design of rock excavation, i.e. excavation method, equipment, advancing rate etc.,

b.

Design of rock supports

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 30 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

7.6

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

DESIGN OF ROCK EXCAVATION


Rock excavations shall be designed so that the surrounding rock is disturbed as little as
possible and no surrounding property belongings to Owner or by others is damaged or
disturbed. DEC shall ensure that the Contractor shall be liable for compensation for such
damages / disturbances. The design of the rock excavation shall account for ambient
conditions, type of rock support, final finishes of the underground structures, etc.
The design and technical specification for the rock excavation shall comprise:
a.

Excavation methods for tunnels, forebay and any other type of excavation

b.

Equipment lists for excavation, ventilation, rock support, grouting, water control,
monitoring, etc.

c.

Working procedures for specific work sequences, e.g. excavation, drilling, blasting
including controlled blasting, boring, ventilation, scaling, loading, installation of
supports, grouting, rock monitoring, final finishes, etc.

d.

Technical data for the rock excavation to be submitted to the OWNER, e.g. if utilising
drill-and-blast technique, drill pattern for blast, type of explosives, round cycle time,
advancing rate, vibration levels, disturbance to the surrounding rock, ventilation
capacity, boring rate, etc.

e.

Safety measures and procedures

f.

Time schedules

g.

Controlled blasting for tunnels shall satisfy the requirement of Forest Department in
the zone where it passes through the land belonging to the forest department.

7.7

WATER TUNNELS
All water tunnels shall be designed so that leakage out of the tunnels is minimised. This
implies that tensile stresses on the rock surface induced by either the immediate loading
conditions after excavation or by the water transferred through the tunnel while in operation,
cannot be allowed. Hence, the design of tunnels including linings shall be carried out
accordingly.
Should the DEC wish to leave the excavation boundaries of water tunnels unlined, it should
be shown in the Basic Design that this does not jeopardise the structural integrity or the
hydraulic efficiency of the water conduit or imperil the discharge used in the design.
However, all the water carrying structures e.g. tunnel, channel, etc. shall be concrete lined
for their hydraulically efficient performance.

7.8

DESIGN OF ROCK SUPPORT


The DECs Basic Design, submitted to the Owner for review, shall comprise the following:
a.

Verification of the type of rock support for each rock mass class

b.

Verification of materials for rock support

c.

Manufacturing data of support materials

d.

Verification of equipment for the installation of rock support

e.

All geological data and input data for the design of rock support

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Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 31 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

f.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

Environmental impact, if any, of proposed rock support

Rock support for the underground structures requires the definition of the most likely failure
mechanism for the anticipated rock condition and loading environment. Rock support shall
be designed so as to assist the rock arch surrounding the excavation to support itself under
the assumed loading conditions thereby providing the maximum safety at the minimum
economical cost.
All permanent steel support shall also be corrosion protected, i.e. cement or resin grouted.
The permanent rock support system shall be designed for a technical lifetime of 100 years if
not otherwise agreed with the OWNER.
Failure mechanisms in rock can generally be divided into two broad categories:
a.

Structurally induced instabilities

b.

Instabilities due to overstressing of the excavation boundary

To analyse these failure mechanisms, rock support design shall be performed according to
the following procedures.
a.

On the basis of the results of the geotechnical investigations, the engineering


characteristics of the rock mass shall be established.

b.

The various geological rock types shall be classified and preliminary estimates of
support shall be made. For underground excavations the rock mass characteristics
shall be classified in accordance to the Rock Tunneling Quality Index (Q), proposed
by the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute. For other rock excavations and where
needed, the DEC shall present in his basic design the classification system he intends
to use. Detailed description of each rock class shall be given clearly and
comprehensively.

c.

For each class of rock determined for large diameter underground structures or
structures subjected to high in-situ stresses, numerical analyses by means of e.g.
finite element methods, boundary element methods etc. shall be performed. The
numerical computations shall involve utilisation of internationally well-recognised
computer codes. The analyses aim at establishing the range of rock mass conditions
in which stress related instabilities are most likely to develop.

d.

Where the results of the numerical analyses indicate linear elastic behaviour of a
given class of rock under the anticipated loading conditions, limit equilibrium analyses,
using internationally well recognised computer programs, shall be used to assess rock
support requirements. Average discontinuity characteristics and typical support
loadings shall be input in order to establish the levels of support required to ensure
that the rigid blocks (wedges), which are found to be free to fall from the crown and
walls of the underground structure, are adequately restrained.

e.

When the results of the numerical analyses indicate that the stress levels generated
by the underground opening may lead to the formation of inelastic or squeezing zones
around the opening, further analysis using Mohr-Coulombs or Hook-Browns failure
criteria as appropriate shall be performed. For squeezing ground predictions, an
analysis using a time-dependent rock model shall be carried out. These methods
permit the determination of the support levels required to limit stress-induced

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Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 32 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

deformations to acceptable levels and to ensure long-term stability of the "loosened"


rock surrounding the openings.
f.

Optimum rock support system for each rock class and loading conditions shall be
determined based on the above analyses. Reserved measures for unexpected rock
conditions shall also be prepared.

The long term stability of underground openings shall be checked under the relevant
conditions by the DEC:
a.

The rock mass is fully drained.

b.

Supports such as the rock bolts, linings, etc. are only effective up to 2/3 of the yield
strength of the materials.

c.

Earthquake loadings are negligible.

All rock support shall be presented on drawings. All input data, basis for the input data,
analysis procedures and the results of all analyses performed, shall be well documented and
presented to the Owner.

7.9

LINING DESIGN
Geotechnical structures in contact with flowing water shall wherever required be lined except
where the DEC can show that lining is not needed for structural integrity, water loss or for
hydraulic reasons. Owners written approval for such deviation shall, however, will be
essential.
Geotechnical structures on surface, which are in contact with flowing water shall be erosion
protected either by concrete or riprap or gabions, as applicable.
Tunnels through soil shall either be concrete or steel lined, while rock tunnels shall be either
left unlined, concreted, shotcreted or steel lined wherever appropriate subject to approval
from OWNER.

7.9.1

Steel Lining
For steel lining, the volume between the lining and the surrounding rock shall be concreted
to ensure that loads can be transferred from the lining to the rock.
Where steel liner is used a contact grouting and radial grout curtain consisting of one or
more rows of grout holes shall be provided at both ends of the liner to impede the migration
of pressurised water. The DEC shall define methods to optimise the grout curtain, e.g. hole
lengths, hole angles, number of holes, grouting procedures, etc.
Where steel lining terminates and concrete lining commences, a transition length of
reinforced concrete lining shall be provided in order to prevent unacceptable leakage. The
gradual change shall also be designed to prevent an abrupt outward deformation of the
concrete tunnel lining, which otherwise may produce severe cracking.

7.9.2

Concrete Lining
Concrete lining shall be designed in accordance of the IS: 4880.

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 33 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

7.10

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

SOIL SUPPORT
The soil support needed as well as the supporting data for design shall be thoroughly
described in the DECs Basic Design.

7.11

FOUNDATION OF SURFACE STRUCTURES


Foundation of structures on soil and rock shall be designed to give an acceptable safety
factor against ground failure. The soil foundation design shall further aim at yielding a
harmless deformation of the underlying material. Design of rock foundation shall especially
consider the long-term stability of rock slopes at and in the vicinity of the foundation itself.
For soil foundations the design work shall follow Rankines theories for stability and loads.
Standards / Codes used to perform e.g. numerical analyses to optimise foundation design
shall be of an internationally well-recognised standard. All input data in the design process
as well as the results derived, and the construction methods to establish the stability of
foundations shall be thoroughly outlined and reported in the DECs Basic Design.
Where data is insufficient for proper design, the actual material properties shall be further
investigated and if necessary tested during the construction phase. The DEC shall define
which structures he intends to exclude from additional investigations and tests. The
foundation design of dams shall include sealing / treatment by consolidation grouting of the
underlying ground to arrest / prevent seepage to satisfy the permissible criteria laid down in
the relevant IS code.
The foundation of surface structures shall be thoroughly described in the DECs Basic
Design and shall always aim at providing optimum stability of the foundation combined with
the load of the overlying structure.

7.12

DESIGN OF EMBANKMENT AND CUT SLOPES


Rock and soil slopes will be constructed in connection with excavations and embankments
for roads, working areas, buildings, etc.
Potentially dangerous natural slopes shall be identified and analysed for safety. If the
analysis indicates unsatisfactory stability, the DEC shall design and carry out additional
measures for an appropriate improvement of safety.
Safety factors of stability will differ depending on consequences of failures. In applicable
cases, where the stability is not obvious, the DECs Basic Design shall include an analysis
with material models, water levels and methods. The DEC shall define which sections to
exclude from stability design.
Temporary slopes in connection with temporary excavations and embankments shall be
designed with an overall safety factor of at least 1.3.
Permanent slopes in connection with cuts and embankments for permanent buildings, roads
and working areas shall be designed to an overall safety factor of at least 1.5.
For permanent slopes with erosion sensitive soil, erosion protection shall be designed and
installed.

7.13

SETTLEMENT ALLOWANCE
The following settlement shall be considered, as appropriate, in the design of embankments

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Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 34 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

7.13.1

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

a.

Elastic settlement of the fill and foundation during construction

b.

Elastic settlement due to reservoir filling

c.

Consolidation settlements

d.

Crest settlements due to earthquake induced deformations

Settlement Analysis
a.

Embankment Settlements
Internal settlements after the end of construction of compacted embankments shall be
limited to 0.5% of the embankment height.

b.

Foundation Settlements
Settlement shall be determined from the following criteria:
i.

Structures founded on rock, river alluvium and terrace deposits shall be assumed
to have negligible foundation settlements following the end of construction.

ii.

Structures founded on soil deposits shall be assumed to have settlements based


on material type and the height of structure. The settlement characteristics for
such materials shall be established on the basis of precedent experience.

7.14

SEEPAGE ANALYSIS
Primary emphasis in the design of the seepage control systems shall be directed towards
minimising seepage quantities, limiting seepage induced pore pressures to ensure stability.
The design shall cover the use of grout curtains, etc.
The Basic Design shall include a method statement giving full details of the method of
seepage analysis and the methods for seepage control that the Contractor will use.

7.15

DESIGN OF RIPRAP AND SLOPE PROTECTION


The selection of riprap shall be based on the design wave height, the effective fetch and the
design wind velocity. Furthermore, the design of riprap protection shall take into account
anticipated rated discharges. For slope protection, alternatively Contractor may use gabions
or boulder crates.
A design method statement covering the analysis executed to meet the requirements shall
be included in the DECs Basic Design of the Works.

7.16

FILTER DESIGN
Filter design shall follow established and current practice as per IS codes and as outlined in
Sherard et al, Wilson and Marsal and Sherard and Dunnigan and as summarised as follows.
a.

The 15% size of the filter material shall not be greater than six times the 85% size of
the base material. D15 filter <6 D85 base

b.

The 15% size of the filter material shall be at least five times the 15% size of the base
material being protected. D15 filter >5 D15 base

c.

The gradation curve of the filter shall have approximately the same slope as the base
material (for nonplastic base material) and the 50% size of the filter material shall not
be greater than 25 times the 50% size of the base. D5O filter <25 D5O base (were
nonplastic)

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Sheet No. 35 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

d.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

For an impervious base material, the filter shall be designed on the basis of the
gradation curve for the portion of the base material, which is finer than the 5 mm
sieve.

Principal drawings of filters shall be submitted in the DECs Basic Design.

7.17

DESIGN OF PRESSURE RELIEF WELLS


Pressure relief wells are required where high uplift pressures may develop.
The design of pressure relief drains shall be related to the properties of the foundation and
the embankment material as well as filter criteria where appropriate. Basic details of
pressure relief wells shall be submitted in the Basic Design where applicable.

7.18

GROUTING
The DEC shall demonstrate on drawings in the Basic Design the location, direction and
depth of the various bore holes together with the type of injection. For injection works in rock
mass, the exact location, spacing, direction and depth shall not be fixed in the design but
depend on the various nature of the rock as encountered during course of execution of work.
The Basic Design shall also describe the various types of investigations and tests to be
carried out for a specific type of injection. Based on the results from such investigations and
tests, the DEC shall specify how this influences the selection of the injection parameters and
methodology of that particular injection work. The specification shall contain information of
bore hole geometry, drilling order of the various bore holes, injection sequence both within a
single bore hole and between a group of holes, water-cement ratio together with any types
and quantities of additives for all mixes to be used, pressure during injection and stop
criteria for a single injection sequence.
When deemed necessary, the DEC shall also describe methods to measure the
effectiveness of an injection operation, criteria for additional works to satisfy stipulated
demands and a methodology for these works. The DEC shall contain this in the detailed
design for the injection related to the curtain grouting below the dam and any other
structures where the stability is governed by a maximum water pressure between the
structure and rock surface. Contractor shall however ensure that the methodology of
injection treatment satisfied the overall requirement as specified in the relevant IS code.
Grouting in association with tunneling shall be considered when further excavation in
ungrouted material imperils safety and when proper hydraulic functioning of the tunnel, when
in operation, is at risk.
The Contractor shall maintain a register of all drilling work for injections and also for injection
separately including descriptions of the operations, injected volumes, injection pressures,
change of mixes, status of refusal of hole, water loss encountered, test holes taken to check
the efficiency of the treatment, etc.

7.18.1

Description Of Methodology For Injection Works


The DEC shall produce a Description of Methodology for Injection Works in which he shall
give detailed description of the methodology, which he intends to use as well as the
equipment he intends to use. The document shall contain information given in the former
section and contain information over the following areas:

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Sheet No. 36 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

7.19

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

a.

Equipment

b.

Injection materials

c.

Definition and Methodology for various types of injection

d.

Data Register and

e.

Control Measures.

FURTHER INVESTIGATIONS
The Contractor shall be obligated to perform any additional field investigations and
laboratory investigations or any other types of measures that the DEC deems necessary for
fulfilling the design and construction requirements.

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 37 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

SECTION - 8 - ROAD DESIGN REUIREMENTS


8.1

The road design shall be made in an early stage of the project and be presented separately in
the DECs Basic Design. The design shall cover all permanent roads as well as temporary
roads.
Permanent access roads shall be built to all permanent surface structures. For the sake of
future maintenance and monitoring the dam shall be furnished with a crest road.

8.2

All roads shall have widths, inclinations, carrying capacities and curve radiuses equivalent to
those required for the vehicles used in the construction works. Road design shall be adequate
for the transportation of all heavy equipment used and needed for the Project, as well as the
transportation of future equipment supplies. The DEC is also responsible for all necessary
refurbishing and re-design and modifications of existing roads and bridges permitting access
to the project site as required by the Contractor for the Project.

8.3

Roads shall be crowned or inclined sideways sufficiently to ensure runoff in accordance with
normal site specific precipitation. Culverts and ditches shall have a drainage capacity
sufficient to control normal site specific precipitation and runoff.
Road design shall cover bridges, bridge abutments and culverts. A maximum inclination of
10% is prescribed.

8.4

Major permanent roads to be handed over to the Owner once the Works are finished shall be
at least 4.0 m wide. Other permanent roads and roads across dams and other open-air
structures can be of minimum single lane width. All permanent roads shall be provided with
cement concrete/ asphalt concrete topping to the standard of major district road classified as
per IRC, and traffic signs, guard stones, etc. unless noted otherwise. The other roads shall be
at least 3.8m wide and of WBM type with all required traffic signs, guard stones, etc. as per
the IRC standard or any other relevant standard.
Generally the slopes of road embankments shall be designed so that an acceptable stability is
maintained during the Works as well as in the future.

8.5

Temporary roads shall be demolished and the occupied land area shall be reclaimed by the
Contractor if not otherwise agreed. At the Owners request temporary roads shall be left as
they are.

8.6

The location of all access roads, permanent as well as temporary roads, shall be outlined in
the Basic Design. Design documents for permanent roads shall include general plan and
profile drawings as well as normal sections showing the layouts of embankments and
cuttings, materials used, thickness of layers, grading specifications and the degree of
compaction. Slope inclinations and erosion protection shall also be defined.

8.7

Documentation of bridges and culverts needed for drainage as well as stream diversions and
protection works shall incorporate design calculations, drawings and material specifications.

8.8

The design of permanent roads, bridges and culverts etc. shall be made in such a way that
future transport of heavy spare equipment can be made and they shall conform to respective
IRC standards.

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 38 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

SECTION - 9 - GENERAL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS


9.1

GENERAL
Design and construction of buildings, structure etc., shall take into account requirement for
operation and maintenance of all equipment and its users. The buildings shall have good
architectural features. The surrounding area shall be properly micro-leveled and graded and
shall give good landscaping features as approved by the Owner.

9.2

ARCHITECTURAL CONCEPTS FOR BUILDINGS


The architectural design concept of buildings structure shall be evolved considering the
functional, technological and other requirements for efficient operation, ensuring comfortable
working environment for personnel, satisfying the aesthetic requirements. Special care shall
be taken to provide elegance and aesthetics, with effective use of appropriate treatment,
materials fittings and finishes. To achieve above objective DEC shall employ a qualified
architect / architectural firm to carry out all designs and hold all other architectural
responsibilities for the project.
The DEC shall obtain and be conversant with all laws, by-laws, regulations of local and
Statutory Bodies as applicable to the project. The architectural concept evolved should also
take care of these requirements. The DEC shall provide the drawings and documents for
such statutory approvals.

9.3

ROOF ACCESS
Roofs shall be provided with access for its maintenance and repairs through a staircase or
caged ladder. Minimum 1000 mm wide access path shall be provided with tiles to approach
roof.

9.4

PLATFORMS AND WALKWAYS


Platforms shall be provided to all major equipment, which are not directly accessible from
the floors, for maintenance. Platforms and connecting walkways shall have a minimum width
of 750 mm. However, in case of space restriction, the minimum allowable clear width shall
be 600 mm. Platforms in front of the entry shall be at least 900 mm wide. Platforms located
close to each other shall be connected with walkways. All the platforms shall have strong
enough handrails on both the sides.
All steel platforms above grade level shall be constructed with kick plates at edge of the
platform to prevent tools or materials from falling off. It shall consist of 8 mm thick steel plate
projecting 100 mm above the platform surface. Kick plate shall be painted with the same
type of coating as the material to which it is attached.
Continuous walkway at least 600 mm wide shall be provided along the crane girder level
with handrails, on both side of the Power House Crane. Approach to EOT crane shall be
ensured by Cage ladder or staircase.
Continuous walkway at least 1000 mm wide, shall be provided along the dam crest length
over spillway portion at downstream of piers for inspection and maintenance of radial gates.

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Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 39 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

9.5

STAIRS AND LADDERS

9.5.1

Steel Stairs
All steel staircases shall normally have minimum clear width (back to back of stringer) of
0

1000 mm and minimum inclination with horizontal of 35.75 . However, in case of space
0

restriction, minimum clear width up to 750 mm and slope up to 45 may be provided. The
vertical height between successive landings shall not exceed 2.5 m. Channels (minimum
ISMC 200) shall be provided as stair stringers. Treads shall be minimum 250 mm wide of
galvanised chequered plate/grating, with suitable nosing, and spaced equally so as to
restrict the rise to maximum 180 mm (200 mm in exceptional cases).
9.5.2

Steel Ladders
Ladders shall be provided to platforms, walkways, instruments and equipments, which do
not require frequent access. Ladders shall preferably be vertical and its angle with vertical
0

shall not exceed 5 . Ladders shall be of minimum 450 mm clear width with 20 mm diameter.
MS rungs spaced at 300 mm (maximum). Side rails shall be of minimum 60 x 10 mm MS
flat.
Ladders shall be provided with a safety cage of minimum 750 mm diameter clear when the
top of ladder is more than 4.5 m above the landing level. However, safety cages shall start
at 2.5 m above the lower landing level.
9.5.3

RC Stairs
All stairs shall have maximum riser of 180 mm and a minimum tread of 250 mm. However, it
is preferable to provide riser of 150 mm and tread width of 300 mm. Minimum width of stairs
shall be 1200 mm, generally. All stairs normally shall have not more than 12 risers in one
flight. Appropriate nosing and finishing to be provided for RC stairs.

9.5.4

Handrails
a.

Handrails shall be provided at appropriate places to ensure safety e.g. around all
floors / roof openings, projections / balconies, walkways, platforms, steel stairs etc.

b.

All handrails shall be of 32 mm nominal bore MS pipes (medium class) as per IS:
2

1161 galvanised using 750 gm/m of zinc. Hand railing for platforms, walkways and
projections shall be a two-rail system with the top rail 1000 mm where clear fall on the
outer side is not exceeding 10 m and 1200 mm otherwise, above the walkway surface
and the intermediate rail 450 mm below the top rail. Handrail post spacing shall be
limited to 1500 mm as far as possible but can be proportioned to the length of the
opening. In such a case spacing shall not exceed 1850 mm centre to centre of posts.
Hand railing shall be shop fabricated for specific locations and field welded or bolted
to the erected structural steel. Toe plate shall be provided, wherever applicable.
c.

For RC stairs, hand railing with 20 mm square MS bar balustrade with suitable MS flat
and Aluminium / Teakwood handrail shall be provided, unless specifically mentioned
otherwise.

9.5.5

Edge Protection
Wherever possible, around floor openings an RC kerb of 100 mm wide 150 mm high shall
be provided. All concrete edges, where breakage of concrete corner is expected, shall be
provided with edge angles of minimum size 50 x 50 x 6 mm with lugs (e.g. all around the

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Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 40 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

cut-outs / openings in floor slab, edges of drains supporting grating covers, edges of RC
cable / pipe trenches supporting covers, edges of manholes supporting covers and
supporting edges of precast covers etc.).

9.6

ANCHOR BOLTS AND INSERT PLATES


Anchor bolts shall be designed for working stress, in tension and shear, for embedded
length of the anchor bolts and pipe sleeves. Shear and crushing strength of concrete shall
also be checked. Increase in allowable stress for loading including seismic and wind loads
shall not be permitted in design of anchor bolts.
Insert plates shall be designed / checked for shear and bending moment. All lugs shall be
checked for tension. Bond strength of concrete shall be checked. Lugs using steel bars shall
preferably be plug welded to the plate to transfer full strength of the lug.

9.7

VERTICAL HEADROOM
All accessible areas shall be provided with minimum clear headroom as follows, unless
otherwise specified.

9.8

Finished floors to ceiling (buildings)

3000 mm

Doors, Walkways, Platforms, Stairs etc

2100 mm

False ceiling of office areas

2400 mm

Walkway above false ceiling

1000 mm

Safety cage for ladders

2500 mm

Access for fork lift trucks

2800 mm

Main roads and crane access

7000 mm

Other plant roads and truck access

5000 mm

Cable and Pipe rack

3000 mm except at road crossings.

EXPANSION /CONSTRUCTION JOINTS


Expansion and construction joints shall be provided wherever required. All expansion and
construction joints of water retaining structures in RC shall be made water tight using PVC
ribbed water stops with central bulb. Unless otherwise specified the minimum thickness of
PVC water stops shall be 6 mm and minimum width 225 mm. At other joints these shall be
150 mm wide.
Two part polysulphide sealant conforming to IS: 12118 shall be used for sealing of joints in
contact with water. For other cases, bitumen sealing compound conforming to IS: 1834 can
be used. Preformed bitumen impregnated fibre board conforming to IS: 1838 shall be used
as joint filler.

9.9

BRICK / STONE MASONRY AND PARAPET WALL


All masonry works shall be designed in accordance with IS: 1597, IS: 1905, IS: 2212, IS:
4326 and other relevant IS codes as applicable. Structural design of load bearing and nonload bearing walls constructed with solid or perforated burnt clay bricks or concrete blocks
shall be in accordance with National Building Code of India Part VI.

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 41 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

As far as possible, all walls of buildings shall be non-load bearing in filled panels walls.
External walls of all buildings shall be at least one brick thick. All internal walls shall be at
least one brick thick except for internal partition walls for office area, canteen, change
rooms, first aid rooms and toilets, which may be half brick thick. RC bands shall be provided
wherever necessary.
50 mm thick DPC (1:1.5:3) with water proofing admixture shall be provided at plinth level
before starting masonry work.
Minimum 50 kg/ sqcm compressive strength brick shall be used for non-load bearing super
structure brickwork. Cement sand mortar 1:6 for one brick thick wall and 1:4 for half brick
thick wall shall be used. For half brick walls, RC transomes and mullions shall be provided.
Type, thickness and height of external walling, facing the transformer yard to take care of
fire accidents in transformer yard shall be according to the requirements of Tariff Advisory
Committee (TAC).
Even where metal cladding is specified, for initial 3 m height from the ground level, minimum
one brick thick masonry wall shall be provided for security reasons.
All up stands and parapet walls on roof shall be of RC constructions, minimum height of
parapet walls shall be as follows and thickness of 125 mm.
a.

750 mm

Located up to 4 m above ground level

b.

1000 mm

Located 4 m to 10 m above ground level

c.

1200 mm

Located more than 10 m ground level

9.10

DRAINAGE

9.10.1

Floor Drainage
For all buildings and areas, suitable arrangement for draining out water collected from
equipment blow downs, leakage, floor washing, fire fighting, etc., shall be provided on each
floor. Gully traps, inspection pits, collecting pits etc., shall be located suitably and designed
considering flow volume, easy access, maintenance and safety. The drainage arrangement
shall preferably by gravity. If natural drainage is not available, suitable dewatering sump
shall be provided. All embedded pipes from buildings shall be connected to sump at suitable
location.
All drains inside the building shall have minimum 40 mm thick grating covers. In areas where
heavy equipment loads would be coming, precast RC covers shall be provided in place of
steel grating. These drains shall lead the water to drain sump.
Garland drains shall be provided around all buildings to receive the drainage water from roof
and floor and lead them to the plant storm water drainage system.

9.10.2

Roof Drainage
Roof drainage system shall be provided for quick and efficient draining of rainwater from roof
to avoid seepage and damage to roof. The runoff gradient for the roof shall not be less than
1 in 100. Roof drainage system shall consist of roof drain heads, rain water down corners
and fixtures. System shall be designed to handle design rainfall for the specific site and shall
be in accordance to stipulations of IS: 1742 and IS: 2527. Roof drains shall conduct water to

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 42 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

storm drains though down comers. Rainwater down comers shall be of HDPE Pipe
conforming to IS: 4984.
9.10.3

Sumps
In case of underground structures, sumps with pumping arrangement shall be provided at
suitable location to collect and pump out any incidental water collection to nearest storm
water drain.

9.11

WATER PROOFING OF UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES


All underground structures like basements, pump houses, water retaining structures etc.,
shall have plasticiser cum waterproofing cement additives confirming to IS: 9103. In
addition, limits on permeability as given in IS: 2545 shall also be met with. The concrete
surface of these structures in contact with soil shall be provided with minimum two coats of
2

bituminous painting of grade 85/25 conforming to IS: 702 at 1.7 kg/m (minimum) for water /
damp proofing. Also provision shall be made on the inner surface of walls and base slab, so
that water proofing grouting can be injected later in case of leakage.

9.12

ANTI TERMITE TREATMENT


Pre-constructional anti termite treatment shall be given to all vulnerable areas susceptible to
termite attack and shall include column pits, wall trenches, foundations filling bellow the
floors etc., as per IS: 6313 and other relevant Indian Standards.

9.13

PLINTH LEVEL
Finished ground floor level (plinth level) of all buildings and pump houses shall be minimum
500 mm above the formation level / grade level.
All cable vaults shall be located above ground level i.e., vaults shall not be provided as
basements in the buildings.

9.14

STATUTORY REQUIREMENTS
All the applicable statutory rules pertaining to Indian Factories act, Factory rules of State
Government, Fire safety rules of Tariff Advisory Committee, Water Act of Pollution Control
Boards, Explosives Act any local bodies etc., and stipulations of other relevant statutory
authorities shall be taken into consideration at the time of design and construction.
Provisions of safety, health and welfare according to Factories act shall be complied with at
design stage. These shall include provision of railings, fire escape and locker room for
workmen, pantry, toilets, rest rooms etc.
Adequate number of fire escapes shall be provided in a building. Fire proof doors, number of
staircase, fire separation walls, lath plastering on structural steel member (in fire prone
areas) shall be made according to the recommendation of TAC. For fire safety requirements
of buildings IS: 1641 and IS: 1642 shall be followed in addition to TAC requirements. All
masonry firewalls shall be minimum 345 thick and RCC firewall shall be minimum 200 mm
thick.

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 43 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

SECTION - 10 - DESIGN REQUIREMENTS - LOADS AND LOAD COMBINATIONS


10.1

GENERAL
All structures shall be designed for the most critical combinations of dead loads, imposed
loads, equipment loads, crane loads, wind loads, seismic loads, temperature loads, loads
and forces developed due to differential settlement and any other loading conditions which
can occur during the design life of the facility.

10.2

DEAD LOADS
Dead loads consist of the weights of the structure complete with finishes, fixtures, partitions,
wall panels and all equipment of semi-permanent nature including tanks, silos, bins,
partitions, roofing, piping, cable trays, bus ducts, etc. The content of tanks, containers, etc.
shall be measured at full capacity for this purpose.
The piping loads, cable tray loads and the contents of the tank shall be listed separately so
that they can be excluded from dead load when dead loads are acting as stabilising load for
uplift.
The following unit weight of material shall be considered for computation of loads. Unit
Weight given in IS: 875 (part-I) shall be made use of for material not listed below.
Materials

Unit weight

Plane cement concrete

2.40 t/m

Reinforced cement concrete

2.50 t/m

Structural steel

7.85 t/m

Brick work

1.90 t/m

Cement plaster

2.10 t/m

Floor finish

2.40 t/m

Water

1.00 t/m

Unit weight of mass concrete used for hydraulic structures like dam, spillways, basins, thick
3

retaining walls to be taken as 2.4 t/m or based on laboratory tests.


Unit weight of bedrock, excavated rock fill, structured and granular backfill are to be based
on geotechnical data.
3

Unit weight of silt and water acting or fluid shall be taken as 1.360 t/m for horizontal
3

direction and 1.925 t/m for vertical direction.

10.3

IMPOSED LOADS
a.

Imposed loads in different areas shall include live loads, minor equipment loads, cable
trays, small pipe racks / hanger, erection loads, operation / maintenance loads, etc.
The loads considered shall not be less than that specified in IS: 875 (part II) and
relevant Code of practice for different structures. The loads listed here under are the
minimum loads for the areas involved. Special use areas shall be investigated and
loads revised upward as necessary. Floors and supporting members, which may be
subjected to heavy equipment live loads shall be designed on the basis of the weight
of equipment or specifically defined live loads, whichever is greater.

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Sheet No. 44 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

b.
c.

All loading shall be as per relevant Indian Standard Codes (Latest Issue).
All major bridges, culverts and allied structures including RC pipes coming on major
plant roads shall be designed for Class 70R loading as per IRC standards for two
lane road and above.

d.

Minor bridges, culverts and allied structures not coming on major plant roads, can be
designed for Class AA loading and checked for Class A loading as per IRC
standards, after approval from Owner.

e.

Pedestrian bridge shall have minimum clear width of 1.8 m. The bridge is to be
designed as per relevant IRC standards.

f.

Covers for trenches and channels, which are not exposed to vehicular traffic, shall be
designed for Live load of adjoining area or 2 t/m2 whichever is higher. Where
channels are likely to be exposed to vehicular traffic, the requirements of Code of
practice for road bridges shall be adhered to.

g.

Piping anchor and restraint forces of major piping shall be obtained from piping
analysis results and be considered as live load in the structure design.

h.

Ponding effects due to framing deflections for roofs, if any, shall be considered.

i.

In addition to the live loads, a minimum of 0.50 kN/m2 shall be considered as Hung
loads for electrical, ventilation and air conditioning. A load of 1.0 kN/m2 shall be
considered as Hung loads for piping unless otherwise mentioned.

j.

Live loads reduction shall be in accordance with the provisions of IS: 875 and IS:
1893 in case of seismic analysis.

10.4

WATER PRESSURE
Magnitude of the water pressure shall be determined according to the principles of
hydrostatics and earthquake loading when the effect of dynamic water pressure will be
considered. The water pressure affecting to the various structures shall be decided for every
part of the plant taking in to account every stage during construction and operation.
3

Density of silt laden water shall be taken as 1.10 t/m for design of walls for trough, desilting
basin and all other associated structures. Water pressure includes dynamic water pressure,
wave action and water hammer pressure as applicable.

10.5

UPLIFT LOAD
All structures are to be checked for uplift pressure. Variation in uplift pressure in their cross
section shall taken as per relevant IS codes for different structures (e.g. variation in the
reservoir level to tail water level in dam).

10.6

EARTH PRESSURE LOADS


Earth pressure for all underground structures shall be calculated using coefficients of earth
pressure at rest, coefficient of active or passive earth pressure (whichever is applicable).
However, for design of substructure of pump house, dam, stilling basin and retaining wall
earth pressure at rest shall be considered.

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 45 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

In addition to earth pressure and ground water pressure, etc., appropriate minimum
surcharge load shall also be considered for the design of all underground structures
including channels, sumps, cable and pipe trenches, etc., to take into account the vehicular
traffic in the vicinity of the structure.

10.7

WIND LOAD
Wind load on structures shall be calculated as per provisions of IS: 875 (part 3). The wind
shall be assumed to blow in any direction and most unfavorable condition shall be
considered for design.
In design of structures, wind force on equipments supported on frame including all fixtures,
piping, staircase, ladders, etc., shall also be considered.

10.8

SEISMIC LOADS
Shrinagar hydro-electric project site lies in seismic zone V as per parametric study report. All
minor structures and components shall be designed as per zone V Seismic forces.
Response spectrum method of analysis shall be used for design of structures and their
components.

10.9

TEMPERATURE LOAD
The climate in the project area is greatly influenced by mountainous topography. The climate
is Tropical Monsoon type with most of the rain occurs during monsoon from July to
October months.
Expansion and contraction due to changes of temperatures of materials of a structure shall
be considered and adequate provisions shall be made for the effects produced (as per
provision in relevant IS codes). Suitable expansion joints shall be provided in the longitudinal
direction wherever necessary with provision of twin columns in buildings and through
appropriate joints in other structures. The maximum distance of the expansion joint shall be
as per the provisions of IS: 800 and IS: 456 for steel and concrete structures respectively.
Analysis shall be carried out for ambient temperature variation. The temperature variation
shall be considered as 2/3 of average maximum annual variation in temperature. The
average maximum annual variation in temperature for this purpose shall be taken as the
difference between the mean of the daily minimum temperature during the coldest month of
the year and mean of daily maximum temperature during the hottest month of the year. The
structure shall be designed to withstand thermal stresses due to 50% of the temperature
variation.
Coefficient of thermal expansion of steel shall be taken as per IS: 800. Coefficient for
thermal expansion for concrete shall be taken as per IS: 456.

10.10

EQUIPMENT LOADS
Structures shall be designed to withstand the turbine, generator, valves, EOT and other
cranes, gates, trash racks, turbine/generator and other equipment loads.
Types of Mechanical and Electrical equipment forces include the following:
a.

Unbalanced forces due to generator electrical failure.

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Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 46 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

b.

Braking forces of generator.

c.

Hydraulic thrust forces on turbine shafts.

d.

Loads from gates, gate anchorages and gate hoisting devices.

e.

Load from trash clearing equipments

f.

Water hammer forces due to changes in load / generation

g.

Check for resonance due to natural frequency of structures and that of rotating parts
e.g. turbines.

Static and dynamic loads of major equipments shall be based on the manufacturers data of
the specified equipments and shall be considered in design in addition to the live load.
However, where the uniform floor live load adequately accounts for the equipment moving
weight, the weight of such equipment as a dead load shall not be considered. For example
switchgear and control room floors are usually designed for a live load that includes the
equipment weight.
All equipment, design loading shall include testing loads. Weight of equipments, ducts,
tanks, pipes, conduits, etc., supported by structure shall include maximum possible loading
conditions and associated impacts, test loading, anchorages and constraint effects.

10.11

CRANE, MONORAIL AND ELEVATOR LOADS


Crane girders and supporting columns shall be designed for vertical and horizontal forces
(including impact forces) as per crane venders data. All lifting beams and monorails shall
have their design loads increased for impact factor as mentioned hereinafter.

10.11.1 Impact Factor


Loads for cranes, hoists and elevators shall be taken as per IS: 875. The minimum impact
factor to be used in design shall be as follows:
10.11.2 Crane loads
a.

For vertical force, an impact factor of 25% of the maximum crane wheel load

b.

A lateral crane surge of 10% of the weight of the trolley plus lifted load applied at the
top of each rail divided in proportion to the relative lateral stiffness of the rail support
system

c.

A horizontal surge of 5% of the maximum static wheel loads of the crane applied at
the top of the rail in longitudinal direction.

10.11.3 Monorail loads


a.

Impact factor of 10% of lifted load of hoist for monorail and support design

b.

Impact factor of 25% of the lifted load for electrical pulley and support design

10.11.4 Elevator
A 100% of the lifted load including elevator live load plus the cab weight for the elevator
support beams.

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 47 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

10.12

OTHER LOADS
a.

Stresses imparted to structures due to differential settlements, variation of water table,


erection and maintenance loads, creep and shrinkage shall also be considered in
design of all structures.

b.

Roof girders / trusses in the service / maintenance bay of Power House building shall
be designed for crane erection loads.

c.

Columns in turbine building near transformer yard shall also be designed to support
tension due to strung conductors and shield wire if the conductors are connected to
the Power House building columns.

10.13

d.

All water regulation gates and their hoists shall be designed as per relevant IS codes.

e.

Friction load wherever applicable

BASIC LOAD CASES


The following basic load cases shall be considered for the analysis:

10.14

a.

Dead load:

b.

Self weight of permanent equipment:

EL

c.

Live load on floor / walkway:

d.

Live load on roof:

LR

e.

Crane load with lift:

CR1

f.

Crane load without lift:

CR2

g.

Wind load:

WL

h.

Seismic load:

SL

i.

Load due to soil pressure:

SP

j.

Load due to surcharge:

SCL

k.

Load due to hydrostatic pressure:

HP

l.

Load due to temperature:

TL

m.

Special loads:

SPL

n.

Uplift loads:

HU

LOAD COMBINATIONS
The individual members of the frame shall be designed for worst combination of forces such
as bending moment, axial force, shear force and torsion. Permissible stresses for different
load combinations shall be taken as per IS: 875 (Part-V) and other relevant IS codes. Wind
and seismic forces shall not be considered to act simultaneously.
Criticality of erection / maintenance loads shall also be checked separately in combination
with other simultaneously occurring loads for possible design loading.
Lifted load of crane shall not be considered during seismic condition.
In case more than one crane is provided and Tandem operation is not envisaged, the load
shall be taken as one crane fully loaded and second crane without lifted load but standing
idle adjacent to first crane.

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Sheet No. 48 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

10.15

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

LOAD COMBINATIONS FOR UNDERGROUND / WATER CONDUCTOR


STRUCTURES
Following loading conditions shall be considered in addition to the loading from super
structure for the design of sub-structure of power house, tunnels, pump house, channels,
sumps, tanks, reservoirs, trenches and other under ground structures.
a.

Only liquid pressure from inside and no earth pressure and ground water pressure,
and surcharge pressure from outside (applicable only to the structures which are
liable to be filled with water or any other liquid).

b.

Earth pressure, surcharge pressure and ground water pressure from outside and no
water pressure from inside.

c.

Base slab of the pump house shall be designed for the condition of different
combination of pump sumps being empty during maintenance stages with maximum
ground water table. Intermediate dividing piers of pump sumps and partition walls in
channel shall be designed considering water on one side only and the other side
being empty for maintenance.

d.

Design shall also be checked against uplift due to ground water during construction
and operation stage. Minimum factor of safety as per IS: 3370 against uplift shall be
ensured considering empty condition ignoring superimposed loads.

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Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 49 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

SECTION - 11 - DESIGN REQUIREMENTS - REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES


AND FOUNDATIONS
11.1

GENERAL
All structures, building foundations, machines / equipments foundation, water retaining
structure, water conduction structures, trenches, pits, etc., shall be designed as per relevant
IS codes in general. Construction in general shall follow provisions of IS: 456 and IS: 3370
for normal and water retaining structures respectively. Concrete Bridges shall be designed
as per relevant IRC codes and dam construction shall as per IS: 457.
This specification covers only Conventional Concrete works. In case DEC proposes to use
prestress concrete works he must submit detailed specification for construction approval. In
case DEC desires to adopt roller compacted concrete (RCC) methodology for dam, DEC
shall submit detailed specifications for the same for Owners scrutiny and approval.

11.2

DESIGN METHODOLOGY

11.2.1

General
All designs of RC structures shall be carried out by limit state method as per IS: 456 unless
use of working stress method is specifically mentioned. Design strength of materials and
design loads shall be calculated using appropriate partial safety factors over characteristic
strength and characteristic loads as per IS: 456. Design criteria specified shall be adhered
to.
For reinforcement detailing IS: 5525, IS: 13920 and SP: 34 shall be followed.
The walls shall be provided with reinforcement on both faces for sections 150 mm or more,
even if not required from design consideration.
Minimum temperature reinforcement shall be provided for all structural concrete.

11.2.2

Foundation and Underground Structures


a.

General
Type of foundation system, i.e., isolated, strip or raft shall be decided based on the
loading arrangement, load intensity and soil strata. Design of foundations at various
levels shall be dependent upon the soil bearing capacity at that level.
Foundation system adopted shall ensure that settlement/ relative settlement is as per
provision of IS: 1904 and other Indian Standards. However, the settlement shall be
restricted to a lower value, if necessary as per the system requirement.
All foundation including machine / equipment foundations shall be of RC construction.
All foundations shall be designed in accordance with relevant parts of the latest
revisions of Indian standards IS: 2974 and IS: 456. Raft foundations shall be designed
as per IS: 2950.
For design of underground / partly above ground structures, subsoil water level shall
be determined by geotechnical investigations to be carried out at site.
All underground / partly underground pits, tunnels, desilting basin, trough, channel
basements, cable and pipe trenches, etc., shall be designed as leak proof RC

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

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Sheet No. 50 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

structure. Effects of uplift and reduction in bearing capacity due to underground water
table shall also be considered.
Whatever required by IS codes and other considerations, anchor rods of suitable
diameter shall be provided in the foundation floor at suitable spacing. Necessary
embedded pipes and embedments shall be provided in the concrete as per hydromechanical / electro-mechanical requirements.
b.

Liquid retaining structures


RC water retaining / conductor structure (except dam/spillway) like storage tanks,
retaining wall, desilting basin, trough Forebay, etc., shall be leak proof. These
structures shall be designed as cracked section with limiting crack width of 0.2 mm
calculated as per BS: 8007 with limiting steel stresses in accordance with IS: 3370
(part I to IV) by working stress method.
Water channels and substructure of pump houses shall be designed as cracked
section with limiting crack width of 0.2 mm calculated as per BS: 8007 with limiting
steel stresses as per IS: 3370 (part I to IV) by working stress method.
All water retaining / conductor structures (except dam/spillway) shall be designed
assuming water up to the height of wall irrespective of provision of any over flow
arrangement.
No pressure relieving valves shall be permitted, except noted otherwise in other
clauses of this bid.
DEC may suggest any proven method of uplift pressure relieving mechanism. He
shall furnish sufficient documentary evidence and performance reports of the
arrangement used elsewhere under similar conditions. However Owner may accept or
reject the proposal suggested by the DEC Final design of structure shall be based on
the approval of the Owner.
In all liquid retaining / conductor structures, PVC water bar shall be provided at
construction / expansion joint as per standard practice. The sequence of construction
shall also be specified on drawings showing construction joints.
The DEC shall take special care of concrete for such structures and those others
called for to guarantee the finish and water tightness.
The DEC shall ensure hydro testing of structures, including all arrangements for
testing such as temporary bulk heads, pressure gauges, pumps, pipelines etc.
Any leakage that may occur during the hydro test or subsequently during the defect
liability period or the period for which the structure is guaranteed shall be effectively
plugged either by cement/epoxy pressure grouting or such other method as may be
approved by the Owner. All such rectification of the structure shall be at no extra cost
to the Owner.

11.2.3

Machine Foundations
The design of equipment foundation shall be as per IS: 456 and IS: 2974.

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 51 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

All machine / equipment foundations and structures subject to vibrations shall suitably
proportioned so that amplitude and frequency of the foundation / structures are within
permissible limits.
All block foundations resting on soil shall be designed using the elastic half space theory.
The mass of the RC block shall not be less than the three times mass of the machine.
Dynamic analysis shall be carried out to calculate natural frequencies in all modes including
coupled modes and to calculate vibration amplitudes. Frequency and amplitude criteria as
laid down by the relevant codes or machine manufacturers shall be satisfied. Minimum
reinforcement shall be governed by IS: 2974 and IS: 456.
For the foundations supporting minor equipments weighing less than one ton or of the mass
of the rotating parts is less than one hundredth of the mass of the foundation, no dynamic
analysis is necessary. However, if such minor equipment is to be supported on building
structures, floors, etc., suitable vibration isolation shall be provided by means of springs,
neoprene pads, etc., and such vibration isolation system shall be designed suitably.
Turbine generators supported on vibration isolation system or conventional block / frame
type RC foundations. The vibration isolation system shall be designed on the assumption
that it is dynamically decoupled from substructure. To ensure decoupling, stiffness of the
supporting elements shall be at least 10 times the stiffness of the spring system.
All such foundation shall be separated from adjoining part of building and other foundations
to ensure that vibrations shall not propagate to the entire powerhouse. Joints at floor / slab
shall be suitably sealed. All appendages to such foundations shall be reinforced suitably to
ensure integral action.

11.3

INCREASE IN STRESSES
Where stresses due to wind (or seismic) are combined with those due to other loads, the
allowable stresses in concrete and reinforcement steel shall be increased by 33.33% in case
of working stress design.
Bearing capacity of the soil shall be allowed to increase by 25% under seismic / wind load
condition.
Seismic parameter study report recommends increase in permissible stress for dams/
aqueduct in case of seismic forces and their combinations with other forces. For other
structures increase in permissible stress can be taken from revised parametric study report
after approval from Owner.

11.4

STABILITY OF STRUCTURES
Design shall be checked against uplift due to the ground water during construction and
maintenance stages for structures like desilting chamber, concrete trough, under ground
tanks, pits, trenches, basements, etc. Minimum factor of safety of 1.2 against uplift shall be
ensured considering empty condition inside and ignoring the superimposed loading. For
purpose of calculating downward load due to any overburden, only the mass located
vertically above the projected area shall be taken in to consideration.
All sub-structures including pump houses shall be checked for sliding and overturning
stability during both construction and operating conditions for various combination of loads.

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

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Sheet No. 52 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

Factor of safety for these cases shall be taken as mentioned in IS: 456 and other relevant IS
codes. However, following minimum factor of safety shall be followed.
a.

Factor of safety against overturning due to wind, seismic or other lateral load shall be
1.5 minimum.

b.
c.

Factor of safety against sliding shall be 1.5 minimum.


Factor of safety against uplift due to hydrostatic forces shall be 1.2 and due to any
other loads shall be 1.5.

Stability of the structure shall also be investigated for loading conditions during construction,
repair or other temporary measures. Lower factor of safety may be used for such loading
conditions as per relevant IS codes.
In case where dead load provides the restoring force, only 0.90 times characteristic dead
load shall be considered. Imposed loads shall not be considered as restoring force.
For dams and spillways factors given in IS: 6512 shall be made applicable.

11.5

MINIMUM THICKNESS OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS


The following minimum thickness for given members shall be followed:
a.

Suspended floor / slab / walkways / canopy slabs, etc.

125 mm

b.

Ground floor slab (non-suspended)

150 mm

c.

Launder walls and base slab

125 mm

d.

All footings (including raft foundations)

300 mm

e.

Parapets

125 mm

f.

Sunshades

75 mm at edge

g.

Precast louvers / fins

50 mm

h.

Precast trench cover slabs / floor slabs / louvers

75 mm

i.

Paving

100 mm

j.

Basement walls and base slab

200 mm

k.

Underground reservoir below ground water table.

200 mm

l.

Above ground water table

150 mm

m.

Pile cap

300 mm

Minimum thickness for all other structures shall be taken from relevant IS codes.
From fire resistance point of view minimum thickness of reinforced concrete members shall
be as per IS 456.
All other structural elements, whose minimum thickness not given exclusively in IS codes
and not mentioned in above list, Owners approval shall be taken in deciding the minimum
thickness of member.

11.6

MINIMUM HEIGHTS FOR PEDESTALS OF STEEL COLUMNS

11.6.1

Pedestals to Steel Columns for building structures:


Top of RC foundations (pedestals) shall normally be kept at a lower level so that the column
base plates together with gussets and stiffeners remain below finished floor level (FFL)

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Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 53 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

unless specified otherwise. Foundation levels for some columns shall be changed suitable to
accommodate underground services, pits trenches, etc.
11.6.2

Stair and ladder pedestal


Shall be kept 200 mm above the finished floor level.

11.6.3

Pedestals to Steel Columns for Equipment structure:


a.

Equipment in open area:

as required (300 mm min)

b.

Equipment in covered area:

as required (150 mm min)

c.

Structures and equipment:

as per vendors supplied by vendor data


subject to minimum as specified above

11.7

MINIMUM HEIGHTS FOR ENCASEMENT TO STEEL COLUMNS


In case the top of pedestal is kept at a lower level so that the column base plate together
with gussets and stiffeners remain below finished floor level (FFL) the column bases as well
as the column sections shall be encased in concrete above FFL as per following.

11.8

a.

Open area:

300 mm above paved level

b.

Covered area: 150 mm above FFL

CONCRETE MIX
The following minimum grades of concrete as per IS: 456, IS: 11151 shall generally be used
for the type of structures noted against each grade. Concrete mix shall be conform to
concrete mix specification as given in specification for concrete work.
Top Lean

Mix (M10)

Foundation below brick wall, blinding layer below foundations, trenches


and underground structures, minimum thickness of the layer shall be 75
mm.

Grade M15

pavement around building including plinth protection work,

Grade M20

Base plate encasement, encasement of structural steel work, etc.

Grade M25

All RC members except where other grades are specified e.g.


Foundation and super structure, grade beams, pedestals, ground floor
slabs, roof slabs, cable and pipe trenches, Water retaining structures
below and above ground, spring supported TG top deck, Precast
concrete work, etc.

Minimum cover to the reinforcement shall be as per IS: 456 and as per relevant IS code for
different structures.
Minimum cement content shall be governed by the requirement of IS: 456.

11.9

NON-SHRINK GROUTING
Non-shrink flowable grout shall be used for under pinning work below base plate of columns.
Non-shrink cum plasticiser admixture shall be added in the grout. For grouting of base of
machine foundation high strength flowable ready mixed non-shrink grout shall be used. Prior
to grouting, the hardened concrete shall be saturated with water and just before grouting

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 54 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

water in all pockets shall be removed. Grouting once started shall be done quickly and
continuously. Variation in grout mix shall not be allowed.
Type and grade of grouting for structural columns and equipment bases shall be indicated.
Crushing strength of the grout shall generally be one grade higher than the base concrete.
Minimum grade of grout shall be M25.
Nominal thickness of grouting shall be at least 50 mm for building columns and pedestals of
major equipment. For secondary posts, stair and ladder base, etc. grouting shall not be less
than 25 mm thick.

11.10

MINIMUM COVER TO FOUNDATION BOLTS


Minimum distance from the center line of foundation / anchor bolt to edge of pedestal shall
be the maximum of the following:
a.

Clear distance from the edge of base plate / base frames to the outer edge of the
pedestal shall be minimum 50 mm.

b.

Clear distance from the face of pocket to the outer edge of pedestal shall be 75 mm.

c.

Clear distance from the edge of sleeve or anchor plate to the outer edge of pedestal
shall be 75 mm.

11.11

PLACING TEMPERATURE
Temperature of fresh concrete placed shall conform to specifications for temperature control
of concrete given in specification for concrete works.

11.12

MISCELLANEOUS REQUIREMENT
Fillets at the junction of roof and vertical walls shall be provided with cast in situ cement
concrete M15 (nominal mix) followed by 12 mm thick 1:4 cement mortar.
A screed layer of appropriate thickness of cast in situ concrete of nominal mix 1:3:6 shall be
provided below all water retaining structures. A sliding layer of craft paper or bitumen paper
shall be provided over the screed layer to destroy the bond between screed and base slab.
All formwork shall be as per specification given in concrete work.
Any specific requirements in connection with placing of concrete by Electro-Mechanical/
Hydro-Mechanical, Contractor shall be accounted for while executing the work.
Unless specified 20mm and down graded aggregates shall be used for all structural
concrete works. However bigger size aggregates may also be used under special conditions
after approval from Owner.
Ultrasonic pulse velocity test shall be carried out for the top decks of all machine foundations
and TG substructure to ascertain the homogeneity and integrity of concrete. In addition,
additional cubes (at the rate of one cube per 150 cum of concrete subject to a minimum of
six cubes) shall be taken to carry out Ultrasonic Pulse velocity (UPV) testing on the cubes to
serve as reference UPV values
Testing shall be done as per IS: 13311 (Part-1). In case of any defects, the Contractor shall
rectify the defects suitably using cement / epoxy grout etc. at Contractors own cost.

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 55 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

SECTION - 12 - DESIGN REQUIREMENTS - STEEL STRUCTURES


12.1

GENERAL
Design of structural steel work shall include generally but not be limited to the steel
constructions listed below:
a.

Steel building structure and open structures:

b.

Beams, columns, bracings, supporting structures for floors, roof slabs, cladding etc.

c.

Crane gantry girder, monorails etc.

d.

Large diameter pipe line for cooling water and make up water.

e.

Galvanised latticed structures for transformer.

f.

Pipe and cable racks.

g.

Platforms and walkways.

h.

Ladders, staircases, handrails etc.

This specification does not cover the provisions pertaining to Steel Bridges and hydro
mechanical works. For hydro mechanical works relevant specification shall be referred.

12.2

FRAMING
a.

All steel framed structures shall be either rigid frame or simple space frames or a
combination of two.

b.

Lateral forces shall be resisted by stiff jointed moment connections in rigid frame
design. The column bases shall generally be fixed to concrete foundation pedestal by
providing moment resistant base detail.

c.

Simple space frame design utilises single-span beam systems, vertical diagonal
bracing at main column lines and horizontal bracing at the roof and major floor levels.
The most of plant steel buildings shall be designed as simple space frame structures.

d.

Pipe rack shall consist of rigid mainframe in transverse direction spaced longitudinally
as required. In longitudinal direction, pipe rack shall be divided into sections of
suitable length with an anchor bay. The main transverse frames shall be connected
with longitudinal beams, which will transmit horizontal forces to braced anchor bays.
The pipe and cable rack bridge structure shall be adequately rigid to carry the forces
from pipelines at anchor points without undue deflection so that pipelines are really
anchored at the anchor points.

e.

Concrete floors shall be considered to provide continuous lateral support to the top
(compression) flange of the support beams. However wherever large cut outs are
provided in the floor slabs horizontal floor bracing shall be provided. Grating/
chequered plate floor shall neither be considered to provide lateral support to the top
flange of supporting beams nor to provide a shear diaphragm. Adequate lateral
support and horizontal bracing shall be provided as required.

f.

Floors for vibrating machines of all kind together with supporting framework shall be
adequately braced in both horizontal and vertical planes. Floors or structure

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Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 56 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

supporting mechanical equipment shall be designed to minimise vibration, avoid


resonance and maintain alignment and level.
g.

All components shall be designed to support the load combinations, which produce
the maximum Interaction ratio.

12.3

MATERIALS
a.

Structural steel shall conform to Grade A of IS: 2062 for rolled steel members or
plates up to 20 mm thickness. For plates above 20 mm thickness or welded
construction, steel conforming to Grade B (Killed) of IS: 2062 shall be used except for
crane girders where Grade C (IS: 2062) steel shall be used.

b.

All gratings shall be pressure locked type (preferably electro-forged) manufactured in


accordance with applicable Indian standard. Pipes for handrail shall be as per
medium grade of IS: 1161.

12.4

CONNECTIONS
a.

Welding shall be used for shop fabrication and joints. For site connections, welding or
high strength friction grip (HSFG) type bolts shall be used, except in few cases for
shear connections of lighter members or removable beam connections where bolted
joints may be adopted e.g. purlins, side girts etc. A minimum of two bolts per
connection shall be used.

b.

IS: 816 and IS: 9595 shall be followed for welding of structures.

c.

For high strength friction grip bolt connections IS: 4000 shall be followed. High
strength friction grip bolts shall be of property class 6.6 or 8.8 and shall conform to IS:
3757 and shall not be less than 20 mm in diameter unless designated otherwise. High
strength bolts shall be installed as bearing type joint except where loads are
reversible.

d.

All bolted connections shall have bolts of minimum 16 mm diameter The connections
of stairs and hand railing shall be made with 20 mm diameter threaded fasteners
conforming to IS: 1363. Erection bolts shall be black bolts of minimum 12 mm
diameter.

e.

All bolts and nuts shall have property class compatible to each other. For bolts
carrying dynamic or fluctuating loads and those in direct tension shall be provided with
an additional double coil helical spring washer conforming to IS: 6755. The threaded
portion of the bolt shall project through the nut at least by one thread.

f.

Where a steel beam or member is to be connected on RC structure, it shall be


connected using an insert plate and preferably through shear connection.

g.

For crane girders, welding between web and flange plates shall be carried out by
submerged arc welding process. Full penetration of weld between web plate and top
flange shall be ensured. Intermediate stiffeners shall be connected with top flange
plate by full penetration butt weld. Welding across tension flange will not be permitted.
Bearing edges of crane girders shall be machined.

h.

The working point of the bracing connection shall be the center of column and girder
to which it connects, where practical. The connections of gusset plates to column and

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 57 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

girders shall be made to include provisions for eccentricity in connection. The double
angle back-to-back with gusset plate in between shall not be used in dust-laden
areas. Where double angles are not adequate, beam sections with web in the plane of
bracing are used.
i.

Horizontal bracings shall be angle / tee section located at the bottom of framing
beams. Field welding of bracing at the underside of beam as required to meet
slenderness requirement of bracing member shall be indicated on the drawings.
Horizontal bracing shall be arranged to avoid framing into the beams at column
locations.

j.

Minimum size of fillet weld shall be 6 mm. Main structural elements shall be welded
continuously. Intermittent weld shall be used only on secondary members, which are
not exposed to weather or other corrosive influence.

k.

12.5

Efficiency of site welds to be considered shall be as follows:


i.

Butt weld above 25 m from ground

50%

ii.

Others

80%

DESIGN METHODOLOGY
a.

The Design of steel structures shall be carried out in accordance to the provisions of
IS: 800 and other relevant IS codes as applicable to specific structures.

b.

All buildings/structures shall be framed structure. Basic consideration for structural


framing shall be stability, rigidity, building uses, ease of fabrication / erection and
overall economy. Additional bracings/moment connections shall be used to assure
stability of structures. Structure shall be designed such that the surfaces of all parts
shall be accessible for inspection, cleaning, painting and maintenance.

c.

Crane gantry girders shall be single web plate girder of welded construction with
bearing and intermediate stiffeners. Crane girder shall be designed as simply
supported and of single span length. Chequered plate shall be used for gantry girder
walkway flooring. For lifting / monorails beams ISMB sections shall be preferred and
the bottom flange of all beams shall be checked separately for distortion and
reinforced suitably if required.

d.

For Wind loads permissible stresses for design of members and their connection
(Bolts/ Welds) shall be as per relevant IS codes.

e.

Under Seismic loads, increase in permissible stresses for design of members and
their connections shall be as per relevant IS codes and / or as per recommendations
given in seismic parametric studies, after approval from Owner.

f.

However, the members, which are designed primarily to resist wind/ seismic loads,
such as bracings, no increase in permissible stresses shall be permitted.

g.

Base plates shall be placed on foundation pedestal with grouting. For large base
plates necessary grout holes shall be provided. All anchor bolts for fastening steel
columns on foundation shall be embedded in foundation during concreting itself. No
anchor pockets in foundation shall be allowed. Design of base plates shall be based
on design pressure on foundation as per relevant IS codes.

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Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 58 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

h.

The total horizontal shear force at the base of column is transferred to the column
pedestals through friction between the base plate and the grout. A coefficient of
friction of 0.30 shall be used in conjunction with the minimum column load as defined
above. If the horizontal shear force exceeds the frictional resistance force or if the
column is subjected to a net uplift load, the total force shall then be transmitted
through shear bars / shear keys welded to the base plate. Anchor bolts are not
assumed to resist any horizontal shear force. Necessary recesses shall be kept in the
foundation concrete for shear lugs.

12.6

PERMISSIBLE DEFLECTIONS
The permissible deflections of various steel members under normal loading conditions shall
be as specified below. For calculation of deflections in structures and individual members
dynamic effects shall not be considered, unless specified otherwise. Also, no increase in
deflection limits shall be allowed when wind or seismic load are acting concurrent with
normal loading conditions.

12.6.1

Vertical Deflection
a.

Maximum allowable deflection shall be


i.

For beams supporting dynamic equipment: Span / 500

ii.

For beams supporting floors / masonry:

Span / 325

iii.

For beams supporting pipes (pipe racks):

Span / 400

iv.

For roofing and cladding components:

Span / 250

v.

For gratings and chequered plates:

Span / 200 subject to a maximum


of 6 mm

b.

For crane gantries or any member subjected to working loads, the maximum
deflection under dead load and live load excluding impact shall not exceed the
following values:

12.6.2

i.

For manually operated cranes and monorails:

ii.

For electric overhead cranes

Span / 500

Up to 50 t capacity:

Span / 750

Over 50 t capacity:

Span / 1000

Horizontal Deflections
a.

The permissible horizontal deflections shall be as per following unless specified


otherwise:
i.

Single storey building (Without crane load): Height / 325

ii.

Multi-storeyed building:

Height / 500 (Without crane load)

iii. Pipe rack columns:

Height / 200

iv. Open Structures:

Height / 200

v.

Span / 2000 limited t maximum of 15 mm

Crane gantry girder due to surge:

vi. Building main columns at crane rail: Height / 2500 limited to


vii. Level due to action of crane surge: Maximum of 10 mm load only

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 59 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

b.

Provisions of IS: 800 and relevant IS Code shall be followed for limiting deflections of
structural elements not listed above.

12.7

MINIMUM THICKNESS AND SIZES OF STEEL ELEMENTS

12.7.1

Minimum Thickness
The minimum thickness of various components of a structure and hot rolled sections shall
be as follows. The minimum thickness of rolled shapes shall mean flange thickness
regardless of web thickness. Structural steel members exposed to significantly corrosive
environment shall be increased suitably in thickness or suitably protected otherwise as per
good practice and sound engineering judgement in each instance.
a.

Trusses, purlins, girts and bracing: 6 mm

b.

Columns and beams:

c.

Gussets:

d.

Stiffeners:

8 mm

e.

Base plates:

10 mm and above

f.

Chequered plates:

6 mm o/p and above

g.

Grating flats:

3 mm

h.

Minimum thickness of structural members other than gratings and chequered plate,

8 mm
8 mm

directly exposed to weather and inaccessible for painting and maintenance shall be 8
mm.
12.7.2

Minimum Sizes
The flange width of purlins supporting light weight concrete slab shall not be less than 65
mm and for those supporting roof sheeting and wall cladding it shall not be less than 50 mm.
Width of steel rolled section connected to other member shall be at least 50 mm. The depth
of beams for platform of all structures shall not be less than 125 mm.

12.8

SLENDERNESS AND DEPTH RATIO


The slenderness ratio of main members in tension, compression or bending shall be in
accordance with IS: 800.
The following limiting ratios of depth to span shall be considered as a general guide.
a.

Truss

1 / 10

b.

Rolled beams and girders for Ordinary floors and rafters

1 / 24

c.

Supporting floor beams for vibrating Machinery / equipment

1 / 15

d.

Roof purlins and girts

1 / 45

e.

Gable columns

1 / 30

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 60 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

SECTION - 13 - DESIGN REQUIREMENTS - DESCRIPTION AND TECHNICAL


REQUIREMENTS OF THE WORKS
13.1

INTRODUCTION
All the contour values and levels to be referred by the DEC shall be with respect to the mean
sea level (MSL). The drawing may not show all the project components but show only the
major ones. This section includes following aspects of the major components of the project.
a.

Purpose/ function

b.

Description and Technical requirements

c.

Design criteria

d.

Other requirements

13.2

DAM AND SPILLWAY

13.2.1

Function and Location


The dam is proposed about 3.5 km upstream of Shrinagar town by road. It is located in a
narrow V-gorge portion of the Alaknanda River in order to get minimum length of dam at its
crest level. The purpose of the dam is:
a.

to create a maximum head for power generation,

b.

to divert the flowing water from Alaknanda River through water conductor system to
power house for power generation, and

c.

to impound certain quantity of water to enable running of the power station as peaking
unit during the low flow season.

13.2.2

Description and Technical Requirements


a.

Many hydropower projects have been identified and planned on the Alaknanda River,
in cascading form, by the Government of Uttaranchal. Therefore, considering the
projects planned on the upstream of the proposed Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project,
the Full Reservoir Level (FRL) of the dam shall be at EL 605.500 m and Maximum
Water Level (MWL) shall be restricted to EL 609.800 m. The minimum Draw-Down
Level (MDDL) of the reservoir shall be as far as possible close/ nearest to the FRL to
enable water diversion in the water conductor system and shall not be less than EL
603.00 m.

b.

The spillway, located at the center of the dam, shall be capable of safely passing a
3

probable maximum flood discharge (about 26,400 m /sec). The spillway should have
proper energy dissipation arrangement and side/ guide walls. The hydraulic designs
shall be confirmed on the physical scale model tests. The spillway planning, sizing
and designing shall be as per relevant BIS codes and other accepted references.
c.

The top width of dam shall be equal to two-way road as per IRC 70R and dam should
have the free board as stipulated in the relevant BIS code. Dam top should have
strong enough parapet walls with curbs for safety purpose. The top should have slope
on the upstream for drainage purpose. The dam top and adjoining area should be
given architectural treatment for environmental blending.

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 61 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

d.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

Proper and sufficient lightning shall be provided inside and outside for all
establishment works at dam top and area shall be properly illuminated to the
satisfaction of the Owner.

e.

Local control room of adequate size shall be provided to house local control panels,
equipments, associated with drives, telecommunication equipment etc. for radial gate
and tunnel intake gates. One cabin of adequate size in local control room at all
locations shall be air-conditioned. Attached toilet with W/C arrangement, septic tank
soak pit also be provided for the control room.

f.

DG room of adequate size complying all statutory requirements arrangement shall be


provided.

g.

A small room with A/C of adequate size is to be provided near tunnel intake gate to
house electrical panels.

h.

Considering the availability of competent rock for founding the dam, the maximum
dam height above its deepest foundation level shall be analysed for stability. The dam
shall be designed as gravity type, constructed in conventional concrete or Roller
Compacted Concrete (RCC) construction and shall be quoted accordingly. OWNER
reserves the right to accept or reject such alternate proposal. However, the OWNER
will not accept conventional masonry or colgrout masonry type of construction for
dam.

i.

The steep excavated and natural ground slopes around dam (on upstream and
downstream) shall be analysed from their stability point of view (sliding) and shall be
protected wherever required or as directed by the Owner. DEC should submit method
of construction including details of cofferdam/diversion tunnel, etc.

j.

The dam galleries shall be properly ventilated, provided with sufficient lighting,
communication facilities and drainage arrangement and shall include easy accesses
including lifts and stairs. All electrical lights, fittings and wirings etc. shall have shock
guard protection arrangement against accidental flooding of galleries. Proper lighting
arrangement shall be provided at instrumentation location.

k.

Finished surface of dam shall meet the high engineering standards. Ogee surface,
chute and stilling basin concrete shall be provided with special treatment to guard
against the abrasive effect of quartz-silt charged flood waters.

l.

The dam construction is expected to be completed by Contractor within two seasons


leaving adequate time for installation of radial gates. Contractor shall submit
methodology for diversion of river flow for achieving the expected progress.

m.

Part I Contractor shall draw his power requirement from Owners supply point near
powerhouse. However he shall retain and hand over the overhead power line
reaching to the dam site, to the Owner in excellent working condition after the
completion of this works without any extra cost to the Owner.

n.

Contractor shall take necessary precautions to leave enough space between the face
of radial gate and the stop log slots to permit the installation of maintenance
scaffolding. Contractor shall also make good assessment of necessary clearance

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 62 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

between gate radius and trunnion location. The trunnion shall be located well above
the expected water surface.
o.

The dam shall be provided with a fish ladder on left bank with adequate capacity and
with control gate for discharge varying from 0 to 5 m3/sec.

13.2.3

Design Criteria
a.

Hydraulic design of dam and spillway shall be as per relevant BIS codes. In order to
prevent cavitation erosion of sloping concrete surface of spillway, aeration
arrangement shall be considered (Reference CBIP Publication No. 245, May 1995,
Spillway Gates Case Studies, PP 65).

b.

Dam constructions shall be as per provisions of IS: 457 and conform to the
specifications issued in this tender document.

c.

Adequate number of contraction joint shall be provided as per detailed temperature


study. At each contraction joint Contractor shall provide mechanism to minimise the
seepage. This shall include two copper sealing strip of 1.5 mm thickness followed by
formed hole of for 2 number 12 mm diameter asphalt heating pipe, followed by 200
mm diameter formed trap drain, which is followed by PVC water stop. PVC Water
stops shall conform to IS: 12200 and IS: 15058. Trap drain to be suitably connected to
gallery floor drain. Suitable automatic arrangement for pumping of the leakage from
inspection and foundation gallery shall be provided to make it accessible at all the
times for inspection. Sump well, pump chamber and proper delivery arrangement
including their handling arrangement shall be provided at appropriate locations in the
dam body to ensure that both the inspection and foundation gallery are accessible at
all times.

d.

Minimum grade of concrete for all components shall be as per IS: 11155 and meet
compressive strength criteria of 28 days. Maximum size of aggregate shall follow
provisions of IS: 11155.

e.

Structural stability design of dam and spillway shall be based on IS: 6512. Alkaline
aggregates shall not be permitted. Spillway bridge piers shall be designed as per IS:
13551. Structural design of retaining wall shall be based on IS: 12720. Structural
design of stilling basin shall be based on IS: 11527. For design of other structural
members, relevant BIS codes shall be followed.

f.

Galleries shall be provided and designed as per IS: 12966. A 300 mm diameter
ventilation pipes shall be provided in every alternate dam blocks.

g.

Porous concrete drains on the upstream face of dam of 200 mm diameter and spaced
at 3000 mm c/c shall be provided as per IS: 10135.

h.

Foundation grouting shall be carried out as per IS: 6066. Consolidation grouting shall
be carried out over the entire foundation of the dam and stilling basin area to meet the
design requirements and it shall meet latest IS standards. Curtain grouting shall be
carried through foundation gallery only. Drainage holes and uplift measuring devices
in the instrumentation gallery shall also be provided. Contractor shall ensure that
consolidation and curtain grouting treatment for the dam and stilling basin foundation
is carried out till requisite foundation criterion is satisfied to meet the design

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 63 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

requirements. This shall also be confirmed by taking adequate number of test holes
and through water intake tests in bore holes before and after the grouting treatment.
i.

Contractor shall provide necessary requirements like cabins/ check posts for safety
guard at both ends of dam, instrumentation local control room, autogates for checking
entry etc. Contractor shall provide/install adequate instrumentation in the body of the
dam and it should meet high standards of any of the comparable important gravity
dam.

j.

Concrete bridge over spillway shall be of double lane and designed as per IRC class
70R loading with concrete tops.

k.

Continuous walkway of at least 1000 mm wide with parapet/railing shall be provided


along the dam crest length over spillway portion at the downstream of piers for
inspection and maintenance of all parts of radial and other gates.

l.

Adequate water draining system below energy dissipater shall be provided to reduce
uplift. Use of uplift pressure relief valve is not permitted.

m.

Design Criteria Report available indicates the possible condition of landslide upstream
of dam location. These landslides may induce waves with peak height as high as 40.0
m at slide location which could get diminished to 50% of its peak height i.e. 20.0 m at
dam location. Flood discharge in this case could be 40,000 m3/sec. This wave height
may cause overtopping of the dam section. DEC shall prepare and submit report
about possible ways to minimise damage to the dam body without jeopardising the
stability of dam, which can be expected to overtop with all gates open.

n.

Seismic loading shall be followed from the revised/ updated Site Specific Earthquake
Parameter Studies, carried out by CWPRS in April 2005.

13.2.4

Hydro-Mechanical Works
a.

st

Concrete groove with all necessary steel embedment such as 1 stage embedments,
nd

stage embedments etc ready to receive stoplogs complete in all respect shall be

provided in front of all spillway radial gates. Gantry provided for one set of stoplogs
shall be capable of handling at all these locations of the stoplog.
b.

The spillway gates shall be of radial type with hydraulic hoists. The DEC shall decide
number and sizes of radial gates. One common set of stop logs of appropriate size
and numbers shall be provided for spillway gates. Gantry shall be provided to operate
the stop logs. Stop logs shall be stored at spillway bridge top level only without
obstructing the roadway.

c.

It is required to locate the trunnion well above the upper nappe during the maximum
discharge condition.

d.

All the Hydro-mechanical works shall conform to their respective technical


specification.

e.

For operation of Spillway Gates, a chart indicating the rate of rise of water in dam, the
tunnel outflow and the tunnel inflow shall be provided. The PLC shall control the
Spillway gates as per this chart (Reference CBIP Publication No. 245, May 1995,
Spillway Gates Case Studies, PP 146).

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 64 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

f.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

The material for the trunnion pin of radial gates shall conform to IS: 6603-1972, Table7 (04Cr18Ni10) stainless steel.

13.2.5

Other Requirements
a.

A valve-controlled outlet shall be provided to release adjustable discharge of 0 to 5


m3/sec through the dam on the downstream. Outlet shall preferably be located in
central pier of spillway and valve invert level shall not be above MDDL. The valve
shall be electrically operated from the dam top. Removable trash screen shall be
provided in front of valve on the u/s face of the dam. Gantry for stoplogs shall also be
capable of reaching the valve and trash screens for installation and maintenance of
this valve. DEC shall provide suitable mechanism for operation of this valve. DECs
design for the proposed valve should ensure that the valve shall be in operation
throughout the life of the dam and is not likely to get choked due to silt deposition.

b.

A passenger lift for carrying capacity of minimum 8 persons shall be provided. Stairs
enclosure shall be adjacent to lift well. Passenger lift shall connect lowest level of
foundation gallery to top of dam with intermediate stoppage at inspection gallery. DEC
shall decide location of lift. However, the location of the lift midway between the dam
length may be preferable to have easy access over the entire length of the foundation
gallery. Machine room shall be directly above the lift well and all components shall
conform to respective IS codes. The lift shall be preferably of make OTIS or
SCHINDLER. However, other equivalent make may be accepted with prior approval
of Owner. Stand-by generator shall be provided to serve during power failure as
emergency power supply for lift, foundation and inspection gallery.

c.

Instrumentation shall be provided as per IS: 7436 Part-2. However Contractor has to
provide instruments in minimum numbers as follows: 12 numbers of stress-meters, 12
number of strain-meter rosette along with no stress-stain container, 10 number of
uplift-meter, 1 number normal plumb line, 1 number of inverted plumb line, 1 number
of inclinometer, 40 temperature meters, 5 number of joint meters, 12 number of pore
pressure meters, 1 number of weather monitoring meter, 1 number of leakage
measurement system, 1 number of instrument control panel (ICP) with DAS, 4
number of V-notch weirs, Seismographs system with 3 accelerometers and central
recording station, 1 number of radar type level, 1 number of PC based man interface,
1 unit of DC power supply and appropriate length of cables, conduits, junction boxes
with read out units upto local control units. All instruments should be of high standard
and should meet requirement of any other comparable important dam.

d.

A small weir at the sill of spillway basin shall be constructed suitable to measure
discharge of 5 m3 / sec.

e.

Adequate numbers of sirens are to be provided whenever spillway radial gates start
opening.

f.

Adequate number of adits preferably on each end of the dam shall be provided on the
downstream of dam. These shall be provided with easy access and steel gate at open
end.

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 65 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

13.3

HEADRACE TUNNELS AND INTAKES

13.3.1

Function and Location


Considering the topography, location of water conductor system and powerhouse, the
tunnels are proposed to be located on the right bank of the river. The tunnels are part of the
water conductor system and their purpose is to carry/ convey the water flow to powerhouse
for generation.

13.3.2

Description and Technical Requirements


a.

Considering the operation feasibility and maintenance aspects, two numbers of


tunnels of equal size shall be provided. In case of maintenance or repairs to one
tunnel, the tunnel should be able to be emptied and isolated while other shall continue
to be in service. Each tunnel shall be designed to operate independently as a single
unit capable of feeding water for two generating unit.

b.

For the purpose of dewatering/ emptying the tunnels, DEC shall evolve proper tunnel
emptying arrangement by gravity flow. During emptying, the flow direction shall be
towards the downstream.

c.

The tunnel invert shall be flat enough for ease of inspection and maintenance.

d.

Both the tunnels shall be concrete lined (M25 grade) with or without reinforcements.
Rock shall be adequately supported by rock bolting, grouting, structural steel
supports, shotcreting, etc. during construction. Finished surface of the concrete lined
tunnel shall meet highest engineering standards. Unevenness and defects in concrete
surface shall not be acceptable and concrete should be designed to withstand
abrasive action of heavy silt and quartz charged water.

e.

The tunnels should have independent intakes. Tender drawing indicates one intake
per tunnel. However, considering aspects like construction ease, cost, handling the
required flow with respect to the water level fluctuation, etc. DEC may consider two
smaller intakes for each tunnel, followed by two intake tunnels, a manifold and a
headrace tunnel. DEC shall furnish calibrated discharge table for various reservoir
levels and gate openings.

f.

The tunnels shall have economical diameter and shape with least hydraulic head loss.

g.

The flow velocity through tunnel shall be non-silting and non-eroding. The DEC shall
suggest the shape of tunnel in cross-section and longitudinal slope accordingly.

h.

Adequate ventilation system shall be provided for both tunnels during their emptying
and filling condition in the form of air vents at intake and exit. Location of the intake
structure shall be so finalised as to meet with the recommendations of the model
studies, which shall be carried out by the DEC.

i.
13.3.3

Suitable arrangement shall be provided for air vent in each tunnel intake.

Design Criteria
a.

The combined discharge carrying capacity of both the tunnels shall be design
3

discharge for generating units (560 m /sec) plus 10% for overloading the generating
units plus the discharge required for flushing the desilting basin.
b.

Both the tunnels should be identical in size, shape and characteristics.

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 66 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

c.

The overall structural designs shall be as per relevant BIS codes and shall be
supported by model studies to be carried out by reputed authority.

d.

The tunnel shall be designed for the maximum internal design pressure with water
level in the reservoir at MWL. Then the lining design shall be checked for structural
stability with tunnel empty condition. (i.e. with external pressure acting on lining)

e.

Structural supporting arrangements and lining shall be designed as per requirements


of Geotechnical and Hydrological design requirements.

f.

As far as possible the Intake structures shall be located close to the Dam.

g.

The intakes shall have enough cover/ submergence at its crown below the MDDL to
avoid vortex formation.

h.

The tunnels shall further be designed in such a way that stable hydraulic conditions
exist during all flow conditions including flushing operation of desilting basins.

i.

The Intake sill level shall be located well above the spillway gate sill level in order to
minimise the risk of intrusion of sediment.

j.

Intake shall be provided with necessary sediment and bed load (gravel) excluding
arrangements for preventing build up of sediment in front of the intakes and ensuring
a proper operation of the Project under all operating conditions after confirmation from
hydraulic model tests.

k.

Intake structure shall be reinforced concrete structure of grade M25 with maximum
size of aggregates is limited to 40 mm.

l.

Permanent access road shall be provided up to Intake structures. Top of road shall
match the top elevation of operating level of gates and stop logs.

13.3.4

Hydro-Mechanical Works
a.

Each intake structure shall be provided with concrete groove with all necessary
st

embedment such as 1 stage, 2

nd

stage, etc ready to receive complete in all respect.

Gantry provided for one set of stoplogs shall be capable of handling all these
locations of the stoplog.
b.

Each intake structure shall consist of Trashracks located on upstream of stoplog


grove. The trashracks shall be in number of panels for the convenience of removing
them for painting, repairs, etc. Trashracks shall be of steel construction with
hydrodynamic shape for minimum head loss. DEC shall provide automatically/
mechanically operated cleaning machine for trashracks. This cleaning device should
be capable of efficiently removing floating trash, trees, plastic materials like polythene
bags, etc.

c.

Stoplogs in adequate numbers shall be provided, between trashrack and tunnel intake
gate. Suitable storage arrangements for stoplogs shall be provided on the top of
concrete structures. These stoplogs are to be operated by Gantry crane. Preferably
only one gantry crane shall operate for the stoplogs of both headrace tunnels.

d.

Each intake structure shall consist of hydraulically operated tunnel intake gate
capable of opening and closing under water flowing condition and shall also be
suitable for throttling i.e. for controlling the flow. Suitable arrangement in the form of

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 67 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

gantry shall be provided for maintenance of intake gates hoist. The hoists control
panels shall be covered by suitably by permanent type structure. Contractor shall
submit discharge characteristics curve.
e.

All these Hydro-mechanical works shall conform to their respective technical


specification.

13.4

TROUGH SECTION

13.4.1

Function and Location


The trough portion, which forms a part of water conductor system, is located at the exit of
the tunnels. It connects the downstream end of both the tunnels to the desilting basin. It
crosses a local stream called Supana Nala.

13.4.2

Description And Technical Requirements


a.

The trough section is basically a closed conduit system, of rectangular box type shape
in cross-section and of reinforced concrete (RC) type construction.

b.

Trough crosses a Supana Nala, which shall be diverted and crossed suitably. The
nala shall be provided with suitable protection on upstream as well as on downstream
in the form of stone pitching. This is required to protect the streambed against
possible erosion, which may otherwise endanger the stability of the trough itself.

c.

The crossing of the nala shall be made in such a way that the risk of blocking the flow
in the steep nala as well as in the trough is avoided.

d.

The trough shall be provided with a central structural divide wall, which physically
divides the trough in two independent watertight compartments. Each compartment is
connected to tunnel and desilting basin independently.

e.

The trough shall be provided with suitable access and ventilation arrangement to
enable its inspection and repairs for removal of accumulated silt when any of the two
compartments is empty.

13.4.3

Design Criteria
a.

The combined discharge carrying capacity of both the parts of trough shall be design
3

discharge for generating units (560 m /sec) plus 10% for overloading the generating
units plus the discharge required for flushing the desilting basin.
b.

Most of the length of trough will be in excavation and at the Supana Nala crossing it
has to be placed on the built up ground. In any case the foundation shall be firm and
there shall be no differential settlement.

c.

The trough shall be in RC and should be designed for either both the chambers
running full or the condition of one of the compartments empty or drained and other
running full. Use of pressure relief valve is not permitted.

d.

The structure shall be stable/ safe for the condition of either or both the compartments
empty.

e.

Concrete grade for trough shall be of M25 grade with appropriate thickness of screed.
Maximum size of aggregate shall be limited to 40 mm.

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 68 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

13.5

DESILTING BASIN

13.5.1

Function and Location

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

The purpose of providing desilting basin is to prevent bed load and suspended sediment/
silt, up to 0.2 mm, from entering the waterway further leading to the powerhouse. The
desilting basin is proposed to be located on the right bank after trough. A comparatively flat
land of sufficient in size/ area is available. It connects the trough with the power channel.
13.5.2

Description and Technical Requirements


a.

The desilting basins shall be designed for the 100% or maximum as proved by the
physical model studies, removal of silt particles of size larger than those specified (0.2
3

mm). The flushing discharge should not exceed 100 m /sec.


b.

Desilting basin shall be physically divided in two chambers/ compartments by


freestanding partition/ divide wall placed longitudinally. This is to enable isolating half
of the basin along with respective one part of the trough and a tunnel to facilitate
inspection and maintenance. Either of the parts/ compartments of the basin shall be
capable of isolating, draining function independently while other continue to run/
operate.

c.

The desilting basin shall be of trough type with efficient flushing arrangements and
shall be designed based on results of physical and dynamic model.

d.

Contractor shall provide instrumentation, located at the end of basin, to monitor the
turbidity and silt content in water during monsoon period. DEC shall specifically
mention other instrumentation requirement, if any.

e.

A local control room of adequate size with provision of AC and with provision for
adequate inside, outside lighting shall be provided. Attach toilet with W/C
arrangement, septic tank soak pit shall be provided for control room.

f.

Permanent concrete topped road shall be provided on both sides of the desilting
basin. Railing with curbs shall be provided on outer wall for safety.

g.

Minimum hydraulic level at the outlet of flushing duct shall be well above the river
water level even during flooding condition.

h.

Basin shall have efficient transitions on both the ends ready to receive trough on the
upstream side and power channel on the downstream side.

i.
13.5.3

Suitable arrangement shall be provided for air vent in flushing duct.

Design Criteria
a.

Basin structure shall be designed for both the chambers running full or for the
condition of either of the chamber/ part is empty and other carrying water up to its
FSL. Sidewalls and divide wall shall be designed accordingly with applicable
surcharge. Floor shall be safe against uplift even when the complete basin is empty.
Use of pressure relief valve shall not be permitted.

b.

The discharging capacity of flushing ducts shall be such that the accumulated silt is
flushed out efficiently.

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 69 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

c.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

Desilting basin walls and slabs shall be reinforced concrete of grade M25 with
maximum size of aggregate is limited to 40 mm and should stand abrasive action of
quartz and silt charged water.

d.

Flushing ducts and channels shall be reinforced concrete of grade M25 with maximum
size of aggregate is limited to 25 mm. Flushing duct shall be provided with steel lining
near flushing sluice gate to avoid erosion.

e.

Earth filling with side grading shall be provided on outside of desilting basin walls.
Walls shall be designed for maximum of earth pressure (with due consideration of
water table) from outside condition with no water inside or full depth of water inside
chamber with no earth outside.

13.5.4

Hydro-Mechanical Works
a.

Concrete groove with all necessary embedment such as 1

st

stage, 2

nd

stage, etc

ready to receive complete in all respect shall be provided on the downstream of the
each compartment of desilting basin. Gantry provided for one set of stoplogs shall be
capable of handling all these locations of the stoplog.
b.

One set of stoplog shall be provided on the downstream of basin to isolate either of
the chambers of desilting basin at a time. Electrically operated gantry crane shall be
provided for the operation of stoplogs for both the grooves and it should travel upto
the storage place. Adequate storage space for these stoplogs shall be provided so
that they can be accommodated on either side of desilting basin.

c.

DEC shall provide adequate number of desilting flushing channels (minimum 2


numbers) each equipped with a flushing gate. Appropriate hoisting arrangement and
access for operation and maintenance shall be provided for the gates. Flushing
channels shall be capable of discharging flushing water efficiently into river directly.

d.

It is required to locate the trunnion above the maximum water level in duct to avoid
contact with floating debris and to avoid submergence of operating parts.

e.

Under no circumstances shall the arms of the gate come into direct contact with the
water discharge by the gate. Under no circumstances shall the gate leaf be allowed to
come into direct contact with the lateral fixed parts during the operation of the gate.

f.

These Hydro-mechanical works shall conform to their respective technical


specification.

13.6

POWER CHANNEL

13.6.1

Function and Location


Power channel or power duct is a part of water conductor system, which conveys the
required water discharge from desilting basin to the forebay. It is proposed to be located on
the right bank.

13.6.2

Description and Technical Requirements


a.

The power channel shall be designed as open channel flow with optimum self
cleaning velocity maintaining design discharge and size having inspection road
adequately sized and fitting in the available land. It shall take into account the
possible abrasive effect due to quartz silt in water.

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 70 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

b.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

The channel shall preferably be RC concrete lined (Ref. IS: 3873 and other relevant
applicable codes) with PVC water stops at each construction joints and suitable
drainage arrangement. DEC shall suggest any other alternative lining technique of
proven quality to meet OWNERs requirements. However OWNER is free to accept or
reject the proposal. Proven concrete lining shall rest on impervious durable of proven
quality performance and shall be supported on proper filter arrangement. Efficient
drainage arrangement shall be provided to effectively drain seepage water at
convenient location by gravity along the entire length of the channel. Channel lining
shall be designed for sudden draw down condition.

c.

All earthworks for canal work shall be carried out as out lined in IS: 4701, CBIP
manual and proper turfing shall be provided to all outer slopes.

d.

The channel shall be preferably of trapezoidal, efficient in cross-section and shall


meet the guidelines given in IS: 10430, IS: 4558, IS: 9451 and all other relevant IS
codes as applicable.

e.

A permanent type, concrete topped, single lane service road shall be provided on the
left bank of the channel. The road should have local widening for cross-over of
vehicles at about 500 m interval, with wide berms on both the sides, white guard
stones, safety & other sign boards, etc.

f.

The canal shall have membrane lining to act as impervious layer to prevent seepage
losses.

g.

The road on right bank shall be of WBM type with berms, white guard stones, safety
and other sign boards, etc.

h.

The channel should be provided with staff gauges for recording/ measuring water
depth at three locations. The staff post shall be accessible, of non-corrosive metal,
wide enough and with bold lettering etched (in metal) and then painted to enable to
read from other bank of the channel and shall be firmly embedded in ground with
concrete footing.

i.

The power channel should be planned and designed such that it will never be overtopped for any condition/s e.g. due to floods, surges, blockages, etc.

j.

Cross-drainages (CD) shall be provided at each crossing with natural streams. The
CD works shall be of RC structure. Upstream and downstream portion of streams
shall be well protected against erosion by providing stone pitching and/or gabions.

k.

The power channel will be crossed by main road at least at few locations. Two lane
concrete bridges shall be provided at such locations. Similarly two suspension type
steel pedestrian bridges of single span shall be provided across the channel. These
bridges will also be useful in measuring a flow in open channel.

l.
m.

The channel shall be provided with proper surface cross and longitudinal drains.
All the built-up and excavated side slopes shall be stable, should not slide and shall
be adequately and comprehensively protected by shotcreting, anchoring, pitching,
constructing retaining walls, turfing, etc.

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 71 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

n.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

All the built-up and excavated side slopes shall have berms at each 3 m height. The
embankment for channel shall be provided with longitudinal and cross drains, rock toe
and slope shall be stable and checked against sliding failure.

o.

Concrete steps of at least 1 m width shall be provided connecting the left and right
bank top roads up to the canal bed level and at an interval of not more than 500 m.
Location of steps shall be finalised in consultation with the OWNER.

13.6.3

Design Criteria
a.

The power channel shall be straight in longitudinal direction, shall have uniform flow
conditions, shall have no abrupt bents, no siphons and no level crossing with natural
drains, streams, roads, bridges, culverts, etc. No structure shall cause any obstruction
to the water flow in the channel.

b.

The channel shall be designed to carry a discharge of 560 m3/sec plus 10%
overloading of all the generating units with optimum self cleaning velocity and size
with inspection road adequately sized fitting in the available land.

c.

The velocity of flow in the channel shall be non-silting and non-eroding. The channel
shall have comparatively very flat longitudinal slope.

d.

There should be no supercritical flow in the channel as it may lead to formation of


hydraulic jump resulting in turbulence, erosion and head loss.

e.

The hydraulic section of channel and concrete lining shall be designed conforming to
the relevant BIS codes and CBIP Mannual on Irrigation and power channel.

f.

The channel shall be provided with proper drainage/ dewatering system for its
maintenance and repairs.

g.

The concrete lining shall be provided with pressure relief valves at regular intervals so
that the lining is not subjected to uplift, which otherwise may lead to its failure.

h.

The channel shall be provided with sufficient freeboard considering the maximum
open channel surge height, which may be caused due to simultaneous tripping of all
the four generating units from 110% load to 0%.

i.

The canal lining concrete shall be of minimum M20 grade with maximum aggregate
size limited to 20 mm. The channel should have adequate crossings (foot bridges and
road) to meet local villagerss requirements

13.7

FOREBAY AND BYPASS ARRANGEMENT

13.7.1

Function and Location


a.

Forebay shall be provided on the right bank at the end of power channel. It is a small
reservoir and has to perform following functions:
i.

Providing a free water surface nearest to the turbines and act as surge tank
during load acceptance and load rejection by turbines.

ii.

Facilitates conversion of free low to closed conduit flow to the turbines through
penstocks

b.

The bypass arrangement shall be provided near the forebay and as close as possible
to the intake for penstocks. It provides escape for the excess water when inflow

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 72 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

through power channel is more than the outflow through the penstocks. This condition
occurs when one or all the generating machines reduce their outputs or trip due
electro-mechanical faults or planned outage. The functions of bypass arrangement
are:
i.

to maintain almost a constant level in the forebay by operating the automatic


gates,

ii.
c.
13.7.2

save the power channel from being overtopped by spilling of the excess water.

Bypass arrangement should have adequate lighting, security and warning system.

Description and Technical Requirements


a.

The Forebay shall have adequate storage capacity in order to provide water storage
during load acceptance and shall have adequate freeboard to accommodate upsurge
during load throw off condition.

b.

The intake for penstocks shall be of bell-mouth type, with trash screens and
mechanised trash-handling arrangement.

c.

The sides of the forebay and bypass chute shall be provided with RCC curb and hand
rails all-round for safety reasons.

d.

A sediment-flushing outlet (with gate and its handling arrangement) shall be provided
at the bottom of forebay. The exit of such an outlet may be in the bypass channel.
This flushing arrangement shall also serve as draining/ emptying arrangement to
facilitate the inspection and repairs.

e.

Proper arrangement e.g. ladders, rungs and steps shall be provided to access the
intake, gates, forebay and bypass floors/ bottom, etc.

f.

Gates at bypass and intake for penstocks shall have permanent type access road.

g.

Local control room of adequate size shall be provided to house local control panels,
equipments, associated with drives, telecommunication equipment, etc for penstock
intake gates. One cabin of adequate size in local control room shall be airconditioned. Attached toilet with W/C arrangement, septic tank soak pit also be
provided for the control room.

13.7.3

Design Criteria
a.

The bypass arrangement shall be capable of passing a total discharge of 560 m /sec
plus 10% overloading of generating units.

b.

The bypass channel as well as the forebay shall be a concrete structure.

c.

The sidewalls shall be designed for the conditions viz forebay full of water and no soil
outside, forebay empty and external soil pressure (with due consideration to water
table), applicable surcharge, any other conditions that may prevail, etc.

d.

Forebay and bypass floor slabs shall be RC construction provided with PVC water
stops at the joints, designed to act as the impervious element.

e.

The bypass channel chute shall be a RC construction and shall have proper energy
dissipation arrangement before discharging water in to the river. The riverbed should
not be subjected to erosion.

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 73 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

f.

The floor slabs shall be placed on proper draining filter layer provided with a
perforated drainage pipes system in order to protect the slabs from damage due to
uplift during change in water levels due to watering and dewatering etc.

g.

The floor slabs shall be strong and heavy enough during the uplift condition when
forebay is empty.

h.

Forebay shall be designed as per IS: 11130 and IS: 7720.

i.

Forebay, bypass structure and base slab shall be reinforced concrete of grade M25
with maximum size of aggregate limited to 40 mm. Bypass concrete piers shall be of
grade M25 with maximum size of aggregate is limited to 25 mm.

j.

Suitable arrangement shall be provided for air vent for penstock intake gate.

k.

Vehicle access into forebay for mechanical cleaning of the settled sediments shall be
provided.

13.7.4

Hydro-Mechanical Works
a.

Forebay and bypass structures shall be provided with concrete grooves with all
st

necessary embedment such as 1

stage and 2

nd

stage embedment etc ready to

receive stoplogs complete in all respect in front of each penstock intake gate in
forebay and automatic gate in bypass structure.
b.

DEC shall size and locate trash screens upstream of each penstock intake to arrest
the floating trash. The size of trash screen shall be such that all the floating trash are
arrested, but the clear spacing of bars shall not be more than 80 mm. CONTRACTOR
shall make a provision for mechanically operated cleaning machine. This cleaning
device should be capable of efficiently removing trash, plastic materials like polythene
bags, etc.

c.

Each penstock intake shall consist of hydraulically operated intake gate capable of
closing under flowing water condition and it should serve as penstock protection
device. Gates shall be capable of opening under unbalanced condition. The intake
shall be provided with air vent of sufficient size on the downstream of each gate.
Suitable hoisting arrangement in the form of electrically operated gantry/ gantries shall
be provided for the operation trash screens, and maintenance of gates and its hoist.

d.

Stoplogs in adequate numbers shall be provided between trashrack and penstock


intake gate. Suitable storage arrangements shall be provided on the top of concrete
structures. These stoplogs are to be operated by Gantry crane.

e.

DEC shall decide the number, size and type of automatic gates to be provided at
bypass channel.

f.

Stoplog in bypass and in adequate numbers shall be operated by monorail mounted


electrically operated hoist of suitable capacity.

g.

These Hydro-mechanical works shall conform to their respective technical


specification.

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 74 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

13.8

PENSTOCKS

13.8.1

Function And Location

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

Penstocks are the pressurised conduits carrying water from Forebay to the turbines located
in the powerhouse.
13.8.2

Description and Technical Requirements


a.

Four numbers of penstocks shall be provided/ erected, one for each generating set.

b.

The penstocks shall be surface type laid on the virgin, strong, inclined, excavated
strata.

c.

Penstocks shall be supported on ring girders with sliding type supports with thick
Teflon pads at sliding joints. No roller type sliding supports will be accepted. Ring
girders shall be supported on RCC foundations located on good virgin rock.
Foundations shall not be located on filled up strata. There should be no differential
settlement between the supports.

d.

Penstocks shall be provided with specials like expansion joints, manholes in required
numbers to be approved by Owner, reducers, transition, etc.

e.

At every change in direction of penstocks (Bends), horizontal, vertical or combined,


solid, gravity type concrete anchor blocks with surface reinforcement shall be
provided. Anchor blocks shall be founded on virgin good rock and not on filled up
strata.

f.

The grade of concrete for anchor blocks and ring girder foundations shall be of
minimum M15 and M25 respectively, with aggregate size not exceeding 40 mm.

g.

The anchor blocks shall have minimum concrete cover of 1.5 m around the penstock
pipe.

h.

Inclined ground surface in between extremes penstocks and minimum 3.0 m clear
wide strip on either side of these extreme penstocks shall be excavated minimum 500
below penstock invert all along the length of the penstock and shall be covered with
concrete slabs.

i.

Structural steel ladders and walkways shall be provided to access expansion joints,
manholes, ring girder supports, etc.

j.

The penstocks and its specials shall be fabricated using steel plates.

k.

All shop and site welds shall be subjected to full (100%) NDT tests as specified.

l.

The diameter of penstocks shall be most economical diameter and shall in no case
less than 5.80 m.

m.

All penstocks shall be provided with efficient independent draining/ emptying


arrangement, along with valves (2 valves in series) for their inspection and
maintenance. Drainage water shall flow by gravity and shall be lead to the
downstream of powerhouse.

n.

Contractor shall fabricate/ weld/ make/ provide and co-operate with the equipment
supplier for installing equipments (e.g. flow meters, pressure tapings, etc.) on the
penstocks.

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 75 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

o.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

Leakage through the expansion joint shall be collected in a drain for all penstock and
shall be laid in longitudinal drain, which shall run parallel to penstock in clear strip
near outer penstocks. Side slopes near outer penstock shall be well protected from
sliding, covered with concrete/ Shotcrete.

p.

Steps shall be provided in between the penstock and in the clear strip adjacent to the
outer penstock along the length.

13.8.3

Design Criteria
a.

The hydraulic design of penstocks shall conform to the BIS code.

b.

The penstocks shall be structurally designed for full internal pressure (including
transient pressures) and checked for its stability for different operations, conditions as
given in IS 11639 and as per provisions/ guidelines given in Steel Penstocks
published by CBIP and ASCE.

c.

The penstock specials shall be designed as per IS 11639 (Part 3).

d.

The stability or behaviour of penstock in the form of its vibration, resonance etc during
flow condition shall be studied and rectified so that penstocks are free of vibration and
noise.

e.

After complete installation, penstocks shall be subjected to the hydrostatic pressure


test for its structural stability as specified in relevant BIS code.

f.

The penstocks and specials shall be provided with a minimum corrosion allowance of
2.0 mm.

13.9

POWER HOUSE

13.9.1

Function and Location


The powerhouse shall be of surface type located on the right bank of the river, housing four
generating units of vertical axis Francis type turbines. The DEC shall plan and design the
structures in accordance with requirements with E&M Contractor.

13.9.2

Description and Technical Requirements


a.

Minimum dimensions required for various areas viz. erection bay, workshop, electrical
bay, office, control room, toilet, pantry, etc. shall be provided.

b.

In addition to the machine hall, the Power House shall be provided with auxiliary bay
of sufficient width, length and head room.

c.

The auxiliary bay shall accommodate (but not limited to) the following:
i.

Control room, switchgear room, cable gallery, battery room, store room, D-G set
room, equipments, fire protection room, etc.

ii.

Toilet blocks 2 numbers 20 m2 each

iii.

Pantry 1 number - 10 m2 each

iv.

Conference room 1 number size 4.5 m x 7 m min.

v.

Administrative office 5 x 6 m 1 number

vi.

Officers cabin 3 numbers 4 x 4 m min.

vii. Station in charge cabin 1 number 6 x 4 m

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 76 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

viii. Staircase - 2 nos.


ix.

One lift of capacity 8 persons of make Schindler or OTIS

x.

Store room

xi.

Workshop at the right hand erection bay with toilet block with coloured ceramic
high standard tiles, water supply and sanitary (plumbing) works, storage water
tank, doors, windows, ventilation, etc.

d.

The general arrangement and exact location of rooms, halls, openings in floor slabs,
etc. will be finalised after discussions with the electro-mechanical Contractor.

e.

The powerhouse shall be fully equipped with necessary lighting arrangement suitable
for the local conditions.

f.

One RC water tank for fire and cooling water storage shall be constructed near
forebay. The tank will have three components of capacity 700 m3, 140 m3 and 180
m3 effective capacity with nozzles and flanges embedded. A 700 m3 compartment
shall be connected with piping to forebay with an isolation valve (valve supply by
others) the RC tank shall be connected to powerhouse equipments with 600 mm
diameter (10 mm thick) pipe for cooling water, two pipes 150 mm and 200 mm
diameter (8 mm thick) for fire water. The pipes shall be supported intermediately, with
anchor, painting, wrapping coating in case of buried, bends, Tees etc. complete.

g.

The areas around the powerhouse, generator-transformer yard, switchyard as well as


intake structures shall be provided with adequate lighting and necessary fencing for
security.

h.

The powerhouse roof shall be sloping type with steel roof portals. The roof covering
and side cladding shall be of sandwich type pre-coated GALVALUM sheets of
approved shade/ colour.

i.

The minimum requirement of finishing items such as painting, flooring, doors,


windows etc.shall be prepared and furnished by the DEC for Owners approval.

j.

The staircase railing shall consist of cast-iron balusters with wooden hand rail
(polished).

k.

The toilet blocks necessarily shall have 1 number European type w.c., 3 urinals, 1
wash basin, mirror, towel rode etc. with exhaust fan and lighting. The DEC shall also
make provision for 1 no. ladies toilet. All the requirements shall be as per building
code.

l.

The brickwork shall be provided up to the height of rolling shutter and for balance
height to be covered by cladding (precoated sandwich sheets).

m.

The joints shall be watertight. All walls in front of the transformer shall be of adequate
thickness and heights to satisfy statutory requirements as per TAC Regulations

n.

Staircase protected on all four sides with fireproof enclosures shall be provided to
satisfy TAC regulations.

o.

All cable trenches in and around powerhouse shall be of RC with precast / chequred
plate covers. The DEC shall plan trenches of adequate sizes for routing of cables /

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 77 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

pipes as per requirement of Electro-Mechanical Contractor. All the trenches shall


have angles for edge protection.
p.

DEC shall plan and design and accordingly the Contractor shall fix the logos of
required size and nos. as per Owners requirement.

q.

Luxlon make or Gypsum board false ceiling with aluminium framework as approved
by OWNER shall be provided wherever required with necessary supports, openings
for light fittings, etc. Under deck insulation shall be provided as required from A/C
design point of view.

r.

The standard polyethylene tanks of 2000 liters effective capacity confirming to IS:
12701 shall be provided with all necessary piping connection and fillings etc.

s.

Removable type false flooring / Pergo or equivalent system shall be provided


wherever specified. RC floor slab shall be sunk to a depth as specified but not less
than 800 mm, which shall be height of the false floor system. The flooring shall consist
of fire resistant phenol formaldehyde bonded particleboard panels 600 x 600 x 35 mm
size, mounted on steel pedestals of adjustable height and supporting steel grid
system to provide under floor space. 3 mm thick flexible anti-static PVC topping on
top and PVC strip edging on sides of each panel shall be provided.

t.

The total area of opening for doors, windows and ventilators shall be as per E&M
requirements, relevant codes and regulations, etc.
i.

All doors shall have marble side framing.

ii.

The aluminium doors/ windows/ partitions shall be powder coated using heavy-duty
industrial aluminium. The glazing shall be of 5.5 mm thick float glass.

iii.

Toilet doors shall be 750 mm wide x 2200 mm high with powder coated aluminium
frame and panelled with prelaminated particle boards.

iv.

All the windows at ground floor shall have steel safety grills on external face of the
windows of design of OWNERS choice.

v.

All external doors accessible from outside shall have safety collapsible doors
fabricated and fixed according to relevant IS codes.

vi.

Motorised rolling shutters shall be provided confirming to IS: 6248 with 18 gauge
mild steel interlocking lathe including hood and all accessories.

vii. All fireproof doors with panic devices shall be provided at the locations as per the
recommendations of Tariff Advisory Committee (TAC)/ national building code
guidelines/ local factory inspectors requirements, etc. These doors shall generally
be as per IS:3614 (Part I and Part II) and hall be of SHAKTI MET or equivalent as
approved by OWNER. The rating of the doors shall be as per TAC requirements.
However, minimum rating shall be 2 hours. The fire doors shall also be provided
with peep window of size 10 x 10. The fire rating of the glass provided for peep
window shall be same as that of the door.
viii. All ventilators and windows on external face of powerhouse building, fire escape
staircase, etc. located in fire prone areas shall be provided with wired glass of
minimum 6 mm thickness conforming IS:5437.

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 78 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

ix.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

Ground glass / frosted glass of minimum 4 mm thickness shall be used for all
windows / ventilators in toilets.

x.
u.

All glazing work shall conform to IS:1083 and IS:3548

EOT crane shall be provided in the powerhouse for handling the equipments /
components of E&M works.

v.

The distance between powerhouse outside wall edge to hill on upstream for
accommodating Generator transformer yard shall be furnished by Electro-Mechanical
Contractor.

w.

After commissioning the generating units, those shall be isolated from other units,
which are under construction by providing a physical barrier/ partition within the
powerhouse. This is to avoid interference to their operation and maintenance and
shall be free from nuisance and dust.

13.9.3

Design Criteria
a.

The powerhouse shall be a RC structure founded on hard rock. It should not be


rested/ founded on the filled up ground.

b.

It has to be designed as framed structure in super-structure, with minimum grade M20


and as appropriate footing/ raft in sub-structure.

c.

The powerhouse shall be checked for its flotation condition when water level on the
downstream to maximum i.e. with respect to a discharge of 40,000 m3/sec.

d.

The maximum tailrace water level shall be with respect to the discharge of 40,000
m3/sec, which is expected to occur during landslide-induced flood.

e.

Power house shall be water tight and protected against flooding irrespective of
tailrace water level in the reservoir.

f.

The powerhouse shall be provided with expansion joints in between every generating
unit and maintenance bay.

g.

Mass concrete below ground shall be reinforced concrete of grade M20 with
maximum size of aggregate limited to 40 mm. Other reinforced concrete for
substructure shall be grade M25 with maximum size of aggregate is limited to 25 mm.

h.

The mass concrete around the turbine spiral case shall be temperature controlled as
per temperature study.

i.

The availability of columns with EOT crane and roof is dictated by the erection of
generating unit parts. The construction of columns, therefore, shall be completed on
priority during which time turbine sub-structure and auxiliary floors may not be ready.

13.9.4

Hydro-Mechanical Works
Draft tube gates are required to be provided on the tailrace side for isolating the generating
units. The operation of gates shall be by an electrically operated common gantry.
These Hydro-mechanical works shall conform to their respective technical specification.

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 79 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

13.10

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

TAILRACE SYSTEM

13.10.1 Function and Location


The water discharged by the turbines is lead back to the river by tailrace system. It consists
of a single channel for all the four generating units. It is located on the downstream of the
powerhouse.
13.10.2 Technical Requirements and Design Criteria
a.

The design shall minimise the long term negative effects flood related settlement of
materials (Boulders, gravels) in the tailrace channel.

b.

The tailrace channel shall consist of a convergence portion immediately on the


downstream of powerhouse.

c.

It shall be designed as open channel flow.

d.

The tailrace system shall be fully concrete lined. The concrete shall be of grade M20
with aggregate size not more than 40 mm.

e.

The floor shall be without pressure relief valves and shall be safe against uplift when
the channel is empty.

f.

Access arrangement in the form of ladder/ steps shall be provided to reach the
channel invert during inspection and maintenance.

g.

The existing road at the powerhouse location needs to be diverted for the construction
of powerhouse and tailrace. The diversion road shall cross-over the tailrace and
further the bypass chute.

h.

The diversion road shall be of permanent type, blacktopped double lane with wide
berms.

i.

The bridge over tailrace and bypass arrangement shall be of concrete, double lane in
width and designed for IRC 70R loading, which shall also be capable of taking the
heavy transport of parts of generating units.

j.

The Tailrace Outlet shall be designed and constructed in a way that proper
performance of the Power Plant can be achieved. The slopes and the bottom of the
Tailrace shall be protected from erosion and other unstable conditions.

13.11

CROSS DRAINAGE WORKS


a.

Proposed power channel and roads crosses existing natural streams. DEC shall
provide adequate cross drainage work for all the streams.

b.

Cross drainage works shall be of reinforced concrete of M25 grade with maximum
size of aggregate limited to 40 mm.

c.

Structural design of cross drainage works shall be carried out as per IS: 7784.

d.

DEC shall make necessary arrangements to reduce uplift pressure and maintain a
steady gradient.

13.12

BOUNDARY WALL, SECURITY GATE AND POST


a.

Boundary wall shall be constructed around the powerhouse, Owners land and
wherever required. The wall shall be constructed using RC framed structure

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 80 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

consisting of RC footings and columns. The infill shall be 400 mm thick stone
masonry. The column shall be spaced not more than 2500 mm c/c. The size of
columns shall be minimum 400mm square. The total height of wall shall be 2400 mm
above formation level including concertina fence at top. A coping 150mm thick in PCC
1:2:4 with drip mould shall be provided at top.
b.

The top Concertina fencing shall be in the form of 600 mm diameter galvanised coil of
approved make supported on angle frame of 65 x 65 x 6 mm, fixed to the RC
columns.

c.

The wall, columns and its foundations shall be designed to withstand lateral forces
due to wind and due to differential earth pressures where the ground level on two
sides of the compound wall are different. Expansion joints shall be provided at 30 m
c/c. Drain openings with protective M. S. Grills shall also be provided along the length
of wall, where there is possibility of build up of rainwater from one side of wall.

d.

All the security posts shall be of octagonal shape with sloping roof on all the sides.
The roof shall consist of steel trusses/ portals and precoated sheets of min. 0.5 mm
thick. The sides of the posts shall have 1m high brick wall and glass of adequate
thickness with heavy-duty powder coated aluminium framework above marble sills. It
shall have
i.

Flooring and skirting: Polished Kota Stone

ii.

Internal Painting: Oil bound distemper

iii.

External Painting: Waterproof Cement Paint

iv.

Door: Partly glazed heavy duty aluminium doors with anodizing

v.

Adequate ventilation and lighting


2

The area of main post shall be of 15 m minimum and all internal posts shall have
2

area of minimum 8 m .
During taking over boundary fence shall be in a good condition as given in bid
drawings.
e.

Local control room shall be provided at dam and desilting chamber for having local
operation. It shall also have toilet facilities with 500 litre water tank with necessary
water supply and sanitation requirement.

13.13

CHAINAGE MARKERS
Contractor shall fix/ embed stainless steel chainage markers (200 x 200 x 12 thick mm) at
every 50 m interval along both the tunnels & trough, at 100 m at desilting basin, at 500 m in
power channel with 0.0 chainage at tunnel intake gate. These shall be fixed at convenient
locations and height along the length.

13.14

PLINTH PROTECTION
Plinth protection, 1 m wide, 100 mm thick PCC 1:2:4 over 150 mm thick rubble soling laid to
slope away from the building shall be provided around periphery in all buildings. Finished
plinth level of powerhouse shall be minimum 500 mm above the foundation level or grade
level. In addition it shall be covered with interlocking blocks of decorative finish.

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 81 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

13.15

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

Horticulture And Landscaping


DEC shall plan and accordingly the Contractor shall develop landscaping and horticulture in
the plant area. Special attention shall be given to development in front of powerhouse
building.

13.16

TRANSFORMER YARD
a.

Transformer/s shall be founded on RC foundation with rails on the top and oil sock
pits filled with hand stone aggregate. Burnt oil pits shall be provided to collect leaked
oil from the soak pit through RC pipes laid to slope.

b.

Firewalls / blast walls shall be constructed to separate transformer according to TAC


regulations.

c.

RC foundation shall be provided with rail to transport transformer out of transformer


yard during maintenance.

d.

The entire area shall be surrounded with fence as specified with gates. Where rails
crossing the fencing, fencing shall be made of removable type to facilitate transport of
transformer. Floors shall be plain cement concrete and shall be sloped towards
peripheral drains, which shall lead to a sump from which the drainage is lid through an
oil water separator. The clear water shall lead to plant drainage.

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 82 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

SECTION - 14 - ELECTRO-MECHANICAL REQUIREMENTS


14.1

TURBINE
Turbine will be of vertical Francis type and coupled directly to the generator. Four number
turbine units are provided. Each unit is rated to generate 82.5 MW with 10% continuous
overload at generator terminals.
In the Himalayan region, the erosion of the under water parts by silt is a major cause of
concern. To tackle this problem, coating technologies are emerging which are supplier
specific. These technologies will prolong the useful economic life of underwater parts from
average two years to four years between repair and replacement.
Runner and underwater parts like the guide vanes, labyrinths, the top and bottom covers
etc. will be coated to resist abrasion caused by the silt in the water. Turbines will be
designed considering the maximum particle size of 0.25 mm in the water. The runner and
guide vanes will be of 13% Cr, 4% Ni material. This selection is in line with present trend.
These will increase the life of the turbine.
Each guide vane will be provided with grease lubricated guide bearings. Centralised grease
lubricating system for each unit will be provided for automatic greasing of all the three
bushings in each guide vane. Grease lubricated system is preferred compared to selflubricated type from silt content point of view.
The runner shall be dismantled from below after dismantling the draft tube cones. The
runner shall be handled with the main overhead travelling crane and a sling which passes
through the hollow of the generator rotor and the turbine shaft. The runner shall be
evacuated through the lower gallery by the handling trolley guided by rails, and lifted by the
main overhead travelling crane, through hatches provided on various floors
Emphasis has been given on accessibility of shaft seal for easy and faster replacement.
Axial type seals are preferred compared to radial type from better sealing as well as lower
down time for maintenance. Cyclone separator will be provided on the water supply line to
shaft seal for removal of silt. The turbines setting i.e. height of runner below the tailrace
water is selected to avoid cavitation over entire operating range.
The spiral casing will be pressurised to 50% of the design pressure during concreting
around it. This will help in reduction in sizing of reinforcement requirement around spiral
casing. The spiral casing and the connection pipe will be encased by compressible material
in the concrete embedded section.

14.2

MAIN INLET VALVE


Inlet valve of butterfly type will be provided within powerhouse for each turbine. This valve
will also serve as isolation when units are not in operation as well as safety device for
closure in case of runaway condition. This valve in turn ensures that the penstock is always
filled thus enabling unit start at a shorter period. A corrosion allowance of at least 2 mm is to
be provided. The body will be of cast steel or fabricated construction.

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 83 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

14.3

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

CRANE
Two numbers electrically operated traveling cranes with facility for tandem operation with
remote control capability are proposed for erection of components within power house.
Capacity of each crane is expected to be about 140 tonnes. Two cranes each of 140 tonnes
are preferred compared to single crane of 280 tonnes as it allows simultaneous assembly
and erection of TG unit components, in both erection bays thus reducing the erection time.
The capacity of crane is governed by weight of assembled rotor.
The above concept is followed in all hydro plants with higher capacity and more number of
units.

14.4

COOLING WATER SYSTEM


In view of high silt concentration in the river water, the cooling system will be designed with
two circuits. The primary circuit, which is of closed type, cools the TG auxiliaries and
transfers the heat to secondary circuit through shell and tube heat exchangers. The
secondary circuit is of open type and transfers the heat to tailrace. Both primary and
secondary circuits will be provided on a unit basis for each of the four generating units.
Raw water will be drawn from a storage tank, located adjacent to and taking gravity feed
from forebay. Raw water drawn from the storage tank passes through self-cleaning filters /
automatic backwash duplex strainers. These strainers to be provided on normal and standby
basis on the main pipe header will cater to the cooling water requirement of all the four TG
units and also the ventilation/air conditioning systems. After filtering, the raw water will be
passed through shell and tube water-to-water heat exchanger and then be discharged into
the tailrace. Cupro-nickel tubes are specified for the shell and tube heat exchangers from
erosion point of view.

14.5

DEWATERING AND DRAINAGE SYSTEM


Independent drainage and dewatering pumping system will be provided in the Power House
which will be common to all 4 units.
The dewatering system will be used to dewater the turbine and draft tube for accessing the
runner and other underwater parts during routine maintenance and also during emergencies
caused by abnormal inflows. The drainage system will handle all leakages and drains from
all the equipment within the power house.
The turbine dewatering system pits will be designed to enable dewatering of the turbine
within two hours time. Number and capacity of the pumps will be selected based on the
normal and maximum system flow. One number standby pump will be installed. This system
will act as back up to the drainage system in the event of emergency in-flows. Suitable
arrangement for interconnection of both dewatering and drainage pit by gate will be
provided. Provision for refilling of a dewatered unit will be provided from dewatering system.

14.6

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM


Fire protection system will be designed as per TAC requirement. High velocity water spray
system will be provided for transformers in both GT and Switchyards. Hydrant system will be
provided for powerhouse area. The fire water storage tank will be located adjacent to

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 84 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

forebay. Filtered water will be used for initial fill and make-up to this tank so that the system
(especially nozzles of HVWS system) will not get chocked.

14.7

VENTILATION AND AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM


Pressurised ventilation system will be adopted to ensure dust free atmosphere within
powerhouse. 4 nos. air-handling units (number of air handling unit is kept same as that of
number of TG units so that corresponding air handling units can be put into service with
particular TG unit in operation) are envisaged for air circulation within powerhouse. 2 nos.
air-handling units are envisaged for supply to control room. The temperature in the
0

powerhouse and control room will be maintained at 34 C and 24 C respectively. Cooling


coil of air handling units will be supplied by chilled water system. This will reduce the size of
the ducting within the powerhouse, thus enabling better routing with other system piping and
cabling to avoid interference.

14.8

MAIN GENERATOR & BUSDUCT SYSTEM


The Generator is specified as vertical connected directly to Francis Turbine. Generator will
have continuous output rating of 82.5 MW and has been specified with 10% continuous
overload to take advantage of higher water availability during monsoon season. The bidders
will choose the Generation voltage depending on economic considerations.
Generator circuit breaker has been not considered because of high cost. Accordingly output
terminals of each generator will be connected through an Isolated phase busduct to a stepup generator transformer for connection to the 400 kV network. Each generator has been
specified with separate bank of single-phase Generator step up transformer.
The Generator has been specified to operate for black start and islanding conditions. Power
evacuation from Shrinagar and Vishnuprayag HEP is via common 400kV lines to load center
at Muzaffarnagar, which is around 110 km from Shrinagar. Synchronous condenser mode is
not considered since powerhouse is at remote end from load. The price loading for the
losses of generator have been specified.

14.9

GENERATOR STEP UP TRANSFORMER


The generator transformer (GT) GT shall be single phase 400kV/ Root3, 11-13.8 kV with
Ynd1 vector group. There shall be 12 Single Phase GTs in service for 4 units each rated 34
MVA. Single Phase units have been specified because of transport limitations to the site.
Loss capitalization for Generator Transformer has been specified. GTs will be connected via
gantry structure in GT yard to 400 kV overhead line.

14.10

400 kV SWITCHYARD
a.

The Power evacuation arrangement will be done by 400 kV double circuit


transmission lines. The 400 kV Transmission line is being constructed by PGCIL from
Vishnuprayag to Muzaffarnagar and will have Loop In Loop out at Shrinagar HEP
switchyard. UPCL has proposed to take by double circuit 400 kV lines from Power
House Switchyard to Shrinagar sub-station.

As per requirement of UPPCL and as per CBIP guidelines option of one and half breaker
scheme was selected.

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 85 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

Conventional

Air

Insulated

switchyard

has

been

selected

based

on

economic

considerations. Other options such as Gas Insulated (GIS) and Highly Integrated (HIS)
installations are 8 times and 2.5 times costlier respectively.
All the 400 kV feeders are provided with energy management system for proper
reconciliation of energy.
Land requirement for Air Insulated switchyard is higher and will require procurement of
additional land. If necessary UPCL may be requested to procure land for their (ICT) bay.
400kV Switchyard will have a Relay room and will house switchyard relay panels, battery
charger, batteries, SCADA RTU, PLCC equipment etc. Control panels for switchyard
equipment will be located in Powerhouse.

14.11

STATION AND DAM AUXILIARY AC SYSTEM


a.

b.

Following are the priorities of station auxiliary system:


i.

Supply from UAT

ii.

Standby supply from DG set

Following are 440V station auxiliary system feeds to Dam areas:


i.

Supply after stepping up to 11kV from 415V supply from powerhouse UATs.

ii.

3. Standby supply from DG set

The option no.1 of stepping up from 415 V to 33 kV was selected for supply to dam areas
considering reliability of supply.

14.12

EMERGENCY BACKUP SYSTEM


One LV Diesel generator of about 750 kVA capacity will be installed at Powerhouse for black
start of unit in case of system failure. One Diesel Generator will be installed at Dam areas
for operation in case AC auxiliary grid failure. DGs shall have overloading of 10% in 12
hours continuous running. DGs will start automatically in case of failure of normal supply
and feed emergency lighting and essential loads.

14.13

DC AUXILIARY SYSTEM
DC supply system has been considered for powerhouse, switchyard and dam areas.
Powerhouse and switchyard will have 220 V DC batteries with 100% standby battery/
charger.
For all dam areas, 24 V DC system has been considered with standby battery/ charger.
For switchyard, separate DC system has to be provided.
Uninterrupted Power Supply (UPS) system will be provided for powerhouse.

14.14

PROTECTION SYSTEM
Protection and communication system arrangement will be numerical protection with
communicable features. Generator will have Main and backup composite numerical
protection system. There will be pilot wire protection system for short transmission line from
Generator transformer yard to 400 kV switchyard. Outgoing lines will have distance
protection and transfer trip arrangement through PLCC channels.

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 86 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

14.15

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

INSTRUMENTATION, CONTROL and TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM

14.15.1 Distributed Control System (DCS)


Open architecture DCS will be provided in the Power House Control Room for monitoring
and controls for operations of all the 4 TG units, common auxiliary systems, headworks and
switchyard. Four of the SCADA workstations will be in the local control rooms, dedicated to
each TG Unit. The balance workstations will be in the main control room for operations of
entire power station and connected to the redundant LAN. The workstations will be having
Windows based SCADA system software for graphic displays, alarm management, trending
and archiving facilities. The TG unit operations can be carried out from the local control
room or from any of the four workstations in the central / main control room. Two
workstations will be used for headworks and 400 kV switchyard operations and for settings
of relays and energy meters of switchyard.
PLCs are proposed for logic controls of TG Units for single command start-stop operations
of the TG units. The PLCs for TG units will be networked with the central DCS on a dual
redundant Ethernet LAN.
Digital Governor will provide various modes of TG unit controls, such as power, position,
black-start, isolated network, islanding, common MW control etc. For the switchyard,
numerical relays, energy meters and a SER will be provided. SER will also be provided for
TG units and the auxiliary systems and will be interfaced with the DCS system. Emergency
Shutdown (ESD) System will be provided for safe automatic shutdown of the power station
in case of potential unsafe abnormal situations which will be sensed by instruments /
sensors.
Thus the DCS system is designed to provide user-friendly control system having sufficient
operational flexibility and to provide safe and reliable operations of the power station.
14.15.2 Headworks
Instruments provided for monitoring dam safety will include dam reservoir level meter, rain
gauges meters, pore pressure meters, stress and strain meters, plumb-line meters,
inclinometers and seismograph.
Various gates such as dam water release gates, spillway gates and flushing gates at the
desiliting basin totaling 30 numbers will be monitored and controlled from the dedicated DCS
workstations in the Central Control Room. The discharge through each gate will be
computed based on the water level, gate opening percentages and gate discharge
characteristics and displayed on the SCADA system by the software in the PLCs provided at
the dam, desilting basin and forebay.
The water flow to each of the TG unit will be measured by multipath ultrasonic flow meters
on the penstocks. Instruments will be installed to detect unsafe situations in the penstock
such as excess water velocity, low pressure during unit operation and flood condition in the
power house. The penstock inlet valves will automatically close under such situations to
avert any disaster.
14.15.3 Telecommunication
Instead of conventional costly FOTE based system, Fast Ethernet based Fibre Optic
telecommunication system is proposed for interfacing the dam, desilting basin, forebay and
the switchyard to the Power House DCS system. VOIP has been proposed between

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 87 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

headworks and Central Control Room to integrate the voice and data transmission for cost
effective system.
PLCC has been proposed to match with existing PLCC system with Muzaffarnagar and
Vishnuprayag power stations. CCTVs will be provided, one for each area of power station,
for monitoring sensitive and remote areas.

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 88 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

SECTION - 15 - GENERAL ELECTRICAL REQUIREMENT


15.1

GENERAL
The scope of work for electrical items shall include design, manufacture, inspection at
manufacturers works, delivery to site, unloading, transport to Site and Site storage of Power
& Motor Control Centre (PMCC), cabling & earthing pertaining to the above system
associated with hydromechanical works. Further, lighting & socket outlets for entire
powerhouse, dam areas, desilting basin, Forebay etc. is included in CONTRACTORs
scope. Only the lighting inside switchyard-fenced area is excluded from the scope of this
contract.
PMCC for all the three areas (Dam, Desilting basin/Forebay) will be installed in the control
room located nearby.

15.2

CABLING
a.

This specification covers the supply, installation, testing & commissioning of the
cabling and cable carrier systems required to interconnect the electrical equipment
associated with the various gates and the panels. The power will be derived from the
nearest 11kV Supply substation at Intake, Dam, Desilting and Forebay areas.

b.

The power and control cables shall ensure the electrical connections at the various
rated voltages used in the dam, spillway, desilting, Intake and Forebay areas.

c.

The supply and services shall comprise at least:


i.

supply and installation of all cables as per cable lists and interconnection
schedules furnished by Contractor.

ii.

Contractor shall supply suitable Cable Termination Kits, glands and lugs for the
cables specified above.

iii. cable tests.


d.

The Cables in all these areas shall be laid in trays. Incase laying trays is not possible,
it shall be directly buried.

15.2.1

Standards and Codes


Cables shall comply with relevant Indian/ International Standards

15.2.2

Ratings
The technical parameters of cables shall be as given below :
Description

Unit

Particulars

LV POWER CABLES
Rated voltage U / Uo (Um)

kW

0.6 / 1 (1.2)

Material of conductor

Aluminium

Cross-sectional area

Suitable for the rating of Incoming/Outgoing


feeders of the PMCC.

Type of insulation

XLPE

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 89 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

Description

15.2.3

Unit

Particulars

Inner sheath

Extruded

Outer sheath

Extruded

Material of armour

Galvanised Steel Strips (Aluminium for single


core cable)

No. of Cores

3 Core/4 Core (as per requirement of system).

Cables Sizing Design Criteria


Contractor shall furnish sizing of cables to be reviewed by Owner.

15.3

AC AUXILIARY SYSTEM
The scope of work covers all the equipment and systems required for auxiliary systems at
the Dam area and emergency DG board. This scope includes design, manufacture, testing,
delivery to site, storage, insurance, testing and commissioning of the equipment and
systems comprising, but not limited to 1 no. 415V PMCC, each for Dam, Forebay & Desilting
basin control rooms.

15.3.1

Standards and Codes


The equipment shall comply with the requirements detailed in the latest revisions of the
following International Standards, wherever applicable, including those referred to therein.
IEC 60269, 60947, 61459, 61641
IS 13947,

15.3.2

Ratings
Description

Unit

Particulars

General
Rated voltage, no. of phases and rated
frequency

V / - / Hz

System neutral earthing

415V, 3, 50Hz
Effectively Earthed

Rated short duration power frequency


withstand voltage
- Power circuit

kV (rms)

- Control circuit

kV (rms)

1.5

Rated normal current of busbars under


design ambient temperature
Rated short-time withstand current and time

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

A/kA (rms) / sec

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

To be determined by the
Contractor
50kA 1sec (Min)

Sheet No. 90 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

Description

Unit

Particulars

> 800A, governed by


feeder load requirement

kA (rms)

To be determined by the
Contractor

Air Circuit Breakers


Rated current when installed within cubicle
under design ambient temperature
Rated short-time withstand current
Moulded Case Circuit Breakers
Type

Moulded Case

Rated current when installed within cubicle


under design ambient temperature
Rated short-time withstand current

< 800A, governed by


feeder load requirement.

kA (rms)

To be determined by the
Contractor

Miniature Circuit Breakers


Type

Miniature

Rated current when installed within cubicle


under design ambient temperature
Rated short-time withstand current

A
kA (rms)

governed by feeder load


requirement.
10

Current ratings to be ascertained by the DEC after design calculations subject to approval.
15.3.3

Design and Performance


a.

11kV supply shall be derived from two 11kV overhead lines and stepped down to
415V by means of auxiliary transformers. Incomer to PMCC will be ACB or motorised
MCCB.

b.

The Dam Power & Motor Control Centre (PMCC) shall have two bus sections each
fed by one transformer and a bus section breaker for interconnection purpose. The
bus section breaker will be normally open. The incomer and bus section breaker shall
be suitable for operation from remote through SCADA. Local/ remote selector switch
shall be provided on the respective breaker cubicles.

c.

Spillway DG shall also be connected to both the bus sections of PMCC (0nly for Dam
PMCC) through breakers, which will be normally open.

d.

Requisite number of feeder circuit breakers and sub distribution boards shall be
provided from each bus section of PMCC for power supply to the spillway, tunnel
intake and diversion channel gates & stoplogs and spillway auxiliaries. Accordingly,
suitable starters shall be provided in the PMCC. For essential loads duplicate feeds
shall be given from two bus sections on 100% standby basis.

e.

Auto-changeover of supply shall be provided by means of undervoltage relays and


auto/ manual selection switch shall be provided on the PMCC for this purpose.
Restoration to normal supply shall be manual.

15.3.4

General Features of Power and Motor Control Centre (PMCC)


a.

PMCC shall be extensible type, arranged in a single row, dead-front alignment and
shall comprise modular groupings of vertical stacks, each stack divided into

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 91 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

compartments containing switching equipment for individual feeder. Entry for


incoming and outgoing cables shall be from bottom/ top.
b.

Busbars shall be of Aluminium. 3 phase, 4 wire distribution system shall be followed.


The phase and neutral busbars shall be of suitable rating depending on the load and
fault current rating. Calculations for the selection of busbar size shall be furnished for
review. Degree of protection of the panel shall be IP 52 enclosure.

c.

It shall be ensured that each load shall be controlled by one circuit breaker. Looping
(back to back connection) of cables for feeding multiple loads from same circuit
breaker is not permitted.

d.

At least one spare feeder of each rating shall be included on each bus section of the
board. Additional feeders shall be provided as deemed necessary.

e.

The board shall be provided with circuits as required, ammeter with ammeter selector
switch and voltmeter with voltmeter selector switch. Contractor shall furnish proposed
single line diagram of the board alongwith the Bid. Incomer Current and voltages on
the bus shall be communicated through SCADA by means of transducers.

f.

Incoming and outgoing circuits shall be protected by suitably rated ACBs/ MCCBs.
Drawout type ACBs shall be used for feeder ratings > 800A and MCCBs shall be used
for feeder ratings < 800A. MCBs shall be permitted only if the fault currents expected
are less than 10 kA.

g.

Where required for protective relaying and metering, current transformers shall be
provided.

h.

For ACBs necessary safety interlocks shall be provided. Tripping of the ACB shall
initiate alarm in the Control room. Each breaker module shall be provided with 3
indicating lamps for close, open & auto-trip indication. ACBs shall have static releases
for overcurrent & earthfault protection. Shunt trip shall be provided for tripping on
under-voltage.

i.

If the ratings of incomers and bus coupler demand use of MCCBs, the same shall be
motorised and suitable for switching operation from remote i. e. the power house
control room.

j.

Each pole of MCCB shall be fitted with electronic type protection for over current,
earth fault and short circuit. Such a protection system shall be fully self-contained,
needing no separate power supply. The elements shall be adjustable. Adjustments
shall be made simultaneously on all poles from a common facility. MCCBs shall have
discriminating facilities for co-ordination purpose.

k.

Miniature circuit breakers (MCB) shall be of the thermal and magnetic tripping Motor
Control Centres.

l.

Motor starters shall be mounted in the MCC and shall include the following:
i.

MCB / MCCBs with suitable interrupting ratings and overcurrent protection

ii.

contactor rated for normal continuous duty with thermal overload protection

iii. control isolation transformer with primary and secondary fuses, 100VA minimum
iv. start/stop push buttons complete with status indicator lights

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 92 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

v.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

auto/ manual selector switch for PLC/ manual control

vi. local/ remote selector switch for local/remote operation


vii. ammeter connected through current transformer for motors above 30kW
15.3.5

Inspection And Testing


a.

All dam AC auxiliary equipment, panels and circuits shall be subject to inspection and
testing, by & at the expense of Contractor, in factory and on site.

b.

PMCC shall be manufactured and assembled in the factory to the maximum extent
possible to facilitate dimensional checks, inspection & testing.

c.

Type test certificates may be offered by Contractor, in lieu of actual testing, provided
satisfactory evidence of similarity of the equipment tested and the Contract equipment
is provided to the engineer.

15.4

EARTHING SYSTEM
a.

The scope of this section specifies the requirement of the earthing system. The scope
shall include design, manufacture, inspection at manufacturers works, delivery to site,
unloading, transport to Site, and Site storage of all the equipments pertaining to the
above system.

b.

For all areas which require gates and its associated controls, all related electrical
works including incoming cable from nearest distribution transformer substation,
MCC, earthing of equipment, lighting and all interconnecting cabling shall be in Civil
Contractors scope.

15.4.1

Purpose and Function


This specification covers the Earthing system in the different areas as detailed below:
a.

Intake gates: Buried conductor earthing grid to provide earthing of the gates and other
metallic structures.

b.

Dam: Buried conductor earthing grid to provide earthing of the gates and other
metallic structures.

c.

Disilting bay: Buried conductor earthing grid to provide earthing of the gates and other
metallic structures.

d.

Forebay: Buried conductor earthing grid to provide earthing of the gates and other
metallic structures.

e.

Power house: Earthing grid shall be provided under the Power House at the time of
excavation with a spacing of 10 m. Connection of this grid in the raft to other floors of
the Power House will be thru GI conductors embedded in the columns. Contractor
shall provide pigtails of 300mm length along the columns for connecting the earthing
system of other floors of the Power House by others.

f.
15.4.2

Earthing Conductors at all the above areas shall be of minimum 50 x 10 mm GI.

Standards and Codes


Earthing protection system shall comply with the following International Standards, including
those referred to therein. ANSI / IEEE Standard. 80 and 142.

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 93 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

15.4.3

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

Design and Performance


a.

Earthing conductor for all the above areas shall be 50 x 10 sq. mm G.I.

b.

Earthing system shall be provided to ensure equipment safety, personnel safety and
to facilitate designed operation of protective devices during earth fault conditions in
the associated system.

c.

The Contractor shall install bare earth conductors as required for the system. All the
work such as cutting, bending, supporting, drilling, soldering, clamping, bolting and
connections to structures, equipment frames, terminals or other devices shall be in
the Contractor's scope. All hardware and consumables such as fixing cleats / clamps,
anchor fasteners, lugs, bolts, nuts, washers, brazing electrodes, flux, bituminous
compound, anti-corrosive paint, etc. as required for the complete work shall be
included by the Contractor.

d.

The work of embedment of earthing conductor in RCC floors / walls along with
provision of earth plate inserts / pads / earth risers shall be done by the Contractor
preferably before the columns / walls are cast. The embedded conductors shall be
connected to reinforcing rods wherever possible. All metal bodies such as

15.5

BATTERY ROOM
a.

Batteries shall be located in separate battery rooms preferably near the dc loads at
the various locations specified. Appropriate barriers shall be provided to segregate the
two banks of batteries (wherever specified) within the battery room.

b.

The flooring shall be provided with acid resistance tiles, a dished floor drain and
drainage piping for collecting spilled acid. The spilled acid shall be diluted before
discharging to the outside storm water drainage system.

c.

Acid proof paint shall be provided on walls up to 2.3 m height.

d.

A wash basin (Eye Wash) shall be provided for emergency drenching of face and
body.

e.

The total capacity of exhaust fans (suitably distributed) should be minimum 1/10th of
the total volume of the battery room per minute. The exhaust shall be directly outside
the building. However, specific requirements shall be obtained from the battery
manufacturer.

f.

Adequate provision for storage of acid, distilled water, instruments, accessories, etc.
should be provided in the battery room.

15.6

LIGHTING AND SOCKET OUTLETS

15.6.1

Scope
The scope of this section specifies the requirement of the lighting system. It includes design,
manufacture, inspection at manufacturers works, delivery to site, unloading, transport to
Site, Site storage, installation, testing and commissioning of all the equipment pertaining to
lighting system such as lighting fixtures, lamps, MCBs / ELCBs, switches, lighting panels,
sockets/ receptacles, cables etc.
The scope of lighting all areas including following:
a.

Powerhouse Indoor & out-door

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 94 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

15.6.2

b.

Street lighting

c.

Forebay indoor & outdoor

d.

Dam area- walkway/ drainage gallery/lift

e.

Intake gates

f.

Desilting Basin

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

Purpose and Function


a.

The lighting system proposed is inclusive of indoor and outdoor lighting equipment,
maintenance power supply networks, power supply outlet circuits in various project
areas such as diversion tunnel, intake gates, dam, spillway, desilting bay, forebay,
power house along with all the associated buildings and access galleries between
power house, forebay, dam, diversion tunnels, intake and desilting bay, and all access
areas proposed for the whole of the Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project.

b.

The lighting system shall provide normal and emergency lighting scheme for the
indoor and the outdoor areas, provide individual sockets / receptacles and
maintenance power supply cubicles at various locations. All the power house areas
including technical rooms, control and relay rooms, telecom rooms, electrical rooms,
offices, conference rooms, changing rooms, canteen, workshops, etc. in the whole
scheme is included in the scope of works.

15.6.3

Drawing Reference
The DEC may refer to the various plans and sections provided along with the specification
for the details on the sizes of various rooms / areas etc. The buildings and the rooms
indicated in the drawings are tentative. The actual layout proposed by the DEC and
approved by the Engineer shall govern.

15.6.4

Applicable Codes and Standards


Lighting system shall comply with the following Standards, including those referred to herein.
IEC 60083, 60598, 60669, 60884, 60906 and 60947

IEC 60050-845:

International Electrotechnical Vocabulary- Lighting

IEC 60068-1:

Environmental testing P(1) : General and guidance

IEC 60068-2-3:

Dampness, heat, steady state test

IEC 60309:

Plugs, socket outlets and couplers for industrial requirements

IEC 60331:

Fire-resisting characteristic of electric cables

IEC 60529:

Degrees of protection (IP code)

IEC 60598-1:

Luminaires - Part 1: General requirements & tests

IEC 60598-2-1:

Luminaires - Part 2: Particular requirements.

Section 1:

Fixed general purpose luminaires

IEC 60598-2-2:

Luminaires - Part 2: Particular requirements.

Section 2

Recessed luminaires

IEC 60598-2-3:

Luminaires - Part 2: Particular requirements.

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 95 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

Section 3

Luminaires for road and street lighting

IEC 60598-2-5:

Luminaires - Part 2: Particular requirements

Section 3

Floodlights

IEC 60598-2-22:

Luminaires - Part 2-22: Particular requirements Luminaires


for emergency lighting

PR NF EN 12464:

Eclairagisme. Eclairage des lieux de travail

IEC 60742:

Isolating transformers and safety isolating


Transformers - Requirements

IEC 60947:

IEC 60662

IEC 60188:

Manufacture of light fittings, lamps

IEC 61000-2-2:

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 2: Section 2:

Low voltage switchgear and controlgear.


:

Manufacture of light fittings, lamps

Environment

Compatibility

levels

for

low-frequency

conducted disturbances and signaling in public low-voltage


power supply systems

15.6.5

EN 50102:

Manufacture of light fittings protection against impact

NF EN 1838:

Lighting applications Emergency lighting

IS 6665:

Code of practice for industrial lighting

IS 1944:

Code of practice - lighting of public thoroughfares

IS 2148:

Flame proof enclosures of electrical apparatus

IS 1913:

General and safety requirements for luminaries

IS 3646:

Code of practice for interior illumination

IS 9537:

Conduits for electrical installation

Selection of Lighting Equipment in Different Areas


The selection of lighting equipment in various areas shall be as below:
a.

For dam, the water intake, spillway, desilting bay, Forebay etc.
Maint. power

Type of light fittings

supply
Flood-

Location
Normal

Waterproof

Explosion

cubicles

Individual
sockets

lights
(fixed or

proof

mobile)
Spillway

Spillway associated
galleries

Spillway equipment
(gates, trash rack
cleaners, gantry
cranes,)

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

*
*

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 96 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

Maint. power

Type of light fittings

supply
Flood-

Location
Normal

Water-

Explosion

proof

proof

cubicles

Individual
sockets

lights
(fixed or
mobile)

Different galleries of
the dam

Water intake

Water intake
associated access
galleries

Gallery between the


dam and the
forebay and power
house

Desilting bay

Desilting equipment
(gates, trash rack
cleaners, gantry
cranes

Forebay
b.

For the spillway building, desilting building, forebay building and pillar control room etc.:
Maint.power

Type of light fittings


Flood

Location
Normal

Water-

Explosion

proof

proof

supply
cubicles

lights

Individual
sockets

(fixed or
mobile)

Pillar control room

Telecom room

Diesel unit room,


where applicable

Garage

AC and DC
auxiliaries rooms

Battery rooms

Local control units


room

Technical rooms
Common rooms
(Corridors, stairs)

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 97 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

Maint.power

Type of light fittings

supply
Flood

Location
Normal

Water-

Explosion

proof

proof

cubicles

Individual
sockets

lights
(fixed or
mobile)

Control room

Other rooms

Access area
c.

For the power house


Type of light fittings
Location
Normal

Waterproof

Explosion
proof

Flood
lights

Maint.

Emergency

power
supply
(fixed or
mobile)

Lighting

Individual
sockets

Ventilation room

Technical rooms

Electrical rooms

AC and DC auxiliary
rooms

Battery rooms

*
*

Machine hall

Erection bay

Generator floor

Turbine floor

Hydraulic floor

Drainage gallery and


pits

Computers &
engineering room

Control room

Telecom rooms

Offices

Diesel unit rooms

*
*

Components storage
room

Common rooms
(Corridors, stairs,
hall)

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 98 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

Type of light fittings


Location
Normal

Workshop

Diversion tunnel 1
(left tunnel)

Maint.

Emergency

power
supply
(fixed or
mobile)

Lighting

Individual
sockets

Generator
transformer area
Access area

Explosion
proof

Water storage tank

Other rooms

15.6.6

Waterproof

Flood
lights

*
*

Type of lighting fixtures


The following types of fixtures shall be considered for various areas. The list is not
exhaustive. The construction features are indicative. Equivalent or superior feature is
acceptable. The fixture, control gear, capacitor etc. and the lamp are included in the bidders
scope of works.
a.

General purpose flood lighting fixtures - Housing with integral controlgear from diecast aluminium alloy, vitreous enameled, and with electrochemically brightened
anodised aluminium reflector shall be provided. It shall have clear, heat resistant
glass with rubber gasket secured to housing by a ring, cast iron base and MS cradle
for turning in horizontal and vertical planes and lockable in desired position, suitable
for 250 / 400 W HPSV lamp. These fixtures shall be used for illumination of outdoor
area for providing general illumination.

b.

Gate post lights with top canopy spun from aluminium sheet and vitreous enameled.
Spigot shall be made of die-cast aluminium and vitreous enameled. Fixture shall be
suitable for 70 W HPSV lamp.

c.

Fluorescent tube fixtures - Housing made from mild steel sheet and stove enameled
white. Reflector assembly made from electrochemically brightened anodised
aluminium sheets secured to housing with spring loaded triggers and suitable for 2/3
nos. 36 watt tubes. These fixtures shall be used in switchboard room and other areas.
Where false ceiling is provided, fixtures shall be suitable for recessed mounting. All
fluorescent fixtures shall either have clear acrylic diffusers or reflectors with mirror
finish.

d.

Street lighting fixtures for the approach road shall be weatherproof, suitable for 70 W /
150 W HPSV lamp and shall be cut-off type. The fixtures shall be of die-cast
aluminium with electrochemically brightened anodised aluminium reflector and with
transparent polycarbonate cover. The degree of protection shall be IP67. Wellglass
type light fixtures may be used at a few locations, affixed to the wall / structure.

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 99 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

e.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

Lighting fixture used for machine hall and other areas with high ceiling shall be
medium / high bay type suitable for 150/250/400 W HPSV lamps. These shall have
housing with integral controlgear of from die-cast aluminium alloy; electrochemically
brightened anodised aluminium reflector, etc.

f.

Battery backed light fixtures (Instalite type) for exit signs and other safety lighting
shall be used. The exit signs to be installed at various locations are included in the
scope of supply.

g.

Types of fixtures proposed by the Contractor for various areas shall be subject to
Engineer's approval.

15.6.7

Design and Performance


a.

General performance
Lighting system shall be designed to achieve the average maintained levels of
illumination as indicated below. The CONTRACTOR shall be required to measure the
actual levels and carry out necessary modifications to accomplish specified levels. It
is to be noted that the values measured after installation will exceed those specified
due to inclusion of light loss factor in the calculation. Measurement shall be carried
out after 100 burning hours. As a minimum, the illumination level shall comply with the
values as indicated in 6.1.2.

b.

Illumination level for normal lighting:


The nominal illumination level for normal lighting, measured at the height of a
worktable (0.85 m) shall have on average the following values:
Machine hall ...................................................................................... :

200 lux

Control rooms, relay rooms, computer rooms, and offices ............... :

400 lux

Relay equipment rooms, local control units rooms and telecom rooms:

300 lux

Auxiliary switchboard rooms (HV, LV, etc.) ....................................... :

200 lux

Machine (generators, thrust bearings, turbine) and transformer floors :

250 lux

Personnel rooms ............................................................................... :

200 lux

Circulation areas (stairs, corridors) ................................................... :

50 lux

The dam crest and outside access.................................................... :

50 lux

The above values shall only be valid if they comply with the Ergonomics for control rooms
and computing and the architectural requirements. The illumination levels shall generally be
as per IS.
15.6.8

Illumination level for Emergency lighting


The illumination level shall be 5 lux minimum, according to NF EN 1838 standard. However,
in control rooms, the illumination level shall be 100 lux minimum, as a special case.
a.

The illumination system shall be so designed that the uniformity factor is of acceptable
level and that the glare is within limits.

b.

The following values of light loss factor shall be considered for design:
i.

Indoor air-conditioned area : 0.8

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 100 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

c.

ii.

Other indoor areas : 0.7

iii.

Outdoor area :

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

0.6

The DEC shall furnish detailed design calculations, uniformity factors, ratio of
maximum to minimum illumination levels, ratio of average to minimum illumination
levels, glare values, etc. for approval. Detailed characteristics of various types of
fixtures including photometry curves and tables shall also be furnished for review.

15.6.9

Lighting Distribution boards / Panels / Power supply receptacle boards


a.

The constructional design features of the lighting distribution boards and the lighting
panels shall be as described elsewhere in the specification.

b.

The electrical power distribution diagram for the lighting, individual power supply
sockets / receptacles and maintenance power supply networks shall be of the
grounded neutral type with separate earth conductor (TNS as per IS 3043).

c.

LV / LV isolating transformers shall be used for each lighting and outlet circuit
outgoing in order to limit the fault current up to 3kA. Also, miniature circuit breakers
(MCBs) of minimum 10kA ratings shall be provided.

15.6.10

Functional requirements
a.

Normal lighting
"Normal" lighting shall provide sufficient light to work and create comfortable visibility
in the covered areas. The normal lighting shall be deliberately turned on and off by
different personnel, based on the requirements. In case of outdoor areas, day-timers
shall be provided in the lighting circuits so as to switch on the outdoor lighting
automatically.
Normal lighting shall ensure that a minimum of 2 lighting distribution boards are
installed per floor. In case of loss of normal power supply, the back-up source
(example diesel set) shall supply the normal lighting.

b.

Emergency lighting
Under normal conditions, these light fixtures will be OFF. The emergency lighting
shall allow evacuation of people in case of fire or panic (blackout, total failure etc.).
These light fixtures shall be placed at strategic control points such as all exits, midway
locations depicting path of escape route etc. All the exit signs shall be battery backed
and shall come ON under normal supply failure.
The emergency lighting shall comprise light fixtures supplied by in-built inverters
supplied from station battery. Emergency lighting shall be ON when mains power
supply source fails. The emergency lighting shall be OFF when normal lighting is
operational. It shall also be ON during the diesel generator starting phase. Except
signages all emergency light shall fluorescent light lamps.

15.6.11 Maintenance power supply network


All rooms containing equipment requiring maintenance as well as all repair workshops shall
be equipped with a maintenance power supply network to supply tools or other loads. These
maintenance outlets shall be fed through separate distribution boards. The maintenance
power supply network shall also be configured for normal and emergency modes.

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 101 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

15.6.12 Power Supply Requirements


a.

The supply voltage for the normal and emergency power supplies shall be 415 V
(three phase) / 240 V (single phase) AC.

b.

Supply voltages for normal lighting in humid rooms shall be 50 V (ac) (Emergency
Extra Low Voltage) or 240 V (ac) single phase, if the equipment used is of class II.

c.

The emergency lighting supply voltage shall be in direct current and / or selfcontained emergency lighting fixture.

d.

The supply voltage for individual sockets/ receptacles shall be 240 V (ac).

e.

Power supply sources and distribution boards

f.

Power supply from AC auxiliary boards shall be fed to isolation transformers which will
inturn feed the Lighting Distribution Boards and the Maintenance Power Supply
Distribution Boards. The Lighting Distribution Boards shall have feeders for lighting
panels, to be located on each floor. The Maintenance Power Supply Distribution
Board will supply to maintenance power supply panels on individual floors. Power and
Lighting shall thus be ensured separated. Every floor will hence have 2 lighting
panels, 1 / 2 socket panels and an offline UPS and its distribution panel to cater to the
emergency loads on that floor.

g.

The Lighting Distribution Boards and Maintenance Power Supply Distribution Boards
shall have a double infeed and a bus coupler.

h.

Supply from offline UPS shall be provided to the emergency light fixtures in each
area. The offline UPS shall have a back up time of 30 minutes, since the entire
lighting system shall be diesel generating set backed.

15.7

CONTROL AND OPERATING MODES FOR LIGHTING

15.7.1

Normal cum Emergency mode


The normal lighting system, the individual sockets / receptacles and the maintenance power
supply networks shall be turned on and off deliberately by power station operating
personnel.
The emergency lighting circuit shall be composed of a series of light fixtures installed in
sufficient quantity throughout all the normal lighting circuits and placed, in particular, at
critical locations. Emergency lighting, since fed by an inbuilt battery & inveter and shall
automatically be activated as soon as a failure of the normal system has been detected. It
shall remain operational until normal light is restored.
The normal and the emergency light fixtures will be identical for a given area, the only
difference being fed from a normal power supply and from an emergency power supply
respectively.
Maintenance Equipment shall be installed in such a way that maintenance is easy and
personnel emergency is ensured (e.g. ladders lower than 3 m, access walkway). Any repair
or maintenance work on lighting shall be performed without any risk of electrical contact.
Wherever there is a serious risk of dripping and / or spray of water (drainage well, drainage
tunnel) onto the lighting and power supply systems, the following steps shall be taken.

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 102 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

Distribution boxes shall be filled with resin or pitch, or any other waterproof insulating
material,
All cubicles, electrical cabinets, lighting equipment, power supply sockets/ receptacles and
telephone booths, as well as all equipment supplied by the CONTRACTOR shall be
equipped with sloped protective roofs (see general electrical specifications "cabinets and
cubicles").
The CONTRACTOR shall supply, install and connect the light fittings and power supply
sockets, including the mountings, lamps, tubes, switches and the supply auxiliaries. The
final layout of the light fittings and the sockets/ receptacles shall depend on the layout of the
rooms and suspended ceilings and shall be submitted to the Employer for review, before the
lights and sockets are installed.

15.8

SYSTEM COMPONENTS

15.8.1

Lighting equipment design


a.

General
Fixtures for outdoor installation shall be of weather-proof design with degree of
protection of IP65. Lighting equipment shall be protected from water spray except for
those installed in enclosed rooms, whether air conditioned or not.
In damp areas, such as the water storage areas, tunnel pumping station, etc., lighting
equipment shall be mounted on stainless steel metalwork and cables shall be installed
in stainless steel or galvanised steel cable racks.
Emergency fixed illuminated signs and markings shall be placed at each intersection,
each change of direction, near each obstacle, and at least every 35 meters in straight
sections.
Replacement on a tube, bulb, lamp or any other lighting device shall be able to be
performed off circuit, without switching off the main power supply.
The fluorescent light fixtures shall be provided with low loss copper ballast. Only one
lamp shall be connected to one ballast. The capacitor in the lighting fixture shall have
adequate value of capacitance to correct the power factor to 0.95 lag. All lighting shall
be installed so as to avoid any harmful temperature rise for themselves or for
neighbouring objects. Lights shall be installed at locations and heights that facilitate
easy and safe maintenance (repair, used tube or lamp replacement) requiring no
special tools or special means for access.
The lights shall be completed with control gear and be of robust construction and
mechanical strength

to

withstand

handling

during

transport,

installation and

maintenance. Each fixture shall be complete with a four way terminal block for
connection and looping of incoming and outgoing cables. Each terminal shall be able to
accept two 2.5 sq. mm stranded copper conductors.
In case of recessed mounting type of luminaries, MS brackets shall be provided for
mounting on false ceiling.
The luminaries shall be fabricated from rust free sheet steel. The design for fabrication
and the thickness of sheet shall be adequate for robustness.

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 103 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

All the luminaries shall be provided with earthinq equipment suitable for connecting 16
SWG stranded insulated copper conductor with green coloured sheath. The same shall
be in accordance with relevant IEC standard.
All the light fixtures shall have individual switches. The switches shall be located at a
convenient location local to the lamp. In case the no. of light fixtures is very large, in any
particular area, 3 or 4 nos. light fixtures shall be controlled through one switch.
The phases shall be correctly balanced (IEC Standards 60364, 60449 and 60050, or
similar standard) where submitted to the Employer for review.
The lighting of the control room will be carried out by lighting designer and the interior
designer. The selection of the light fixtures and switching scheme shall also be as
advised by the lighting designer. Only for this area, all the light fixtures / switches/
sockets etc. will be free issued to the contractor. The mounting, alignment, connection
etc. of these free issue items is included in the contractors scope. The wiring for the
same (casing capping / concealed etc.) shall be as advised by the lighting consultant.
b.

Normal lighting design


Each of the lighting and the maintenance power supply panel shall be equipped with a
general protection circuit-breaker / isolator equipped with a magneto-thermal trip
function and a residual current trip function with a trip at 300 mA on the incomer side.
The outgoings shall include protection equipment consisting of a circuit-breaker
equipped with a magneto-thermal trip function for lighting circuits and additionally a
residual current trip function with a sensitivity of 30 mA for socket / receptacle circuits in
order to ensure personnel emergency due to earth leakage. A copper earth bus bar and
terminal block for distribution shall also be provided in each panel.

c.

Emergency lighting design


Each area shall have an emergency lighting fixtures equipped with inverter. These
include exit signage, emergency signage, fire escape route etc. Except signage,
emergency light will be fluorescent light.

15.8.2

Maintenance power supply network design


The maintenance power supply shall comprise provision of 63A TPN outlets for connection
to welding transformers. These sockets shall have their MCBs adjacent to the outlets. There
shall be 4 such outlets in the maintenance bay. Similarly there shall be one such outlet for
each turbine on the turbine floor. It shall be noted that 50% of these TPN outlets shall be
connected with industrial plugs and sockets while the balance 50% shall be connected to
terminal blocks in industrial type junction boxes. All three phase plugs shall have clockwise
phase identification.
Proper identification of the sockets nos. and their location shall be provided on the
Maintenance Power Supply panels.
15Amp switched socket outlets shall be provided at every 15 m in the turbine / generator
floor area and the maintenance bays. At all other locations, the number of 15 Amp switched
socket outlets shall be as required. Minimum 2 nos. 15 A switched sockets shall be provided
in every room. Similarly 5A switched socket outlets shall be provided at every 15m in the
entire building.

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 104 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

All power convenient outlets shall be located preferably 500 mm above floor level.
15.8.3

Installation
In addition to the supply of lighting system, the scope of installation work shall include
mounting of lighting panels, lighting fixtures and receptacles at locations as per the
approved drawings. All work associated with installation such as providing and fixing of
wooden blocks, ball sockets, hooks, etc. as required, drilling holes in walls, ceilings or any
civil work including scaffolding, provision of ladders, etc. together with supply of hardware
shall form part of the Contractor's work. All work items necessary for completing earthing
connections for the lighting system shall be included in the scope of work.

15.9

INSPECTION AND TESTING


Lighting panels/ cubicles, maintenance distribution boards/ cubicles, fixtures, sockets/
receptacles, power sockets and other accessories shall be subjected to routine and
acceptance tests as per the applicable standards.

15.9.1

Type test reports


Lighting fixtures - Type test reports of the following tests shall be submitted for each type of
fixtures with adequate details / drawings to establish equivalence with the offered type:
a.

Test for mechanical strength

b.

Heating test

c.

Endurance test

d.

Protection against electric shock

e.

Thermal shock proof test for glass (as applicable)

f.

Wind loading test on street light luminaries

g.

Power factor measurement test

Lamps - Type test reports of the following tests shall be submitted for each type and rating
of lamp with adequate details/drawings to establish equivalence with the offered type:
a.

Rating test

b.

Life test

Other items - Type test reports shall be submitted for the following items as per relevant
standards:

15.9.2

a.

Degree of protection of lighting panel of each type

b.

Degree of protection of junction boxes and receptacle boxes of each type

c.

Low loss copper ballast

d.

Lighting transformer

Site acceptance Tests


These tests shall verify conformity of the entire supplys installation and of its satisfactory
working condition after assembly.

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 105 of 106

Owner Alaknanda Hydro Power Co. Ltd.


Owners Engineer - TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd.

330 MW Shrinagar Hydro Electric Project


in Uttaranchal State

a. Prior to energising
Inspections and tests shall be as follows:
i.

verification of electrical continuity between exposed conductive parts and the general
earth circuit,

ii.

blank operational tests, in co-ordination with other Contractors,

iii.

testing of main and auxiliary circuit insulation.

b. After energising
The inspections and tests shall be performed under the actual operating conditions for the
supply verification of nominal illumination level. All these tests shall be recorded in the site
test report.
15.9.3

Acceptance Criteria
The illumination levels shall be checked after minimum 100 burning hours of the lamps. The
installation will be accepted if the illumination levels are higher than or equal to the design
values.

TCE.4816A-OT-151-DC-01/R0

Basic Engineering and Design Criteria

Sheet No. 106 of 106