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Advanced Program

Hanoi University of Mining and Geology, HUMG


ECH 155B
Chemical Engineering Laboratory
Experiment 2: Study of the heat transfer in countercurrent and parallel flow condition
1. Goals of the Experiment
- To compare heat transfer in countercurrent and parallel flow condition.
- To represent the temperature distribution along the exchanger in both configurations.
2. Theoretical Background
Heat is energy in transit due to differences in temperature. Wherever there may be a
temperature difference in one or between several mediums there will be heat transfer. There are
distinct modes, or processes, of heat transfer: conduction, convection and radiation.
Conduction: Heat transfer mode through solids and through stationary fluids. Conduction's physical
mechanism is the diffusion of energy originating from interactions among the molecules within a
medium. The equation the quantifies Conduction Heat Transfer Processes is known as Fourier'S law.
In unidimensional and stationary cases, heat transfer rate through a wall will be given by the following
expression:

(1)
Where q is heat transfer rate (w)
K is thermal conductivity of the wall (w/m.K)
A is perpendicular area to the direction of heat flow (m2)
x is wall thickness (m)
T2 is temperature on the cold surface of the wall (K)
T1 is temperature on the hot surface of the wall (K)
In heat transfer we may consider thermal resistance to be:
(2)
where (T1-T2) is the difference of temperatures and q is the heat transfer rate.
From eq. (1), conduction thermal resistance may be determined:
(3)
Convection: the heat transfer mode between a surface and a fluid in motion which are at
different temperatue. Convection heat transfer may be classified as either forced or natural
convection.
The convection heat transfer rate a surface and a fluid is given by Newton's law of colling,
which is expressed as:
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HEAT TRANSFER LAB

(4)
where q is convection heat transfer rate (w)
h is convection heat transfer coefficient (w/m2.K)
A is heat transfer area (m2)
Ts is surface temperature (K)
T Fluid temperature (K)
Heat transfer in heat exchangers
A heat exchanger is a device developed to allow heat transfer to happen between two fluids at
different temperatures separated by a solid wall. They have multiple applications in chemical
engineering. The most simple is built with two concentric tubes, where fluids may either move
in the same or in opposite direction. In parallet flow, hot and cold fluids may enter and leave at
the same end while flowing in the same direction. In countercurrent flow fluids may enter and
leave at opposite ends, flowing in opposite directions.

Parallet flow
Shell and Tube heat exchanger

Counter current flow


Shell and Tube heat exchanger

The other common configuration is the internal and external tube exchanger constituted by a group of
tubes inside and external tube. These exchangers usually feature baffles to increase heat transfer.
Global heat transfer coefficient
To represent the global phenomenon of heat transfer among fluids in a exchanger, we may refer to the
thermal resistances which appear in each medium.
Heat flow on its way between hot and cold fluid must overcome the resistances created by the hot
fluid limit layer, the separation wall and the cold fluid limit layer.
These three resistances arranged in series constitute the total resistance (Rt), which is the sum of each
individual resistance.

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HEAT TRANSFER LAB

Tube wall
Temperature
distribution

Cold fluid

Hot fluid

1/hhAh

T,h

Ts,h

x/K.A

Ts,c

1/hcAc

T,c

Where Ah is surface area in contact with hot fluid (m2)


Ac is surface area in contact with cold fluid (m2)
T,h is average temperature of the hot fluid (K)
T,c is average temperature of the cold fluid (K)
Ts,h is Temperature of surface in contact with the hot fluid (K)
Ts,c is Temperature of surface in contact with the cold fluid (K)
hh is convection coefficient of hot fluid (w/m2K)
hc is convection coefficient of cold fluid (w/m2K)
K is thermal conductivity of the separation wall (w/m.K)
A is average area of the separation surface (m2 )
x is thickness of the separation wall (m)

Heat transfer rate will be:

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HEAT TRANSFER LAB

(5)

The global heat transfer coefficient U is defined as a factor that, for a given geometric and
hydrodynamic configuration, provides the total amount of heat transferred when multiplying it by the
exchange area and by the total temperature differences.
(6)
Where by comparision with the eq. (5), we obtain:
(7)
For a Shell and Tube exchanger of length L, in which the hot fluid flows through th internal
tube and cold fluid flows through the space between the internal and external tubes. The
exchange surfaces will be Ah = .Dint.L and Ac = .Dext.L, with Dint and Dext being the internal
and external diameters of the exchanger. Due to the fact that the wall has a cylindrical shape,
the conduction resistance will have to be expressed:

(8)
The most influential terms concerning the toatal thermal resistance value are the convection
terms. Due to the fact that diameters are specified, it will be key to determine the convection
heat transfer coefficient (h) in order to predict heat exchange.
3. Experimental Apparatus
The experimental apparatus is Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger EDIBON's TITC that
connected with a computer containing SCADA Control software.
4. Experimental Procedure
1. Check that the valves are opened and that we have countercurrent flow configuration.
2. Check that the heating tank is filled with water above the level switch.
3. Switch on pump and the resistor (equipment supply).
4. Set the tank temperature in 60oC (ST16).
5. Fix the hot water flow in 2 l/min approx (SC1) and adjust cold water flow to reach stationary
operation conditions, keeping constant temperature set for the tank.
6. Write down the temperature anf flow measurements on the experiment sheet.
7. Set the valves appropriately in order to invert cold water flow direction to produce a parallel flow
configuration.
8. Make sure that 60oC temperature are maintained in the tank and cold and hot water flow
temperatures are the same or very similar to those obtained in countercurrent flow.
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9. Once the system is stabilized, write down the temperature measurements and flows values on the
experiment sheet.
10. Calculate the heat transferred by the hot fluid, the heat gainted by the cold fluid and heat losses.
Calculate the logarithmic temperature mean difference and represent the temperature distribution.
5. Results and tables
Table for the measures taken during the practices

ST 16 ( C)

Test 1

Test 2

Countercurent flow

Parallel flow

60

60

ST1 ( C)
ST 2 (oC)
ST 3 (oC)
ST 4 (oC)
ST 5 (oC)
ST 6 (oC)
ST 7 (oC)
SC 1 (l/min)
SC 2 (l/min)
Data analysis
Considering the measurement above, you may calculate the following thermodynamic variables:
- Heat transfer by the hot water (qh)
- Heat absorbed by tha cold water (qc)
- Heat losses (ql)
- Logarithmic average temperature difference between hot and cold (Tlm).
Conclusions and comments
Compare the heat transfer rate and the logarithmic temperature mean diferrence in parallel and
countercurrent flow configuration, indicating which configuration optimizes the heat transfer.
Comment on temperature distribution in both cases.
Additional graphs
Represent the temperature distribution for parallel and counter- current flows. In order to do so,
represent hot and cold water temperature values in oC on the vertical axis and possition along the
exchanger in meters on the horizontal (x) axis. You may consider the exchange length and that there
are four point to measure the temperature.
Cold water:

ST3 in x= 0
ST4 in x = 0.125m
ST5 in x = 0.25m

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ST6 in x = 0.375m
ST7 in x = 0.5m
Hot water:

ST1 in x = 0
ST2 in x = 0.5m.

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