PROBABILITY & STATISTIC
PROBABILITY
Objectives of Sampling.
It is a concept ofmathematics which measures the degree
ofcertainty or uncertainty ofthe occurrence ofevents.
. If any event can happen in rn ways and.fails in n
ways and each of the (m + n) ways are equallylikely
to occur, then probability ofthe happening ofthe
Sampling aims at gathering the maximum information
events is defrned as the
tallrng as
o
.
,utio,
m+n
and that of its
n
.
about the population with the minimum effort, cost
and time. The object of sampling studies is to obtain
the best possible value of the parameters under specific
conditions. Sampling determinesthe reliability of these
estimates. The iogic of the samplingtheory is the logic
of induction in which we pass from a particular
(sample) to general (population). Such a generalization
from sample to population is called statisti.cal inference.
m+n
Ifprobability
 ofthe happening is denoted byp and
not happening by q, then p + q = l.
Sampling Distribution.
Consider all possible sample of size n which can be
drawn from a given population at random. For each
If event is certain to happen, its probability is unity.
Ifhappening is impossible, then its probability is zero.
sample, we can compute the mean. The mean of the
samples will not be identical. If we group these
different means according of their frequencies, the
frequency distribution so formed is known as sampling
distribution of the uleqn. Similarly we can have
sampling distribution ofthe standard divination etc.
When drawing each sample, we put back the previous
sample so that the parent population remains the same.
SAMPLING
A small section selected from the population is called
a sample and the process of drawing a sample is called
samplirug.
Random sampling.
It is essent
e must be a random
This is called sampling with reploremenf and all subsequent
formulae will perbain to sampling with replacements.
the fundamental assumption underlying theory of
STANDARD ERROR.
The standard error is used to assess the difference
between the expected and observed values. The
selection so
ofthe population has
the same chance of beingincludes in the sample. Thus
sampling is random sampling
Simple sampling.
A special case of random sampling in which each event
has the same probability p of success and the chance
ofsuccess ofdifferent events are independent whether
previous trials have been made or not, is called simple
sampling.
Parameters.
The statistical constants of the population such as mean
( p), standard deviati
on (o) etc. are called th e p arameters.
Statistics.
Constants for the sample drawn from the given
population i.e. mean (x ), standard deviation (S) etc.
are called statistic. The population parameters are in
general, not known and their estimates given by the
corresponding sample statistic are used. We use the
Greek letters to denoted the population parameters
and Roman letters for sample statistic.
standard deviation ofthe sarnpling distribution is callecl
standard error (S.E.). Thus the standard error of the
sampling distribution ofmeans is called standard error
of means. The reciprocai of the standard error is called
precision..
If n > 30, a sample is called large otherwise small.
The sampling distribution of large samples is assumed
to be normal.
POPUI,ATION.
Collection of all possible samples is population. It is
impractical to collect data on each sample of a
population. Statistics helps to determine the best
estimate of the population parameter from randomly
selected samples. Because random erros are involved
in determination of parameters, the estimate will
represent a parameter with a given probability only.
3.2
PROBABILITY & STATISTICS
}IEASIJRES OF CEI{TRAL TENDENCY
These'are the Mean (Arithmetic Mean A.M or the
average), Median (positional average), Mode (value of
the variable which occurs most, frequently) Geometric
\Iean (G.M. used extensively in frnding the rate of
population growth) and the Harmonic Mean (H. M.)
Let rr, xr, .............. r., be the observed values and let
J be the frequency of x, (t,) value of r repeated f
<nn
*"1N Y4",,whereN=In
?=t'
r.=r
Median.
Median divides the collection of data into two equal
parts. Hence this is a positional average.
Mode.
Mode is the value which occurs most frequently.
,times).
i.e.. if the data is 3, 1, 3, 3, 2, I, 3, 2,2, then
x, = 1, xz= 2 and xs = 3,and /, = fz= 3 andf,, = 4.
Mode =o+
Arithmetic mean(.).
1 (tr' +x2 + .... + r^, 1+
=
,_= ;
where (a  b) = modal class
4 = rnaximum frequency
i\tt
and for frequcncy distribution
i=
*{11x1
c(fi ft)
2fifitfr*r
C = constant difference for each class.
f2x2+....+fnxr)
Example. Find median of the following data.
Cost
Items in a group:
r020
2030
3040
4050
5060
Solution.
Cost
Numberof iterhs in the
group
Cumulative frequency
1020
2030
L2
18
30 40
4050
5060
L2
Here. lN=21.
Hencc
N
^
= 10.5. The median class is B0  40.
.t0
Frcm fonn ula. Median=go+i(10.59)=30+1.25
= 51.25
I2
Example. Find mode for the following distribution:
Class interval
Solution.
Maximum frequency = 2g
.'.
Modal class = 40 _ b0
Mode=
Er"
o*9!ttr)=40+
2fi
 [it  fi t
10(28
 12)
(2 x 28) 1220
= 4O + 6.666
46.G7
he following frequency table
Nlonthly Expenditure
010
t0 20
(in hundreds of rurreesr
Number of families
,
I4
If mode for the distribution is 24, calculate the missing
20
30
27
f."q""*t""
3040
4050
15
PROBABILITY & STATISTICS
Solution.
Let missing frequencies for the classes 10
20 and 30
40 be
f, and I respectively.
Expenditure
Number of families
Cumulative frequency
010
L4
l4
1020
2030
3040
4050
t4
4I
Il
27
4l+f,+f,
56+t+f,
f,
15
N = 100 =86+fr+fz
fr+f" = 1gg5$=44
Mode is given tobe24, which lies in the class 20
Mode = o+
24 =20
C(fi
 30. So 20  fi:,)
30 is the modal class.
2fifi;fi*t
10(27
ft)
(2x27)ftfz
270 r0f1
54trli =
a'ri _()A
(')
2t0 r0f1
('.'fr+fr= 44)
5444
fr=23
"'
in (r) , we get
Substituting
fz
21.

Relation between Mean, Mode and Median.
For a symmetrical distribution
Mean =Median=Mode
Harmonicmean.
It is the reciprocal of mean
H=
and for a moderately asymmetrical distribution
Mode=3Median02Mean.
MeanMode = 3 (MeanMedain)
lIr n
I
and for a
of reciprocals, i.e.
'F(tlr,)
[";i
frequency distribution,
.I

)
n
Geometric mean (G).
G = n.,l x1x2......xn = (xrxr...........*n)''"
and for a frequency distribution,
G
= (rf r*....... "# )t'*
where N =
ir,
i=1
Skewness.
Skewness is defined as lack of symmetry.
1n
a)log(r;)
n
Coeffrcient of skewness =
and for a frequency distribution,
logG=
= tfi
,*r))
For both cases, taking log,
IogG=
where N
MeanMode
Standard deviation
1+"
*ltloe(ri)
If n' and n2ate
sizes and G, and Grare geometric
means of two series, then geometric mean of the
combined series is given by
logG= ntlogGt+nzlogGz
n1+n2
Geometric mean is used to find the rate of
population growth and the rate ofinterest and it is
also used in the construction of index numbers.
Negatively skewed
Positively skewed
5.4
PROBABILITY & STATISTICS
MEASURES OF DISPERSION.
The set of constant which would in a concise way explain
the "variability" or "spread" in a data is known as
"measures of dispersion or variability".
The average for two groups of the same number of
measurements may be equal, but one group may be
more variable than the other.
e.g. set of frve values 5, 6,7,8, t has the mean as 7;
while another set of frvevalues 1,6,4, 10, 14 alsohas
the same mean 7. The second set has, obviously more
variability than the frrst.
UsuaIIy four rneasures of dispersion are defined:
1. Range.
This is the difference between two extreme
observations in the data given.
In a frequency distribution ,
fi, = (largest
value)
(smailest
r value).
Obviously, this is not a very satisfactory measure
except in cases where the number of observations
are small and a quick calculation for the scatter is
needed. It is used in statistical quality control studies
rather widely.
2.
O=
/1 .,^
\i't*'
Q,=/+
rC;
I
where we locate Q,  class and Q"  class properly
I = lower limit of the quartile class
C = cofirrnon factor
Quartile deuiation is defined as
Q.D.=
re,_Q,l
3. Average deviatiorJ(l).
Ifaverage chosen is A (say), then average deviation
about A is A.D.
'tA. D. (A) = : > .l(x;  A)  for discrete data
il
1;/_/.,ftlxi  A I for a frequency
n
disiribution.
Usually, we take either median or the mean as the
aYerage.
4. Standard deviation (Root mean square
deviation).
Standard deviation.
for frequency distribution.
Square ofthe standard deviation , o2 is defrned as
the variance (V).
v = oz =
fr>f,tr,
t)'
Out of these measures, the last , o is widely used
as a companion to r on which is based, when
dealing with dispersion or scatter.
Calculation of V or o.
fy
rsz _\ztiul
t\ rs2Pl
Ltivl
t
v _ 
lrg2
LN
Some important resrrlts.
. Average d,eviation is least when taken from the
median.
. Standarsd deviation is not less than the average
deviation from the mean.
. For raw data xr, x2, ......x,,,
!2
v=tl
or V=
/l.\2
l4*l
\N/
5"2
4  @)'
.n
If n r,t?2are sizes oftwo fJroups, x17 x2 theirmeans
or, 6, their standard deviations, then standard
deviation of the combined group is determined fron
(n, + nr) o2=
where,
,r
dr= i 11
G?  a?) + ,,, ("1+
and
al)
dr= xx2,
r being the combined mean.. This
extended to more than two groups.
result
can be
Coefficients to Dispersion.
When two series of measurements have to be
compared, then averages nray be different and the
units which the measurements are recorded may
also be different. Hence, coefficients of dispersion
are provided as
. Ranse
n;,lj
A+
wltere
A is largest qnd B is smallest of
the ualues.
n.
for discrete data
I f, (" i  i)'
./li1\
Quartile deviation.
Median bisects the distribution. If we divide the
distribution, into four parts, we get what are called
quartiles, Q' Q, = median and Q.. The frrst quartile
Q,, would have 25 percent of the values below it
and the rest above it;the third quartile would have
75 percent ofvalues below it and the rest above it.
The method of calculation of quartiles is similar to
that of the median with slight variations.
N!:
lQt
In 
.9
xl
'
.
.
QsQr
Qs *Qr
Average deviation aboutA
A
Eaclt of these is free from units of measurement
and is a pure number.
Coefficient of variation (C.V) = 9 , 100
Thus coeffrcient of variation is r Our""rrf"*".
5.5
PROBABILITY & STATISTICS
ELENIENTS OF PROBABILITY
Sinite sannp\e space.
Experiment.
A sample space
An experiment is a process in which a certain work is
repeated under the same conditions. the outcomes (or
results) of which need not be the same.
e.g. tossing a coin or rolling a die are experiments
Sample space.
ia said to be a f,rnite sample space,
if
is a frnite set.
Finite probability space.
Let S = (apar......., o,) be afrnite sample space. S is
.
said to be a finite piobability space or probabiiity
model, if each sample point
a, in S we can assign
number p,, called probability of a such that
(t) p,2 , for each i
The set S of all possible outcomes of a given experiment
is called sample spoce for the experiment. An outcome
an element of S, is called a sample point.
e.g. for experiment of tossing a fair (or unbiased) coin
real
(ii) pr+ Pz+........ + p,,= 
sample space S = (H, T)
where H, T refer to head. tail respectively.
If A is an event, then probability of A, denoted by P(A)
is sum of the probabilities of the sample points in A.
For the elementary event [o,] we write P(o.) instead of
Event.
P(o).
A subser of the sample space S is ca\led an euellt. The
\qu\1ro\r\\eslace.
A finite probability space S in which
each sample point
has the same probability is called an
equfprobable
spctce.
IfE
A, B. We can form new events using
ons of union, intersectio., urrJ
is an event, then
P(E)
(l) A u B is the event that occurs if
and only if A
occurs or B occurs (or both).
(ii) Aa B is the event that
occurs if and only if both
(iii) 6c or
4^,the co.mqlement of A, is the event that
occurs ifand only ifA does notoccur.
Mutually exclusive events.
Thro events A and B are said to
be
if and only if they cannot occur
ifAnB=0.
mutually exclusive
simultaneously, i.e.
Three or more events are called mutually
exclusiue,
every two of'them are mutuall5, exclusive.
if
= total number of subsets of S
= lp(S) 
wherep(S) is power set of S 2,,.
=
Example. In_ an experiment, a fair coin
is tossed 4
timcs. Describe the sample
Solution.
The sample space S consists of 16 (=
2a) sample points.
S = IHHHH, HHHT,HHTH, HTHH,
THHH, HHTT,
HTHT,
THHT, HTTT,
THTH,
THTT, TTHT TTTH,
TTTTI
HTTH, TTHH,
We use the word.,,at random,, only
when dealing
with a equiprobable space. By the sLtement, ,,a
baII
is drawn at random from a bag condisining
10 balls,,
we mean that each ball in the bag
has the same
probability of being chosen.
If p = probability of happening of an event
E = p(E)
and q = probability of not happening
of E = e (E)
Example. Find total number of possible
events that
can occur for an experiment.
Solution.
Let sample space S consist of n sample
points. Then
total number of possible events
lsl
number of outcomesw favourable to
E
botal number of possible o"t.or*.
and B occurs.
_ lEl
then s=P(E) =
#=11#=rl# =t_p
= p+e=I
Conditional probability.
.
.
P(AB) = P(A) . P(B/A)
n P(AB) = P(B). p(A/B)
P(A/B)
P(A/B)
P(AB)
P(B)
P(A)'{B/A),
P(B)
this is Baye,s retation
where, P(B/A) is probability to happening
B, when
A has already happened.
PROBABILITY & STATISTICS
5.6
Let E be an event in a sample space S with P(E) > 0.
Let an event A occurs after the occurence ofE. Then
co,n.ditional probability of a given E,
Mutual independence.
Let (E, : A is a positive integer) be a collection ofevents.
These events are said to be mutually independent if
for each frnite nonempty subset {E' E2, .......E,}
P (E, n E, n....n E,,) = P (Er). P(Er) ....P (E,)
Pairwise independence.
S
Let {E* :ft is a positive integer) be a collection of events.
These events are said to be pairwise independent if
Fig. Conditional Event
P (A/E)
nE)
,(E
P(A
P(wE)=
!+f,,
p (E) = j_i
"'3,:3'
PIEI ='o':P'
IEI
number of elements inAnE
number of elements in E
Note : P (A/E). P (E) = P (An E) is calledMrzltiplication
Theorem for conditional probability.
Example. Suppose a pafu of fair dice is rolled. If sum is
6, then what is the probabiJity
that
n E)
= P (E,). P (E) for
if P (E) > 0.
Possible independent events are not mutually
An event E is said to be a possible event,
exclusive.
Possible mutuallv exclusive events are not
independent.
Example. Let p be the probability that a man agedy
years will meeet with an accident in a year. What is
the probability that a man among n men all aged y
years u.ill meet with an accident frrst ?
Solution.
Probabilitythat aman agedy years willnotmeet with
an accident
=lp
P (none meets
one die shows a 2 ?
with an accident)
Solution.
(tp)(tp)
. ..(1 pl
n times
Sample space S consists of 6 x 6 = 36 sample points
(1, 1), (1, 2), .... (6,5). (6, 6)).
E = sum is 6 = {(1, 5), (2, 4), (3, 3), (4, 2), (5, 1)}
= I(2, l), (2,2), (2,3), (2, 4), (2, 5), (2,6), (I,2),
(3, 2), (4, 2), (5, 2), (6, 2))
Also, An E = {(2, 4),(4,2)l
11
2
5
Thus, P(E)= ;,P(A)=
;,P(AnE)= ;
P(A n E)
Requiredprobability=
 P (AlE) = + P(E) /
2
= 36ob
36
DEPENDEIVT E\MNTS.
Events A and B in the space S are said to be
independent if occurence of one of them does not
influence the occurence ofthe other
i.e. B is dependent of A if P(B/A) = P(B).
Now P (A n B) = P(A). P(B) (B lA) = p141 p13;
Thus events A and B are independent
(1p)''
P (atleast one man meets with an accident)
A= 2 appears on atleast one die
ifP(AnB)=P(A).P(B)
alli + j.
Possible event.
P(A/E) represents the probability of A with respect to
the reduced sample space E.
Wheg S is an equipobable space,
p(An.E)=
P (E,
So,
= 1 (1 p),,
P (atleast one man meets with an accident
a person is chosen)
1
=;"t1(1P)"1
Example. A box contains 4 white, 3 blue and 5 green
balls. Four balls are chosen. What is the probability
that aII three colours are represented ?
Solution.
Total number of balls in the box is 12.
Hence total number of wavs in which 4 balls can be
chosen
v4 12rl
l2xllx
4
x3
10 x 9
x2xl
= 495
PROBABILITY & STATISTICS
5;7
Each colour will be represented in the following
mutually exclusive ways
Blue
White
Green
:
(t)2r1
(iilL21
uii\112
.'.
=90+60+120=270
Required probability
270
=
;i=L nto / B; )P(B;
 tt n such that P(A) > 0, we have
1
P(E,/A)
(ii),
Independent repeated trials of an experiment with two
outcomes only are called Bernouilli trials, call One of
the outcomes is called success and the other outcome
is called failure.
p = probability of success in a Bernouilli trial
q = probability of failure = 1 p.
A binomial experiment consisting of a frxed number n
oftrials is denoted hy B (n, p).
Probability of r success in the experiment B (rz, p) is
p (r) = ,,C, p, q",
Thc function P(r) for r = 0 ,I,2........., n for B (n, p) is
binomial distribution.
Example. If four coins are tossed , find the
called
=fr,i=1,2,.,n
p = probability ofa head
q = probability of a tait =
i p
E, and E" be the events of choosing urns A, B
and C respectively.
I
E
... Q)
Let X be the event of choosing two balls, white and
red. To frnd P(EolX).
By Baye's theorem,
four coins are tossed
nCrp'
=P (2 ) =
=6x
qnt
[l')' " (r)' q
\2) [z/
RANDONVARIABLE.
Many variables of interest in a system are not
expressible on explicit function of time, all such variable
on explicit function of time, all such variable are
classifred as random variable. These are implying
uncertaintv about their exact nature.
Random Variable
(E/x)
=+
2
.'. Probability of getting 2 heads (and 2 tails) when
Solution.
P(Er) P(Er) = P(E.)
charrce
that there should be two heads and two tails.
i=r
Then
T+ 2 = #
55ii
Solution.
P(A/E,)P(E,)
Example. Three urns A, B and C have 1 white , 2
black, 3 red balls, 2 white I black, 1 red balls and 4
white, 5 black, 3 red balls respectively. One urn is
chosen at random and two balls are drawn. They
happen to be white and red balls. What is the probability
that they came from urn B ?
E'
P(E/X) =
BERNOUILLI TRIALS.
F pra / E, )p(E, )
/,/
Let
,.
=;
given by
Bay's theorm.
Let E,, Er, ...... E" be mutualJy exclusive events such
that P(E,) > 0 for each i.
Then for any event A
4r x3o
ju
Let
LAW OF TOTAL PROBABILITY.
Let B, Br, ....... B^ be mutually exclusive and let an
event A occur only ifanyone ofB. occurs. Then
P(A) =
P(x/E3) =
From
Number of ways of drawing four balls in the above
fashion
 nC"" 3C, x 5C, + aC, x;lC, x 5C, + aC. x 3C, x 5C,
.'.
and
P(XE2)P(E2)
P(X / El)P(Er) + P(X I E2)P (E2) + P(X /EB)P(Es)
P(X/E2)
P(X /E1) + P(X /Ez)
+ P(X
Continuons
{from (l)}
/Es)
lC, 3C' I
"
P(X{E.)=
'r' #='
6Cz
b'
2n
Discrete
ln
P()vE)"ct^'cr1
qC2
,.
l)iscrctc Probability
Ttrcory
Continu<.rus Plobabi)
Theory
ity
5.8
PROBABILITY & STATISTICS
Let X be a random variable.
. Function F(r) = P (X < .r) is called distributiott
function of X.
. MeanorExpectation of X= U =E (X)
=X(o,)
P (o,)
(X = r) = probability that there are
preceding the frrst success.
,)
+X(o,,) p (o,)
E()0
rp
t'(Qi)'
where S is probability space (a,., a", .....ct,)
Variance of X = Var (X) = 02 = E (Xr)  tE(X)],
= qp (L
t)
qpqpq
(t q)'
.J
;t)
;o
EOG)
21 7
62
i.
q = probability of failure
Var (X) = E()f)
=pp2
offailure preceding the frrst success.
Since an infinite series of independent trials are
X=0 ,1,2
=p
[E(X)]'?
=(t_p)
=pq
frequency.
Absolute
Let a value x, is repeated
times, then
frequency or absolute frequency.
f.
Let N = sum of all frequencies f then
relative frequency, i = 1, 2 .........n.
Sum ofall relative frequencies
fi fz
 N N '""""""'
fn
fi+fz
Let X be the random variable representing the number
conducted,
Product [a! xPt
p
Solution.
Let p = probability of succes
=l_
E(X) =p
11p
Example. What is theexpectation of the number of
failure preceding the frrst success in an infrnite series
of independent trials with constant probability of
success p in each trial ?
.'.
Product
Mean = f, (X) =p.
Now to find Var (X) :
P(o,)
ei t?
E(X) =
Expectation =
.'.
I
;t)
'
I
;o
P (o,)
pp
q0
4,.I
1
P
9Z
Solution.
;o
['.'(lgf'zbyBilromialtherre..
variable X taking the value 1 with probability P ad
the value 0 with probability q. Find f,hs msan :'avariance of X.
;o
Sf'
Example. The Bernouilli probability lau'rnri
parameter p in which 0 < P < l is defrned by a ranC,_=
Product
1
=I+2q+3q3+....
Let X be the random variable showing number of points.
,.
Lxq'
= L qp + 2q'p + Sq3p + ......
= qp (1+ 2q + 3q2 + ......)
Solution.
Then X= 1,2,3,4,5,6
Qi P(X = a,) =P (a,')
r)

r=0
Standard deviation ofX = o
Example. Find expectation of the number of points
when a fair die is rolled.
l
= )xp(X
.r=0
l,=1
failures
= qxqx.......xqxp=q.p
r times
 YvrL'\t
=N
1
fr
fn
5.9
PROBABILITY & STATISTICS
PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION.
P(A) = P(xu)
where,
t2
= Prob"ilility of outcome A.
ne = times occur A
n = total time experiment
1+
+3
p(A + B) = P(A) + P(B)
here, p(AB)
The probability of the number of successes so
obtained is called the binomial distribution for
the simple reason that the probability are the
successive terms in the expansion of thebinominal
(q + p)".
Hence sum of the Probabilities
= q" + "C, pqnt + "Crprgn, +....+ p.
=(q+p)"
=1
Constants of the binomial distribution'
Moment generating function about the origin is
M^(0 = Bis*)
*
= I,,C, p"q,, c,*
=
In
C, (pet)*
q.
(q + Pet)"
Diff'erentiating with respect to t and putting
I = 0. we get the mean given
M,,,ttl = e' nPr iq + Pc')"
= (qerL +
Peqi\n
b;/
+3
=1+npqh*"oo,op)3t
+npq [1 + 3(n
2) Pq]
*
e
+....
Equating coefficients of like power of t on either
side, we have
F' = nPq' Pt'
= npq(qP)
joint ProbabilitY.
 t, nCz ptqn  2,...."C.p'qn ',.'.'..,P^
e^, "C, pen
t4
t2
P(AB)
1. DISCRETE DISTRIBUTION
(i) Binomial Distribution.
It is concerned with trials of a repetitive nature in
which only the occurrence or nonoccurrence'
success or failure, acceptance or erejection, yes or
no ofa particular event is ofinterest'
If we perform a series of independent trials such
that for each trial p is the probability ofsuccess and
q that ofa failure, then the probability ofr successes
in a series of n trials is given by .C.P'Q"', where r
takes any integral value from 0 to n.
The probabilities of 0, 1,2,......t,....,fl successes are
therefore, given bY
*p'i**...
LOV
*.
g,t*1r"D.*frn*Un
n!
This limit may not exist.
o This definition presumes that all outcomes are
equaily likely to occur'
,tJ
+pq(q3
t2
lT, "o
,z
= l+pq,+pqtq'n"o
Suppose that a random experiment is repeated n times.
If an event A occurs n,, times, then its probability p(A)
is defined as
fr+
.f\lSO,
2)pq]
.:r2P)2
nPq
^ 16pq
tt2
rr
v?=(qp)'
P,=..3
O
.'.
= npe [1+ 3(n
p,
nPq
nPq
P;
=.)T
Mean = np
Standard deviation = {(ttpq)
72p
Skweness
r/nPq
Kurtosis = Fz
Obs. Skewess is Positive for P <
and negative for p
/r)
r1)
\t)
[;J
s
I
be sYmmetrical
efrnitelY, 0, + 0
i'e. ProbabilitY
Binomial fo equencY distribution.
If n independent trials constitute one experiment
and this experiment be repeated Ntimes. then
frequency of r successes = Nn C. P'Q"'.
The possible number of successes together with
these expected. frequencies constitute binomial
frequency distribution.
Applications of binomial distribution.
This distribution is applied to problems concerning
(o) Number of defectives in a sample frorn
production line.
(b) Estimation of reliability of sysiem.
(c) Number of rounds frred from a gun hitting a
target.
(d Rader detection.
PROBABILITY & STATISTICS
510
(ii) Poisson Distribution.
It is a distribution related to the probabilities
of
events which are extremely rare, but which have a
p(a<X<b) = lf(*)d,
large number of independent opportunities for
occurrence.
e.g. number of persons born blind per year in a
large city is the phenomena, in which this law is
followed.
This distribution can be derived as limiting case of
the binomial distribution by making n very large and
p very small keeping np frxed (=m, say)
The probability of
successes
distribution
P(r) = nC.P'q"'
 t) (n 
n(n
np(np
2)...(n
in a binomial
r!
p)(np
2p)..(np
r
1p)(t
 p)n'
il,.
" (l m/n)' rl
TnZ gmtt
2\
,....
Sum of thcse probabilities is unity as
:
*t
"*
r\
it
,..,..
= Jft'u'
_d)
lo
l"
if;^ x<a
lxa
,tf a< )c<b
I
.
= loq if )c>b
t1
distributions defined by the variates like heights
or weights are continuous distributions.
e.g.
A major conceptual difference, however, exists
between discrete and continuous probabilities. When
thinking in discreate terms, the probability associated
with an eventis mcaningfuI. With continuous event,
however, where number of events is infrnitely large,
the probability that a specifrc event will occur is
practically zero. For this reason, continuous
probability statements must be worded somewhat,
differently from discrete ones. Instead offinding the
probability that z equals some value, we frnd the
probability ofx falling in a small interval.
Thus probability distribution of a continuous variate
x is defrned by a function 1(x) such that probability
of the variate x falling in the small interval
11
dxlis f(x) dx.
Let X be a continuous random variable. If
probabilitv density functions of X, then
.:
. plX.o)= Jf?)dx
n(x3b
should be.
gives rise to continuous distribution of X.
[x
'2.2
 ^ dxJto [x +
oa
The uniform distrihution geneta\\y arises in the
study of round ott errors wtrete measutements ane
recorded upto a certain level of accuracy.
Curmtl,atiue distribution function of X is giuen by
f (x) = p (X< r).
CONTINUOUS PROBABILITY DISTRIBI.]TION.
When a variate X takes e'i'ery value in an interval,
it
L,
= O, otherwise
em
that probabi\i\ies of 0, \, 2, . ..'.', r,...'.. success in
poisson distributio is gvenbY

br^
tt E(x)"f(x)dxl
J
f ^r.,
f I\x)ax=L
flr)
so
n'. ,,'c.r
variance ofX=y(X)
= j xf(x)dx
its probability density function is given by
r!
 rl
Expectation ofX = E (X) = Mean
(i) Uniform Distribution.
A continuous random variable X is said to follow
uniform distribution or rectangular distribution if
 r + 1) p"qn '
Asn+@,p+0(np=6;,
m' Lr (1 m / n)2 m'
p(r)=

a
I
Mean
o:b,
= 2t2and Varian "u = 9t
Example. The melting point X of a certain
specimen be assumed to be a continuous random
variable which is uniformly distributed over the
interval [110, 120]. Find the density function of X,
mean of X, variance of X and P (lI2
is
< 115.).
Solution.
Here.a=100.b=120
(t ^

110<r<120
Itx)= i120_110,
otherwise
I o,
(rl
110<r<120
=
/(r)
<
110,
otherwise
lo,
a+b 110+120
=
Meanof X=
=115
=2=2

5.11
PROBABILITY & STATISTICS
(iii) Normal Distribution.
9:9
VarianceofX =
A continuous random variable X is said to follorv
normal distribution if its probability density function
L2
(120
110)2
is
12
(tp,
 o,:I
nx1 = __7e ."
T
25
o"l2r
co <ft( o6
@<r( 6,o)0,We write in such a situation X  N (u, o')
1 15
P[L2<r<115
lf{xldx
tiz
The distribution involves hvo parameters
I,
r 4X
lra
rt2
a
10
(ii) Exponential Distribution.
Area =
if its probability
a being some
k)= )ae"*'x>0
[0, otherwise
positive number, called its parameter
electronic components.
Also the interarrival time and service time in
queuing theory have exponential distributions.
ll
 i,a
Variance =
*a"_b^
Example. The sales tax retuYn oYg salesman is
'l
exponentially distributed^Mith paramdter i . What
.4
is the probability that his sale will exceed Rs, 10,000
assuming that sales tax is charged at the ratepf 57o
on the sales ?
It :=,
Here,
Nor!l
(e)
@
y = l\x) bounded by the axis of r is 1.
Some important points.
. The curve y = f(x), called normal curve is a
bellshaped curue.It is symmetrical about r = rti
the two tails on the left and right sides of the
mean extend to infrnity'.
=IP(x<500)=1\0 JfG)dx
lt
6,
Then z is called a stanclard norrnal
1 c;o
,(,/i 1z1ar
^l2r
Mean of the standard normal distnbution
Variance is 1. We \mtEZ N (0. 1).
is 0 and
Area under the standard normal curve.
(o) Between z =  1 and z = L is 0.6827
(since total area under standard normal
curvg is 1)
i.e.' p (l <z <I) =0.6827
z =  2 and z = 2 is 0.9545
i.e., p (2 <z <2) = 0.9545
(c) Betwee\ z =  3 and z = 3 is 0.9973
i.e., p(3 <z<3) =0.9973
(b) Betweerr
= 1+ ierl4)500
125
r
z,
.
500
=e
PuL z=
uariate and its probability density function is given
otherwise
P(x>500)
x/4
i.e. total area under the curve
FQ)=
= Rs. 500
11
l"
4un
Jffrla*=7,
r>o
500
r.
bY
= 10000 * 100
> 0 for all
Sales tax for the sale of Rs. 10,000
Now,
curve
coincide.
(d) fk)
lU) =)*
lu ,
O.S
(c) For this distribution, mean, median and mode
Solution.
)e
density
This distribution arises in the study of lifelength of
Mean
0.5 !Y 4.."
\ /TV
A continuous random variable X is said to have the
and o.
Properties.
(o) The distribution is symmetrical.
(b) Mean  p, Variance = o2.
J10
exponential distribution
function is given by
pt
5.12
PROBABILITY & STATISTICS
In other words,
CEI',{TRAL UNIT THEOREM.
p(po<x<V+o)={.6827
p0r2c <r < p +2o)= 0.9545
p(r3c<r<V+3o)=0.9973
The normal (or Gaussian) distribution has played a
significant role in the study of random phenomena in
nature. Many naturally occurring random phenomena
are approximately normal . Centrallimit theore states
that sum of a la,rge number of independent random
uarinbles, undcr certainconditions can be approximated
by a normal distribution.
p(p
1.96 o
<x <p + 1.96o) = 0.95
pqtlZ.Sgo <x <
o) = 0.99
rr + 2.58
Since distribution is symmetric, we consider
only positive values of z.
1
lxt = offi
__2
Then
0Q) =
under the
"T
0
nor mal
'z=0antdz=2.
dz glves the area
curve between
For different values ofz, Q(z) can be calculated.
These values of 0(z) have been tabulated.
=" ;
.o.r"roonding
L
a^l2r"*o 
(xu)2
r;r(*)l
2o"
GAUSSIAN PROCESS.
fly) =
' where,
to a value of z from this table.
Many distributions tend to
If mean = 0, i.e. p = 0,
then (x) =
There is another table c,glled table of
ord,inates.Weread pQ)
exP
lu"oLo!rf
 2or"
"l(2xor')
!tr= mean
o 2= variance
normal distribution
in the limit.
it can be made
normal using some suitable transformation.
When a variable is not normal,
When the sample size is large, distributions of
the sample mean, sample variance etc. approach
normality. Thus the distribution forms a basis
for tests of significance.
Normal distribution is also known asdistribution
of errors.
NORMALTZED GAUSSIAN RANDOM VARIABLE.
It mean of the standard normal distribution is 0 and
variance is 1, we write Z  N (0, 1).
The distribution function of Xare plotted respectively.
Mean and variance of X are
p =ElXl=[
o*t =E[(XF*)2J=o2
We use the notation N(p ;o2) to denote that X is normal
(or Gaussian) with mean m and variance o2.
In particular, X = N (0 ; 1), i.e. X with zero mean and
unit variance is defrned as a normalized Gaussian
re,ndom uariable.
Gausslaut Pulse
Properties of Gaussian process.
(t) If a Gaussian process x(t) is applied to a stable
(ii)
linear filter, then random process V(t) developed.
The output of the frlter is also Gaussian.
Consider the set of random variables or samples
x(t,), x(tr), x(t,)  obtained by observing a random
process x(t) at time t' t", .
Second moment or Mean square value.
Consider random variable X which assume the possible
value x,, x2, xB  x,,. fn a sequence of n experiment,
let event xr occur n, time, x2 occur n, times etc.
Arithmetic average or mean of xu is
.!a _[lXt +I]2x2 ++xm nm
1m
=at
n,H.
K=l
xt Dt
& STATISTICS
'ROBABILITY
If n + co, then
t7
lL
>
4",
p(x,)
= Pr"t
\=L
k=1
','
tX,'=I(r, i),
zxz2
Ixi2+n(x)22;Ix,
+
=In2+q{,'*t.I'
CORREI"ATION.
In a divariate distribution, ifthe classes in one variable
are associated by clases in the other, then variables
are called correlated.If ratio of two variable deviations
is constant, then correlation is called,perfect.
Coeffr cient of correlation.
Numerical measure of correlation is called coeffrcient
ofcorrelation and is defined as
f =
2n2
If X, Y be the deviation of x, y from their mean, then
Ptxr'
avg
l+2+3+...+n n(n+1)_n+1
Y=V=
Pzxz*  P X
nt"r'*
andIJ=
5.13
n(n+1)(2n+1)
=
Similarly
t,r,r,)
t,"
tY''
xiY'
(", i)(y,X,Y,
d,
d,
[ ,
...i':o;
I
where, X = deviation from mean,
l,.zou=Ll
, xu,l
n
n)
I4'
Id,,
14Y'
=y
y)
2IXrY,
= ,(2X,2 * IY,,  Idi2)
=)C_,C
Y = deviation from mean, y
1)2
Now let
'XY
n6rcoy
n(n +
11
ftn3n)
r>a,,
Hence correlation coefficient between these variablesis
o, = standard deviation ofr series
oy = standard ofy series
n = number of values of the two variables
Method of calculation
Direct ntethod.' Substituting the value of o, and o, in
the above formula, we get
'
J>r':v''"'
vL
r. 
=1_+{
n n
J)
Rank correlation.
A group of n individuals may be arranged in order of
merit respect to some characteristic. The same group
would give different order for different characteristics.
Consider order corresponding to two characteristic A
and B. The correlation between these n pairs of ranks
iscalled rank corcelation in the charq,cteristics A and,
B for that group of individuals.
Let x,, y, be the ranks of the i,/,individuals in A and B
respectively. Assuming that no two individuals are
bracketed equal in either case, each ofthe variables
taking the values L,2,3,....., n, we have
This is called ranh correlation cofficierul and is denoted
bv p.
Line of regression.
If dots of scatter diagram generally, tend to cluster
along a well defrned direction which suggests a linear
relationship between variabies x and y, such a line of
best  frt for the given distribution of dots is called the
line of regression.
In fact there are two such lines, one giving the best
possible mean values of y for each specifred value of x
and the other giving the best possible mean values for
x for given values of y. The former is called the line
for
regression ofy on r and the later is called the line of
regression of x on y.
5.1 4
PROBABILITY & STAT]STICS
First consider the line of regression of y on x. Let
ov
straight line satisfying the general trend ofn dots in a
scatter diagram be
J=u+bx
...(r)
' o*
principle of least squares. Thus normal equations for
a and b are
Iy = ,ra + blx
IxY=alx+blx2
...fti)
which is equation ofthe line ofregression ofy on x. Its
slope is called regressiort coefficient ofy on x
Interchanging x and y, we find that the line of
regression ofx on y is
This shows that ( x , y ), i.e. means of x and y lie on (l)
Shifting the origin to ( x , y ), equation (fii) takes the
form
'XY
tx'
IXY
tro*2
Thus
regression coefficient
and
=f"x
regression coefficient ofx on y
6
ofy on x
6y
bx
(xx) = ro.. (vy)
o"
1_
IY=a+b':Jx
nn
I(x i ) (V V ) = al(xx) + bl(xBut I(xx)=0
.l.(xx,(yy,
b X(x x)'
no*o,
(yyl= r3(*i)
Equation (ii) gives
y = a+
>xv't
Thus the line of best frt becomes
We have to determine the constants a and b so that
equation (l) gives for each valuc ofx, the best estimate
for the average value of y in accordance with the
[1...I'=
_r_
x ),
=rj 6v
con Correlation coeffrcient is the geometric mean
between the two regression cofficients
ov
or o,
oy:Lyy!=
y2
Regression coefEcient.
It is defrned as the hope oflines ofregression,
i,.e. regression coeffrcient of line x on y
oo^,
5:15
PROBABILITY & STATISTICS
OBJECTTVE QUESTIONS
1. A card is taken out of a pack of 52 cards numbered
2 to 53. The probability that the numbers on the
card is a prime number less than 20 is
12
to) ,,
3
tc) ,,
8. If A and B are any two events then which one of
the following pairs of events are mutually
exclusive ?
(o) AuBand
AnB
(c) AuBand At''g
{6) t',
.4
(d)
9. There are three events A, B, C one of which must'
and only one can haPPen, the odds are
19
number between 1 and
100. Which is divisible by one and itself only is
2. The probability of getting
(n\
(rl
27
185
25
98
If A
q,
3' "r", 4'
(c) 34 to 13
P(A
r([r
(o) 43 to 34
10.
and B are two elements such that
i6
(b)
n B) = 1,
then
(d)
18
P(A)+ P(E)
0.6
k) 1.2
(a)
6.
(a)
kll'
{d)
2l
tt
2l
12.
1
13.
129
440
(d) none ofthese
A has one share in a lottery in rvhich there is
three shares in a lottery
inwhich there are 3 prizes and 6 blanks;compare
the probability of lt's success to that of B's success
is
1
P(A
/, \
(o,
429
@ffi
If A and B are two arbitrary events, then
r"t P(M)+ P(N) 2P(M n N)
tal P(M. x) * e(M n N)
140
139
n C) + P(A n B)  P(An B n C)
(ot P(M)+P(N)2P(MnN)
(b) P(M) + P(N)  P(M n N)
tb)
them are placed in another urn' The chance that
the latter then contains 2 red and 6 black balls is
@) r.4
7. I1M and N are two events. then probability that
exactly one ofthem occurs is not equal to
from
black
11. An urn contains 5 red and 10 black balls' Eight of
(b) 0.8
(b) gre.rter than P(A) + P(B)
(c) equal to P(A) + P(B)  P(A u ts)
(d) equal to P(A) + P(B) + P(A u B)
11
12
rc)d
n B) cannot be
(o) Iess than P(A) + P(B)
face
Th
11
(b) P(A) + P(B) + P(C)  P(B) P(C)
(c) P(An B) + P(An C) P(An B n C)
P(B
any other
second bag.
ball is
5. If A, B, C are threc evcnts, then PIA n (B v C)] =
(o) P(A) + P(B) + P(C)  P(A n B)  P(A n C)
(;)
(b) 32to23
(d) none of these
3 black and 4 white balls while other contains 4
black and 4 white balls. A dies is cast, if the face 1
and if
or 3 turns uP, a
If A and B are two events such that
P (A u B) = 0.65, P(A n B) = 0'15, then
against B' The odds against
There are two bags one of which contains
(ct It7
5 to 2
C are
23
(d) none of these
p(A) = ?.
P(AuB)=
against A,
8 to 3
{b)
AuBand AnB
(d) AuBandAnB
(b)
prize and
2 blanks; B has
@) 7 :16
(b) 16:7
(c) 6:14
G) 14:6
IfA
and B are independent, then A and
are
also
independent (b)
(c) both (o) and (b) (d)
(o)
dePendent
none of these
14. The chance that a leap year sel'ected at random
will contain 53 SundaYs is
2
(b)
{d) ,
@)t
@7
;I
nI
5.1 6
PROBABILITY & STATISTICS
21. The probability of dr wing an ace or a spade or
both from a deck ofcards is
,^'34
,o)
18
(b)
,^t 4
tS
,t\
tcl)
'") 17
22.P(AruAzuAs)
(A,) P (A"/A,) p (A,/A, n A").
(o) Tlue
(6) False
(c) Both (o) and (6) (d) None of these
1
I
I
P
23. IfP(A/C)> p(B/C)andp(A/C, ) >p(B/Cr
(o) P(A)>P(B)
(6) p gr )< P (B)
(c) P(A)<P(B)
(d) P(A)>P(B)
24,
),
rlrcn
If Aand B are independent
and p (C) = 0, then A,
B and C are independent.
(o) Tlue
(6) False
(c) Both (a) and (b) (d) None of flrese
25. Aman altcrnately tosses acoin and throws a clice.
beginningwith thc coin. Then the probability that
will get a head before
he
= P (E,) + P (Ez) + ..... + P (E,.).
This is
(a) Law of total probability
(6) Law o1'probability
(c) Both.4effi (6)
(r{) None of thesc
,^tl
\at
(0.1
t.
19.
973
@)
983
1000
None of these
1000
A five figure number is fbrmed by the digits
0,7,2,3, 4 without repetition. Then the probability
that thc number fbrmed is divisible by 4 is
(clr
,'\
(cr
16
.,.
(b)
,',
dl
s
16
20. A bag contains 8 white and 6 red balls. The
 probability of drawing two balls of the same colour
l"s
(a)
(c)
AA
6U

43
93
ror
43
(d) none of these
4+
F
,'\
\o)
a
b"
5l
(c) *
5!
,
b'
(d) nrine of'these
6'
963
1000
probability that all will show different faces is
(o)
unknown integer between 0 to 9 within thrce
(bt
ktt 1
26. Six dice are thrown siorultancously. The
1c)
18. Srhat is the probability of correctly choosing an
chances
he gets a 5 or 6 on dice is
27. Given two events A and B and
P(A)= 1,p1s7a;= 1
42
and P(A/B)= i/I
State that following is true'/
(a) A is subevent of B
(6) P (A,/B)=
"
4
(c) P(A/B)+P(A/B)=1
(d) None of these
28. AboxAcontains 2 whitc and 4 black balls. Another
box B contains 5 white and Z black balls. A ball is
transferred from the box A to thc box B. Then a
ball is drawn from the box Ii. The probabilitv that
it is white is
'*'
(c,,
16
39
I2
39
(o)
T4
39
q
tdt
39
PROBABILTY &
SriTigTfc*sl'
.'
5.17
29. IfP (A) = 0, then P (An B) = 0.
(6)
(o) o
(a) *
35. In an experiment a coin is tossed
the size of the sample space?
(a) 12
(b) 14
(b) none of these
(c)
Which of the following is correct?
(o) IfP(A) > 0, P (B) > 0 and P(A/B) = P (B/A), then
P(A)=P(B).
(b) If A and B mutually exclusive, then
in mechanics is given to three students
A, B and C whose chances of sloggingit r"u'2'3
1. 1
1
;4respectively. Then probability
problem
and
36. For any two events A and B
P(A nB) =P(B)P(AnB)
(6) P (A u B) = P (A) + P (B)  P (An
(o)
(o) P (Aw B/C) = P (A/C) + P (B/C)
(d) All of these
31. A problem
20
B)
37. Which of the following is correct?
P(AuB)=1Pfel.Ptel
times. What is
(c) P(A/B)<P(A).
(d) All of these
(A/B) = P (A)/(1  P (B))'
If Aand B are independent, then
P
k)
(d)
16
that the
(6) P (A
 P (AnB/C)
n B/C) + P (A n B/C) = P (A/C)
(c) IfA and B are independent, then A and B are
also independent.
(d All
of these
will be solved is
1
\d)
(D)
4
38. Which of the following is correct?
2
(c)
(d) none of these
32. A and B throw alternately with a pair of diCe. A
wins if he throws 6 before B throws 7 and B wins
if he throws 7 before Athrows 6. If Abegins, then
his chance of winning is
31
(o)
60
31
^\ _
tar
61
33. If P (A) =
.1
i)
;4Aand P (B) = ;,
(6) The events Er,
exclusive.LetE=U
i:1
If
(a)
P(AuB)>+
'488
(6)
(c)
13
*d6<Pfen B )<;
(d) All of these
:<P(AnB)<:
34. Three machines M' M2 and M, produce identical
items. Of their respective output 57o,4o/o and3%
of items are faulty. On a certain day, M, has
produced 25Vo of the total output, M, has produced
307o and M, the remainder. An item selected at
random is found to be faulty. What are the chances
that it was produced by the machine with the
highest output?
(o) 0.155
(b) 0.255
(c) 0.355
(d) 0.455
E,.
P (A/Ei) = P (B/Ei),
i = L, 2,...., n, then
P(A/E)=P(B/E).
61
then
Er, ......., E. are mutually
n
30
(d) none of these
(o) If A, B and C are mutually independent, then
A u B and C are also independent.
(c) Both (o) and (b)
(d
None of these
39. Let p be the probability that a man aged y will get
into an accident in a year. What is the probability
that a man among n men of all aged y will get
into an accident frrst ?
{cr
(c)
1,
r
:(1(1*p)")
"(1
(1*
p)")
1,
r/r\
(b)
:(tft*
n'
(d
None of'these
p)"
40. What would be the expectation of the numbel of
failures preceding the first success in an infinite
series of independent trials with the constant
probability ofsuccess p ?
1
\a) p
(b) l
@!p
(d) Nonc of thesc
5.18
PROBABILITY & STATISTICS
41. A rcstaurant serves two special dishes A and B to
its customers consisting of 60%, men and 40Vo
women. SOVo of men order dish A and the rest B
andTOa/c' women order dish B and the rest A. In
wlrat ratio of Ato B should the rcstaurant prepare
the dishes?
If
50.
(b)
(c) 16:7
@) 7 :16
(o)
6,,
(c)
p (X,
u'hic[ of thc fbllqrving
(b)
Y)
ofY
on X is
Flence cov (X, Y) is cqual is
(a) 11.25
(b) 7.2
(c) 2.4
(d) none of thcse
is  . If cach
observation is divided by cx., a + 0 and then is
increased by 10, then the nrean ofnew set is
x
r+10
(b)
(cr)
0,
0
52. The mean of a set of observations
P(A/AuB)=
P(A)
P(A) + P(B)
P(B)
P(A) + P(B)
r+
(cl 
10cr
(d)
C[
IfP(A)=P(B),then
A= B
(c) A* B
(<z)
(6)
B=0
(d) None of these
45. The mcan of a set of number is r . If each number
is increased by )., then mean of the new set is
tc) 1,
(d) none of these
\.c)
47.
48.
t +o'
(b)
)"2o2
(d)
),2
mode of a data is 18 and mean is 24, then
median is
(o) 18
(b) 24
(c)22
@) 2L
(c) o
49.
b,u
b,,,
is equal to
(a) p(X,Y
1s,t lp (x, y)12
(b) cov k, y)
(d) None of these
,)
(6) 1
(d) none of these

13
mode)
r, then value of.r is
(b) 2
{d)
55. S.D. of n observation n,, a2t e^,........ an is o, then
If S.D. of'the observations tro,, l.{zr, ),o.,,..... tro,, is
(o) to
(6) io
(c) ll.lo
(d) o
57.
is equal to
(6)
(c)
(d) none of thesc
;.)
If two lines of regressio n are Y=3x5and
Y = 2x  4, then p(X, Y) is equal to
(6)
",
58.
pL
(o)
,, il;6
is
equal to
(b) stamdard deviation
(d) none of these
(a)
If
(o) M.D
56. If median  (mode + 2 mean) p, then
+ o2
If pt is mean of distribution, thenlf,{1,p)
r")
IS
D
54. If mean = (3 median
i+I
46. If each observation of raw data whose variance is
o2, is increased by 1", then variance ofthe new set
(a) &
0
(c) 1
(d) none of these
(6)
(o)
(6) A=0
h)i
 F +10
cx
53. Coeffrcient of correlation betwecn two variates X
and Y is
M. If P (A) = 0, then
(a) A=O
(c) A=.o
b,.',
8r10y+66=0ando"=3
12. If A and B are mutually exclusive and
p (A,._, B) = p (A) + p (B), then
43.
is
(td) nonc of these
51. Rcgression equation
6:9
(o) 19:6
cov (X, Y) = 0, thep
negative?
l;
II
t1o
(d) none of thesc
If two lines regression are 3x  y  5 = 0 and
2xy4=0,then r
(n) 1 and
(c) 2 and
2
1
and t arerespectively
(6) 1 and 2
@) 2and1
5.19
PROBABILITY & STATISTICS
59.
If
regressiolt equation ofY on X is Y = Lt + 4 and
that ofX on Ybc 4x =Y
0<4I<1
(c) 0<)'<4
(o)
(b)
5, then
0<r<1
(d) nonc of these
(q) xy =
60. If cov (X.Y) = 0. then two lines of the rcgrcssion are
(b) concident
(o) parallel
(c) at right angles (d) none of these
61. Iftwo litres ofregression are atright angles, then
p (X, Yt is eqiral to
(6) 1
(cr) 1
(d) 0
(c) 1 or 1
62. If in a rcgression analysis problem,
b,,, = 0.4, then P(r, Y) is
(a) o'6
(c) 0
6,,. =
0'9 ancl
(b) 0'6
(d) none of thcse
63. It b,,, and b.,. bc the two rcgression coeffrcients,
then coef'flcient of correlation p is given by
(a)
F.Vb..ub.".,
65.
(d) none of thesc
(b) 50
(d) nonc of these
(a) 55
(c) 10
69.
If p>0andrn =
t,then
(b)
are x + 2y = 7 and
2x + y = 7, lhetr regression equation ofY artd Xis
If two lines of rcgression
(6)r+2Y='i
@)2r+y=7
(c)r+2y=0'
@)2x+Y=0
X and Y are contlocttrd by the
r, y is equal to
15
t4
72
(d)
(6)
(c) 1
(d)1
that i 5,y=10o?=+of;=9and
(b)
^J
(c) g
deviation for two variables X and Y
are 3 and 4 respectively and thejr covariance is 8,
then corrclation coefficient between them is
3.12
\") ETz
(c) ^
2
(ils
66. Mean deviation of the data
a, a + d,a +2d,...a + 2nd from the mean is equal to
(b)n(n +I\d
2n
+L'
(d) none of these
(d) none of these
gn
(b) 
p (u, u) is eaual to
73. N{ean of the numbers 0, 1,2,3,......n rvith
ncrr....,..r'tcn ia
respective weight'Co,'C'
b) :,z+1
a
72. If X and Y are two independent variables such
(o) 0
It standard
@)t
(a) ;
o
ifu3x + 4y,u  3*y,then
m=P
(d.) none of these
(c) m<P
70.
b.,,. + b,...
(b)
(a) m>p
ct
64. Given ', n = 10, by = 4 )j = 3, ).t' = 8, b" =
and Iry = 3, then coeffrcient ofcorrelation is
4
{ =r
xy
68. 25o/o of the items of dat,a are lcss than 35 and25%
of the items are more than 75' Q'D of thc data is
(d) none of these
lc)
{+
_t
(b) _,
relation ar + by * c = 0 where a6 < 0. then
k) p=(s*,,6r,)Ju*u*
(a)
(c)
o,b_
a2
71. TWo variables
..
F,
lb) p= {oy*o.",
67. If two variables X and Yhave a pcrfect correlation
(direct or indirect), then they may bc colrnccted
by a relation ofthe typc
(6)
ZtL+L
n*L
(d) none of these
Common Data Q. 7476
Box A contains three balls with colours red, green
and blue and Box B contains a balls with colours
red, yellow, blue, white and brown. A box is chosen
and a ball is picked.
74. The probability that the ball mav be brown is
(dl
10
(?\
8
15
(b)
13
30
(d) none of these
PROBABILITY & STATISTICS
5.20
lD.
The probability that the ball may be green or
blue is
(') toI
/A\
(c)
30
76. The probability that the ball may be green or
blue is red or blue is
(c)
tor
and
30
(d) none of these
P(A,
Pf At) =
B'
Arl =
l
(A, n
1
(b)
\L/ 2'2
I2
.
2'322
(d) ;,
;
t).)
78. Ar and A, are independent
(o) True
(b) False
(d) Can not be said
(c) Uncertain
Consider an ordinary six faced die.
79. The chances of throwine four is
(r/)
(Dl ;
.l
(ds
\c) ;e)
d^
chanccs of throwing an even number is
I
@),
,'1
(c,
6
57
6I
83. The chance that three belons to the same clerss is
(o)
(c)
84
5
tt
to) _
6b
(d) none of thcsc
Common Data Q.8485
Ttvo cards are drawn in succession from a pack of
84. The chance when frrst card is rcplaced, is
1
169
2
tcl u*
(h\
J169
(n\
'"'
4
169
85. The chance when first card is not replaced, is
(O)
'"' 669
trt _ 2_4
663
..
/L\
'"'
(dl
663
^_
ob.t
Common Data Q.8687
'n'Ietters are placedat random in n conectly addressed
86. The probabilities that, at lcast onc lcttel goes to
the correct envelooe is
(a)Lp
(Dl
\a) 2
(b)
tat ;
d
Common Data Q.8183
A committee consists of 9 students two of which are
fronr lstyear, three from 2nd year and four from 3rd
y'car. Three studcnts are to be removed at random.
81. The chance that three students belong to different
classes, is
Io.)
d/
54
tbt *
dl)
envelopes.
Common Data Q. 7980
80. The
84
56
ta)
i.
11
) :
52
cards. First cards should be a king and the second a qucen
77. P(Ar) and P(Ar) respectively are
2l
(^\
\u/ 
ld.
13
Common Data Q. 7778
Given :
DD
13
(d) none of these
{o)
82. The chance that two bel<lng to the same class and
third to the different class. is
1
,
n!
\c)
n
(cl) none of thesc
87. The probabilities that all lettcrs go to thc correct
envelope is
@) rP
\c) n
(6)
;n:
(d) none of these
Common Data Q.8889
Box t has 10 light bulbs of which 3 are defective. Box II
has 6 light bulbs which 2 are defective; Box III has 8
light bulbs of which 5 are defective. A box is chosen at
random and a bulb is drawn at random.
88. What is the probability that the bulb drarvn is
defective?
720
302
\b) n
320
i20
,+
32
72
720
302
ic/ =
I
\d)
(c)
,^E"tt
PROBABILTTY & STATISTICS
89. What is the probability that the defective bulb was
from box I ?
720
(ct\
'
(h)
320
32
tct
720
d)
96. Consider two events Er and
probability of'E,, P.(Er) =
302
720
72
302
90. Four fair coins are tossed simultaneously' The
probabilitv that at lcast one head and one tail turn
probability of
E'
I
16
7
(d\ 15
16
k): 6
91. How many four digit EVEN numbers have all
4 digits distinct ?
(bt 2296
(a) 2240
@) 4536
k) 2620
92. Seven (distinct) car accidents occurred in a week'
What is thc probability that they all occurred on
the same day ?
1
(c)
(b\
{a\ *
I
I
nG
I
2'"
.,."[Et)
\clt _r lprJ
(6)
@)
12
(b)
(c) ;
6
\u/2
44
(n\
'*' 52X 52
43
r'n)
\L/ s2
x
o)
P,(Er) = P,(Ez)
P,.(E, u Er) = 1
(r'l
I
2
(b)
d)t
51
16
n
@i27
and Eo are indePendent
The value of P, tEr), the probability of event Er is
(cr) 0
(6)
43
52
x
52
44
'*' 52x 51
(.:l\
that a number selected at random
between 100 and 999 (both inclusive) will not
contain the digit 7 is
E.
0.25
10O. The probability
E, and E, are events in a probability space satisfying
the following constraints
o
o
o
(d) 0.4
(c) 0.35
and bottom cards of a
top
99. The probability that
randomly shuffled deck are both aces is
;D
(b)
(o) 0.3
outcomes is
1
probability that it will rain either today or.
tomorrow is 0.7. What is the probability that it
will rain todav and tomorrow ?
A dic is rollecl three times. The probability that
exactly one ODD number turns up among the three
(a) ;
(]
98. The probability that it will rain today is 0'5' The
probability that it will rain tomorrow is 0'6' The
The nrinimum number of cards to be dcalt from an
@)3
(c) 9
is
97. TWo girls have picked 10 Roses, 15 Sunflowers
and 14 Daffodils. What is the number of ways
thev can divide the flowers amongst themselves ?
(b) 2100
(a) 1638
(d) None of these
k) 2640
27
arbitrarily shuflled deck of'52 cards to guarantee
that three cards are frrrm same suit is
, u.td
(b) Events Er and E, and E" are independent
(c) Events Er and E, are not independent
(d)
(a) P, (E, or Erl
b): 6
,
probability of Er and E2, P, (Er and Er) = S '
Which of the following statement(s) is/are TRU'
up rs
Inl
P.(Er.1
E, such th'
10f.
If
(D)
re\'
[loJ
@*18
20 per cent managers are technocrats, the
probability that a random committee of
managers consists of exactly 2 technocrats is
(b) o.4ooo
(o.) 0.2048
(c) 0.4096
(d) 0.942r
PROBABILITY & STATISTICS
5.22
102. The probability that two frineds share the same
birthmonth is
\a)
(t'l
\b) t2
6
1
t44
td)
replaced?
'*'
24
that
(c) 0.7
(d) o.e
tu);16
(c)
liquid was
observed in a continuous chemical process
plant
Flow rate (litres/sec) Frequency
5
35
17
12
10
Mcan flow rate of the liquid is
(o) 8.00 litres/sec (6) 8.06 litres/sec
(c) 8.16 litres/sec @) 8.26 litres/sec
Il2.
'"' 2
a
.J
(CL)
.A
In a frequencey distribution, mid value of a class
is 15 and class interval is 4. The lower limit of
the class is
14
G) 12
lll.
at random with
(h)
:d
(o)
106. Thc following data about the flow of
7.5to7.7
i.7 to 7.9
7.9 to 8.1
8.1 to 8.3
8.3 to 8.5
8.5 to 8.7
109. A fair coin is tossed three times in succession. If
the frrst toss poduces a head, then the probability
of getting exactly two heads in thlee tosscs is
ll0.
(b) r/5
(d) 2t9
221
replacement. The probability that none of thc two
screws is defective will be
(b) 50ck
@) 1007o
(d) None of these
(c) 497o
lO5. Abox contains 5 black and 5 red balls. Tlvo balls
are randomly picked one after another from the
box, without replacement. The probability for both
balls being red is
(a) 1/90
(c) 19190
(/'l\
Two screws are drawn
call is distributed exponentially with mean 3
minutes. The probability that an awival does not
have to wait before service is
(b) 0.5
_
5Z
108. Abox contains 10 screws, 3 of which are defective.
ofY
lO4. Arrivals at a telophone booth are considered to
be Poisson, with an average time of 10 minutes
between successive arrivals. The length of a phone
169

(b) a value of X may be used to estimate a value
(c) values of X exactly determine values of Y
(d) there is no causal relationship between Y and
X
26
(b)
(nl
there is a causal relationship between
YandX
(o) 0.3
(d\
fO3. A regression moodel is used to express a variable
Y as a function of another variable X' This implies
(a)
10?. From a pack ofregular playing cards, tu'o cards
are drawn at random. What is the probability that
both cards will be Kings, if the frrst card is NOT
(b)
13
(d\
L0
Folloiving marks were obtained by the students
in a test :
81,72,90, 90, 86, 85, 92, 70, 71, 83, 89, 95, 85,
79,62. Rangc of the marks is
@)e
(b)
(c) 27
(d) 33
17
Standard deviation for7,9,11.
ra.) 2.4
ft)
2.7
6)
1,11,
15 is
2.5
@) 2.8
113. If probabilities that A and B will clie rvith ina year
are p and q respectively, then probability that
only one of them will be alive at thc end of the
year is
@)
Prl
(b't p1t
k)
q(7 p)
(d) p+72pt7
q1
5.23
PROBABILITY & STATISTICS
1l4. In a binomial distribution, mean is 4 and variance
is 3. Then, its mode is
116. Shen correlation coefficient  =*1 , Lhen two
regcssion lines
(a) 5
(b) 6
(d
(c) 4
(d) none of these
(b) coincide
115. Ifsum and product ofthe mean and variancc ofa
binomial distribution are24 and 18 respectively',
thcn distriution is
t1 t\'
^, lr. ,)
6)
., (;.;)"
kt)
(t
k)
are perpendicular to each othct'
are
parallel to each other
(d) do not exist
lL7. If1=Q,then
3\'o
[;.aj
(o) there is a perfec[ corrclation between :r and y
(:.!r)"
(c) there is a positive correlation bctween
x and y
(cl) there is a negative correlation between
r andy
(U
x andy
are not correlated
ANSWERS
10. (o)
1. (6)
2. (c)
3. (b)
4. (c)
5. (c)
6. (c)
7.ft)
8. (c)
9. (o)
r1. (o)
12. (a)
13. (o)
14. (b)
r5. (a)
16. (o)
17. (a)
18. (6)
19. (b)
20.
30. (a)
ft)
2r. (b)
22. @)
23.
(.q,)
24. (a)
25. (b)
26.6)
27. (d)
28. @)
29. (u)
31. (c)
32. (b)
33. (d)
34. (c)
35. (c)
36. (d)
37. (a)
38. (o)
39. (o)
4O. (c)
4r.
@)
42. (a)
43. (a)
44. (a)
45.ft)
46. (a)
47. (c)
48. (c)
49.
k)
50. (d)
51. (b)
61. (d)
52. (c)
53. (6)
54. (c)
aa. (c/
56. (b)
t. \a)
58. (o)
59. (c)
60. (c)
62. (d)
63. (c)
64. (a)
65. (o)
66. (o)
67. (c)
68. (b)
69. (o)
70. (b)
71. @)
72. (a)
73. (c)
74. (a)
75.@)
76. (c)
77. (b)
78. (a)
7e.
81. (b)
82. (a)
83. (o)
84. (a.)
85. (d)
86. (o)
87. (b)
88. (b)
8e. (d)
90. (c)
el.
(b)
92. (b)
93. (c)
94. (c)
e5. @)
96. (c)
97. (c)
99. (c)
100. (d)
101. (o)
1r1. (d)
102. (b)
rr2. (d)
103. (b)
113. (d)
LO4. (a)
105. (d)
106. (c)
ro7. (d)
98. (d)
108. (d)
(d)
110. (b)
rr4. k)
rr5. (d)
116. (b)
rr7.
(b)
LOe.
k)
80.
(cr)
PROBABILITY & STATISTICS
5.24
EXPLANATIONS
9.
Since odds are 8 to 3 against A
^\)
P(A) = : ;
ll
.'.
and
P(B) =
P(A) + P(B) + P(C) =
.'.
P(C)=
I 3 2
I ll 7
:
7
Hence, A and
77
two extra days. These two days can be
(i) Monday, Thesday
Let E. be the event that a baII is drawn from
first bag, E" the event that a ball is drawn
from second bag and E the event a black ball
is chosen, therefore
P(E) = P(E
2
o
11.
(e\
(ii) T\r.esday, Wednesday,
(iil)
IE'
3 24
I
=
ll
(uii) Sunday, Monday
_L__t)t
Number of ways in which 8 balls can be drawn
out of 15 is tsCr.
Number of ways of drawing 2 r:ed balls is sC,
and corresponding to each ofthese 5C, ways
of drawing a red ball, there are r0C. ways of
drawing 6 black balls.
Wednesday, Thursday
(iu) Thursday, Friday
(u) Friday, Saturday
(ul) Saturday, Sunday
(n\
)PlalP(8")Pl:l
'(8,/
3 44
f.7 67
B are independent.
14. A leap year consists of366 days, so that there
are 52 full weeks (and hence 52 Sundays) and
34
Hence odds against C are 43 to 34.
10.
P(Ane) = P(A)P(AnB)
= P(A)  P(A) P(B)
= P(A) (l  P(B)) : P(A) P(B)
13.
Of these 7 cases, the last two are favourable
Required probability = 1.
P(AnBnC) PrAnBnC)
rf rrd
15.
P(C)
P(AnBnC)+P(AnBnC)
Hence total number of ways in which 2 red
and 6 black balls can be drawn = 5C^ x roC.
Required
probability
P(C)
P(AnBnC)vP(Ar,BnC)l
P(C)
tu
c,
429
12. A can draw a ticket in
.'.
= 3 ways.
Probability of A's success =
Again B can draw a ticket in
eC,
i.
9.8.7
g .2 .l
= g4way.
Number of rvays in which B gets all blanks
6.5.4
=zo.
3.2.r
Number of ways of getting a prize
P(AnB) =
A's probability of success
of success
32L =7:16
9+ =16
84
2r
: B's probability
'l
\.c/
chosen.
Probability of not choosing "3" is
chance)
fr
(in
one
Probability of not choosing 3 in all the three
chances
999
l0 10
"=
Thus, probability of B's success =
.rA
rtl
s = f0, 1,2, ...,91
Suppose we want a particular integer "3" to be
6c^
=8420=64
116
18.
AnB=0
16.
Number of cases in which A can get a prizc
is clearly 1.
.'.
P(AnC) _
P(C)
L40
3C,
P(C)
=X
l0
Hence probability of choosing
ofthe three chances
27 973
=1 1000
19. The five digits
it in at least one
1000
can be arranged in 5! ways, out
will begin with zero.
.'. Total number of 5frgure numbers formed
of which 4!
=5!4!=96.
5.25
PROBABILITY & STATISTICS
Those nrtmbers forntcd u'ill be divisible by 4
which will lrave t',vo extrcme right digits
22.
P(Ar)
.,
r.c , numbet's ending in 04. 12, 20.24,32,40.
Itumbers ending in 04 = 3! = 6,
numbcrs ending in
numbers erlding in 20 = 3l = 6,
numJrers ending in 24 = 3t,  2t = 4.
ttunbers ending in 32 = 31, 2t = 4,
atrdrturnbers ending in '40 = 3l = 6.
INumbe rs having 12,24,32 in thc extreme tight
arc (3!  2!), since thc numbers har'ing zero on
the cxtrernc lc{t are to excludcd.l
.'. Total nunrber of favourablc ways
= 6 + 4 + 6 + 4 + 4 + ti = 30
12 = 3t
in 1'C., ways which
is thc total nrtmbe r of'outcomcs.
Two rvhite balls out of 8 can be drawn in 'C,,
T\'o balls out
14 catr be drawn
Probability of drnwing
P(A.
P (A) > P(B) sincc
.'.
Probability of drawing 2 balls of the same
colortr (eitlrcr both white ol both red)
28 15 43
=91*91=91
27. Probability
.4
Cal^OS
52
of drar.r'ing an ace from a deck of 52
'
(An Ct irnciAn
C)
Cl are disjoint.
P(C) =0
24.
C=0
P(AnIlnC) =P(AnBnQ)
=P(t)=0
P(A)xPtBl,rP(C) =0 ...sinceP(C)=0
P(AnBrrC; =P(A)P(B)P(C)
..
l{encc A, B. C are inclependent.
ll
P(lI) = 1,P(Tr = 1
25.
ttc, l5
= ,ac" = s,
C) >P(Bn C)
P(AnC)+P(Ar', g) >P(BnC)+P(Bn
= 2!
9l
Probability of'drawing 2 red balls
(c)
Adding
Similarl.y 2 rcd balls out of 6 can be clrawn in
'.
r,/r
'',  plR,^'\
'\'/^/
\"'^FI
> :=ir,((')
P((')

allo
.c,
''C,, u'a1's
(c)
P(An0) >P(BnC)
white balls
= to c,
l(n,,:l,'r.)
l'}(AnC) P(tloC)
23.
ways.
'.
tn,) l(A$'^U
=P(A.rerrz\l
=1P(A, r,,11. t,A,)
2t = 4,
Hetrce; rcquiredProbabilitY= +96 = 11
16
20.
P(A,
 p /a . P(A
)
P(ArnA,nA,)
divisible b.t'4,
Now,
P(r\rrA,). P(A,,/A, n.\,,)
Lct A bc tlre evcnt of getting 5 r:r 6.
.'.
.'.
(A)=
and B bt' the evcnt of gctting
q a A.
1
a,
Lt a, 'J,
z
P(B)=
t
ordcr to get a 'Hctrcl' belirrc "5 or 6", the
followng cvents havc ttl ()ccul':
H, TI]H, TBTBFI, TBTBTBII. ....
Ir.r
Similtrrly the probtrbility ot'drawing a card of
p=
_13
'52 = 
SPaOL'S
I I 2  rt)' I tl\'
r*J. r "r*[iJ :.[l,l
I
z
probability of'rlrawing an ace of spades
'52 =
Since two events (i.e. a card bcing an ace and a
cerrd being o{'spades) are ntlt mutually cxclusive,
thereftrre
Probability ofdrarving alt ace or a spade
1)ll+
=+=\2
52 .s2
=2 =3
rl4
_l
26. Nurnber of ways differcnt numbcrs
Total number of'ways of occurrencc
.'.
l.l
can occur
on six dice = 6l
Required
65
6: 5!
probability,
''rr5rr64 P = ^s  
PROBABILITY & STATISTICS
5.26
p(A) =
27.
and
P(B/A)
32. The sum 6 can be obtained as follorvs
(1,5), (2,4), (3,3), (4,2),(5,1), i e' in 5 ways'
n!1?l)
= P(A)
II
e(nne)
P(B)
Probability ofA's throwing 6 with 2 dicc= jO
PtAnB) = t.PtA/B)=
'
jl
.'.
Probability ofA's not throwing 6
Similarly, probability of B's throwiug
P(B)=2
(o) IfAis
a sutrevent ofB,
7=
= i6
6
'
i'e'
:l
ProbabilitY of B's not throwing ? + o
Ac
NowA can win, if he throws
frfth, seventh etc' throws.
.'. Chance ofA's winning
nB=A
B, then A
.'. P (A n B) should be equai to P (A)' This is false'
in thc first, thircl'
tbr
'4
(c)
P(A/B) =
is false.
11
88
P(An B) P(A)P(An")=;
1
n(nne) s
.'. P(A/ll)=+=t=;
p(u) t
1(31/ 36) x(5 / 6)
.. P(A/B)+P(A/e,=
Hence given statement
iis false' =:
P (At,
(qt
28. Probability of drawing a white ball from box B
will depend on whether transferred ball is black
or white.
Ifa black ball is transferred, then its probability
Bt>
(Al
ft) AaBcB
P(An B)
.'.
Also P(AnB)
zD
1
1
1=I
There are now 5 white and 8 black balls in the
(c)
An B c
= ,,
.'.
Hencc probability of drawing a white ball from
urn B, if the transferred ball is black
!6 * a13= 1q
ft
B
3
P(An ll)<P(B)
AIso
.'.
An
P(An
= (o., o)
=1P(AuIlt
>1{P(A)+P(B)
39
,51
ft
:
= 1 j F:f
6J = E
Similarly, probability of drawing a white bail
from urn B, if transferred ball is white
262
=;"13=13
l0 2 16
.'. Requiredprobability = , * 13 = 39'
.
.'.
(B)
>1
t" 6'
from boxB
P(A) =
34. Let the eveut of drawilrg a faulty item from
any of the machines bc A, and the cvent that
an item drau'n at random was produced by /t/,
be B . To P (B,lAl Proceed as {bllorvs
:
0
0
P(ArrB)=P(Q)=0
[4
M,
M,
M,
Remarks
P (B.)
0.25
030
045
'sum=1
P (A/8,)
0.05
004
0.03
P (8,)P (A/8,
0.0125
0.012
A=0
ArB
61
box B. Then probability of drawing white ball
30
(Av B)=A
33.
*i
36x6
61
5
36
P (B,iA)
0.0125 0.0125
0.038
0.038
0.0135 ;rrnt = 0.ljt
0.0r
iJ5
0.0:lu
Ry Baye's
lheorem
PROBABILITY & STATISTICS
5.27
The highest output being from
probability =
35.
t= o^t"T
0.038
M,
required
38.
(o) P((AuB) n C) = P((AnC) u(B nC))
=P
= o. 355.
(b)
36.
B
P(B)
=P(AnB)+P(R nB)as
A n B are mutually exclusive.
P(n nB) =P(B)P(AnB).
p(AuB) =plAu(A nB)l
=p(A)+p(A nB)
=P(A)+P(B)P(AnB)
(c)
if
P(AnE)
P(BnE)
P(E)
P(E)
(A)
(,)
(n\
if e len[Jn,
i=r
\
if P U
=
JE
,=j
c)
(,
\
PIU(BnE)l
\i=r
.)
t
'''
.p(BnC) P(AnBnC)
P(C)
P(C)
fal P (A., nlc)+
(An
n B/C)
P (A
_ P(AnBnC) * P(AnBnC)
P(c)
P(c)
_ P(AnBnC)+P(AnBnC)
P(C)
_ P(AnBnC)u(AnBnC)
P(C)
ThisistruesinceP(AnE,)= P (B n E) for
each i.
B/C)
P(E)=p y
=1p(E, t,E,...rq,)
=1p(E, nE,^....,q,)
= 1Pt n, i P (E.t ...et n, t
= 1 _ (1 _ p) (t _p) ... (, _ o)
= 1_ (1_p),,
(at
Hence P
least one man meets rvith an
accidcnt/a person is chosen) =
N. Expectation of X = E(X)
(NC)
IT
(1
(Ip)").
= avelage = mean
\
= /Pr
xt
LI
Hence A and B are independent.
=1i*
na
P(C)
(A. ll
=P(A)P(AnB)
=P(A)P(A)P(B)
= P (A) (1 P (B)) = P(A) P ( B )
P (at least one man meet with an accident)
= P (Er u E, r'' ... v E,,)
P(AnC)
=P
p(BnE,)
accident. Then
P(C)
B/C) = P (A/C) + P (B/C)
P(AnE.)t'
39. Let E, be the event of a person to get into an
p(A n c)
P(C)
as P (B/A) < 1.
P(enCnBnC)
and P((AuB)nC) =P(AnC)+P(BnC)
P(AnBnC)
icr P
lB.rt
tYt
\
(AnE,)=
(Au B) = P (A) + P (B) P (AnB)
.'. P((An C) u(B nC)) = P(AnC) + P(B nC)
P((a u B) n
n B))
P(AnE)= P(BnE)
37. (o) P
P (A
P(A,ts) =P(A)P(B/A)
<P
P (A
P (A) P (B) P (C)
P(A/E)=P(BlE)
=(AnB)u(A nB)
A n B and
=
(b)
C)
=P(C)P(AvB)
lsl :l=16.
(a)
n C)P (An B n
= P (C) (P (A) + P (B)
HHTT' ... , TTTTI
Clearly,
C) + P (B
= P (A) P (C) + P (B) P (C)
S = {HHHH, HHHT, HHTH,
Sample space,
(An
where p, denote probability of occurrence
ofr
Letq=1p.
Then probabilities of succcss
trials are
P, QP, q2P, ....
in lst. 2nd, 3rd
PROBABILITY & STATISTICS
5.28
.' E(n 
(o)
p+(1) . qp+\2). q,p+...
= qp (L + 2q +
8r10y+66=0
.l
866
J,i
y  _x
+ _ = I+ "1010
55
3q'+ ...+ nq " *t + ...)
qp
= (lq)z _qp_q p
p2
Hence
6u.
4t. Ratio ofAand B = 60 x 80 + 40 x 70 : 60 x 20
+40x30
= 76:24
(A/Au B)
9xl
cov(X, Y)
.J
P(An(AuR))
52.S4ren each ibem is rlivicled
P(A u B)
53. Sirrce,
P(A)+P(B)=1
Hence
P(AuB)P(AnB)=1=P(S)
AUB =SonlyifAnB=g
i.e.
A=BonlyifAnB=0
x*
54.
P(A)=0
\s/
a, i.c. ib becomcs
Newmean= t  ,, = "tloo
0cI
P(A)=iP(B)
pf4l
try
a
When each item is increased bv 10. mean also
increased by 10.
P(A)=P(B)
M.
of
P(A)
= P(AuB)= P(A)P(A)
+ P(B)
43.
5
cov(X,Y)
=19:6
P
limit is
51. Given regression
= 6 for all tlre pairs of observations,
b"u=br.r=1
p(X,Y) =1
Mode =SMndian2Mean
Nlean =
=o
55. Standard
n(A)'=0
1t"o,or,z2
1'
ti3
Median
1onoo"
Mode)
Deviation ofnew data
n(S)
tz(A)=0
A=0
4.5.
r; E':l;j
=i)".
V,
(,,,:
When each item is increased by i", the mean is
also increased by )..
Mode =3Median2Mean
SMcdian =Mode+2Mean
56.
46.When each item is increased by ).; the S.D. is
multiplied bV I f I and variance is multiplied by
12
Median =
+ 2 N{can)
5(Mode
47.18=3Median2x24
*2fi0,  r) = f, ! i  Y1 Ef, = Lf, t, 
49.
Lf,Y, = o
b,,b*;=+ttrt
r
covff'Y)
t2

[' o'o,
= to x, Yl,
M=:
=
57.
If we take y = 3x  5 as regression equation ofY
on X and Y = 2x  4 as that ofX on Y, then
brr=3b"^,=
brrbr, =
is not possible],which
50.Cov (X, Y), b.r b., and p(X, Y) all are either
positive, or 0 or negative simultaneously.
Hence, equation
= 3x
 S, i.e.r = , . I
the regression equation ofX on Y
and equation, Y = 2x  4 is that Y on X.
PROBABILITY & STATISTICS
1
b),,  2 and br,
Then
b,rbr, =
=5
M.
P(X,Y
z
o
.J
{o(X,Y)}z = 5
E
o(XY) = 1
58. Solving equations
3rv 5=0
65.
and2,l
Y4=O,
r1andy=2.
we get
I
59. Here 6r. = L a.td b', =
Since 0
p(X,Y)
'
'
ztl+
),+0.
60.
have
Cov (X,
0 < l' < 4'
Y) = 0
br, =brn=O
two lines of regression are at right angles
only when
. (r )
62.Given : b^,, =  0.9 is negative and b', = 0'4 is
positive *ftlcft is not possible as bn' and b* are
of same sign. Hence given data is
"l*uy.
inconsistent.
brr bt, =
p=
b..,,
n(n+1)ldl
*l
(direct or indirect), ttren there is a linear
relationship between the two variables'
and
brt =bt!
But both bn, and b* are of same sign, therefore
we must have
br, = br, __ o
P(X,Y) = 0
f^
rzl
Iftwo variables X and Y are in perfect correl ation
:1
But b... and
+ 2 +...+
ldlx2ll + 2 + 3 +...+ nl
l)ldl
M.D. (about mean) = %,
67.
1'
68.Given : lower quartile, Qr = 35
[,*,J=_t
.
= n(n +
61. The
ffl.We know
2tt+l
ila+@+(a+2ndt)l
So, tw<t lines of regression ate y  y = 0 and
x  i = 0, which are al right angles'
u_
Zn+t
= )tt"+(tl)dl la+ ndll
i=1
= laandl+lo' + da (rzn'dl+"'
+ lu + nd, a nrJl + lo + +'1) d a  rull
+...+lc +2ndondl
(rz
(n
+
 2) +"'+ 1 + 0
= ld,lln + 1)
b"n + 0,
Hence, we must
"+ (o + 2nd)
=a+nd'
0<).<4
a + (a + d) + @ + 2d) +"
Sum of numerical deviations from the mean
f1\
o<r[7J <t
brt+
66.Mean,V=
bnrb*n < 1, therefore we must have
A*s
 cov(X'Y)
3x4
o"ou = J
Quartile d".ri.tior, =
9*
=Ef
=zo
69. Since p > 0, therefore bn* and br" are also positive
r:b.. +b
Hence "Jr _ "r.r, > Jby., b..J
=

2
b., +
b"^,> G
r/p=
bur+b
tJ >o

P2
m>P
+ 2y = 7 is taken as regressron
equation of Y on X, then we write it as
70.If frrst time
!\Er' 4,
p and cov (X, Y) are all of the
same srgn
p = (sgn brr)
upper quartile Qs = 75
by bo
I7
\]=X+'22
h
yx =l
PROBABILITY & STATISTICS
s.30
Also tbc second equation (which will be regression
equation X on Y) can be u'ritten as
t7
)c =   v + 2"2
,1 =o.y
2
b ]i
h+=(t)il)
4
i2t(21 =1=1
x+2Y =f
X and Y connected by linear relationship,
therefore they are in perfect correlatiott.
71. Since
/ .r\' c
l, OJta
shows that when
:=
7:!.Occurrence of evcnt of ch<losirtg a ball occurs
only after a box is choscn. Hence to gct the
probability of choosing a rt'd hall in box B. rve
must consider box B as sirttrple spacc.
hox A after
P(brown) = P(brown ir
choosing A) + I' (trrown in box B
after choosing'B)
i =3r+4y andu =3it
Lti =3@Jc)+4$tY1
u6 =3(xr)+a0y)
cov(u,r) = 12(u u)2(u u I
76.
y) )
\n)
s
+ 9 cov. (r, y)
0
lsince X, Y trre independent,
therefore cor'(X, Y) = 0l
cov(tl, rr)
L') = o ,., = 0
r)
 _
r)
(r
(t
2)l+t xl)
lx 3)
\.2
\2 5)
1 I
13
=_*=31030
(t 2) (t
lJ*:].l;"l]
/
2\
Ptn)=I
')= i
 P(Ar t + P(A,t  P(A,nAr)
t
= '+P(A.t ]
623
P(A,uAr)
p(Ar)
t
P(ArnAr)= , uttd I,(,r,)ylr(A,) 1
3
78.
=9x44x9+9(0)
o'..'
4<r,,2
^( ztx rXy + Jl
= 1*1=
3 5 15
=P(A1
\n/\n)
prredorblue)=
t_
=::{9(.r
r)240y)2
n
+ek_i )Cy_ t))
o\
/>rrti2) (zwYr
r4r
=el
73. Required mean
77.
p(u.,
(t o)+l

(2":/'[zlt s/
increases,
y also incrcascs; so X and Y are in perfect direct
correlation
p(X,10 = 1.
+
7Z.Here,
(..' C, + 2oo + 3c" +... nCn n2,r1
75.P (green or blue)
;<0.
b
"'
ob < 0
a
Y=
2"
Hence regression equation of Y on X is
Alqo
fl2"1
P(A,nAr) = P(Ar) r P(A,,)
Hence A, and A,
arc independent.
79.There are six possible ways in rvlrich the die
can fall and of these therc is onll' onc way of
throwing 4.
Required.h^.,"" =
Io
80.There are six possible ways in which the die can
fall. Of these there are only 3 r,r,avs of getting 2.
4or6.
Rcquiredchance=
'62
Irl = '
PROBABILITY & STATISTICS
5.31
81,
Number of ways of choosing 3 students out 9
=eC", i.e.84
A student can be removed from 1st year students
in 2 ways, from 2nd year in B ways and from Brd
year in 4 ways, so that the total number of ways
of removing three students, one from each
groupis2x3x4.
2x3x4
nc,
Required chance
86.
242
847
82.Number of ways of removing two from 1st year
students and one from others =tCrrrCt
Number of ways of removing two from ind year
students and one from others = rC, x oCr.
Number of ways of removing 2 from Brd year
students and one from others = rC, nC'
"
Hence total number ofways in which two students
of the same class and third from the others
may be removed
=
85.Probability of drawing a king = I
13'
If card is not replaced, then pack will have
51 cards only so that chance of drawing a
A
.a
queen ts _;,
)l
.'. Probability of drawing both cards
zCrxTC
r+
sCrx
6C, +
=7+18+30
aC
rx
nl'
t,
The various probabilities are marked on the
branches ofthe tree.
Following the branches
P(D)
= Probability of a defective bulb
13
1215
3103638
I 202
_ _x_
3 240
84
i.e. L way from 81fl ys31
302
720
.'.
If
in which three
(where A is the event of choosing box I)
p(Anp)
P(D)
13
of'dra\mngaKlllg= 'l

l3
will again have
cards, so that plobability of drawing a queen is
x310
302
720
('.' An D = defective from box I
b2
a
l3
The two events beingindependent, the probability
b<rth
= P (A,/D)
= 84
card is replaced, the pack
of drawing
Probability that defective bulb was from
I
rl?.j;r" .to.,
Required chance
S4.Probability
89.
box
Hence total number of ways
students Outo"*=rnr
P(AnD)=
1,1 =fL
3 10 302
101. Probability of technocrat manaser
20i
cards in succession
lt x
=13 13
I
169
( 1)"
n!
since there is only one way in which all the
83.Three students can be removed from 2nd year
3rdyeargroup in
............ +
88.We solve the problem using a tree diagram D
;
and N stand fo defective and nondefective cases.
!1.
group in aC' i.e.4ways.
I
a:
663
letters to the correct envelopes.
sC,
group in tC' i.e., 1 way and from
aC.,
+;
5l
=55
Required chance =
tl
Probabil ity,p =
87.
t4
13
'
= 1oo=s=P
Probability of nontechnocrat mana ger
804
=E="
1oo
PROBABILITY & STATISTICS
Probability of a random committee of 5 with
exactly 2 technocrats
5c2ll2q3
=
=t
114. m=
f,
7+9+11+13+15_
:ox4(r)2f+)3
1x2\5/ \5/
 111'z + le =40
l
o=\,
102. Probability that frrst friend is born in any month
= I00Vo = 1
Probability that second friend is born in the same
month as that of frrst friend
Et
If
fr
ball is not replaced, then box will have a ball,
so probability of drawing the red ball in next
chance
9
542
"t
109. Probability ofboth cards beingkings
431
=
52 51 227
111. After frrst heads in first toss
Probability of tails in 2nd and 3rd toss
=1.1=
22
=11='
44
Il2. Let lower limit be r.
Then,
upperlimit = r+4
z
= rs
;r=13
113. Range = Difference between largest values
= 9562
=33
= P [(A dies and B is alive)
or (A is alive and B dies)l
= p+q2pq
np=
116. We have
4vyllnpq=J
a
J
4 = + andp=(1q)=
tA
Mode is an integer such that
13
4+>x>41
44
13 77
Tt,tT
+
+
3.25<x<4.25
x=4
ll7. tn+6'= 24 and nrc2=128
Solving we get
m =76or8.
Ifm=16then
02 =8
Ifm=8then
Probability of exactly two heads
t9l9
Y)
np+p>x>npq
Hence probability of drawing 2 balls
.'.
ttl' + lr:  t tl' + ltS  ttl'
2.8
= p(7q)+(1p)q
107. Probability of drawing a red ball =
10
lrt 
11'z
115. Requiredprobability
,11
t'r2=E
11
_f
d': =17
=0.2048
55
O =
Case
I '. ftp = 16 and np7 = 8
11
P=;,1=;andn=32.
zz
+
Case
P^
OO.
II
;11p
= g v1f, npq = gg
4 = 7, which is not possible.
Hence distribution is
(q+p)"
(r
r\"
\r,